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  • Dahlström, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Danielsson, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Levererar Big-4 en högre revisionskvalitet jämfört med Non-Big 4?: En kvantitativ studie som jämför större och mindre revisionsbolags revisionskvalitet relaterat till revisionsarvodet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Big audit firms have long been associated with higher audit quality, compared to smaller audit firms. Recent studies suggest that the higher audit fees from bigger audit firm is affected by market misuse rather than better audit quality. This study provides new empirical evidence between the comparison of big vs small audit firm, where audit fees are used as proxy for audit quality. Furthermore, this study investigates different litigation environment that could affect audit quality.

     

    Method: This study uses an quantitative based method with an positivist, deductive approach, were earlier studies have had an impact on our hypotheses. Financial information from 2518 companies has been collected from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

     

    Result & Conclusions: This study's result provides significant differences of audit quality between big and small audit firms in different risk environments. For this study, the audit quality relationship between big and small audit firms are equivalent for the European countries while audit quality between big and small audit firms in the US differ significantly.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: This study leaves two contributions to the extent audit literature, in terms of empirical evidence of audit quality between big and small audit firms and unique research results of audit quality in different litigation environments. Furthermore, the results of this study creates incentives for practitioners to review the audit market for self interests and answer legal setters concerns about unbalanced audit markets.

     

    Suggestions for future research: The study has been carried out without consideration of qualitative factors that may affect audit quality. It’s opening a space for comparative studies with an qualitative approach. It is also possible to expand the number of stock exchanges for a country or expand the number of countries in different risk environments.

  • Sjökvist, Fredrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Malm, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Motivation i arbetslivet: Hur påverkar olika löneformer motivation till arbete inom försäljningsbranschen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Byström, Tony
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    "En kåranda, visst finns det!": En språksociologisk studie om tystnadskulturen i fängelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Very little or any of the research within social language about different cultures of silence has been devoted to the norms of silence which exists within the speaking community of prison and which is shared by both inmates and staff. The purpose with the essay has therefore been to, from earlier research, investigate what the norms of silence in prison are, how these affect inmates and staff in their attitude toward each other and the communication between them, and if there are similarities in the norms of silence between the two groups and how these are expressed, regulated and applied within the speaking community compared with other cultures of silence. The essay takes it point of departure within theory of social language and how one uses the sound of language, words and turns in a correct way according to the norms and attitudes that exist within a speaking community and focus foremost around the culture of silence and its norms for silence and secrecy that exist within the speaking community which is shared by both inmates and staff in prison. The empiric collection has been done through qualitative method in combination with introspection, participation observation and interviews plus questionnaires which later have been interpreted and compared with earlier research. Four respondents, all of them staffs who have been or are active within the Swedish correctional system and have possessed varying posts, were interviewed or had to answer questionnaires which aimed to make the respondents to think about and to confirm the existence of a culture of silence. The result of the essay showed that staff, like inmates, have norms for silence and that staff in meeting with inmates shows varying degrees of attitudes, dependent if there’s about a closed respective an open ward, so that the verbal communication is affected by an informal attitude towards the inmates which is more accepted in open than compared with closed wards within the group of staff because the level of security is higher. Through the investigation of which norms of silence there are within the group of staff, generally, and how these are expressed and regulated within the speaking community through highlighting experiences and attitudes to better understand and explain the meaning of silence in different circumstances, and to compare the results in the essay with earlier science in order to bring forward similarities and differences in silence among inmates and staff with other cultures of silence, the essay has showed that there’s a culture of silence with norms of silence not only within prison, i.e. among inmates and staff, but within all speaking communities, which affect the communication with other groups or cultures negative, and that the formation of attitudes, i.e. negative social representation of others, and appliance and maintenance of the culture of silence is dependent on informal leaders which has a high status within the group.

  • Lundberg, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Ett omslag trovärdigt nog att köpas: En kvalitativ studie om gestaltningen av mannen och kvinnan på tidningsomslag till modemagasin2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are scientists who believe that the media are creating human’s identity, therefore we need to be critical to the images we see. According to Gillian Rose we must view the cover pictures carefully with several criteria to take into consideration.

    The purpose with this study is to analyze Elle, Plaza Kvinna, GQ and King’s covers to see if men and women are portrayed differently depending on who’s looking. With the help of semiotic and rhetorical tools I saw a difference to how the genders were portrayed. The theoretical position I have taken is gender theory by Yvonne Hirdman, the theory Erwing Goffman presents in his work Media Advertisement where he talks about the decoding of a picture and Laura Mulveys concept of” the male gaze”.

    In the material, I saw that a different was made between male and females. The magazines that had a male audience portrayed both men and woman on their covers. And the magazines that has a female audience portrayed woman only. Of the four- fashion magazine three of them focused on the credibility of the model instead of letting the fashion speak.

  • Hillgren, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Varje berättelse har sin egen hjälte: En kvalitativ studie av svenska reklamfilmers argumentationstekniker och framträdande budskap2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and research question

    The purpose of the study is to examine how three swedish commercials use different types of arguments to convince the target groups of a message and to analyze the rhetorical grips that are applied in order to reach out to the audience. Furthermore the most prominent messages in the commercials are identified and the social issues the commercials allude to are examined. This study also examines how visual rhetoric is applied. Based on the purpose this study examines the following research questions: - How are the arguments in the selected commercials framed?

    - What messages can be read off in the commercials?

    - Which rhetorical means are prominent?

    - What visual arguments are applied?

    Material and method 

    The material consists of three swedish commercials shown on television the fall of 2016. In the study a critical rhetorical analysis is applied which critically questions and examines the main arguments and the meaning of the messages. Additionally visual aspects are included in the analysis since rhetoric also focuses on the visual messages connected to the visual expression. The visual perspective is applied in the study to gain a broader understanding of how visual representation forms are used and how they influence and persuade the audience.

    Results

    The result of the analysis results indicate numerous similarities between the commercials, mainly because they distance themselves from the traditional marketing that often aims to expose goods and services. Instead these commercials reflect real-life situations from three different perspectives. Ica recognizes a social problem with violence, Ikea aims to recreate an everyday situation by showing how the department store can exist in our homes. KPA Pension shows a real-life situation with a focus on environmental issues. Something recurrence in these commercials is also how commercials alludes to the audience's feelings and that children have a central role in all the commercials.

  • Shen, Xinyi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Zhu, Hongjing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Chinese adults’ perceptions about the influence of their parents’ divorce on their childhood academic performance2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we aim to discover how Chinese adults’ perceive the influence of their parents’ divorce on their academic performance. A total number of 22 Chinese adult participants took part in the individual semi-structured interviews, and answers were analyzed by using content analysis. The results of the study show a partial consistence with previous research that there might be short-term negative influence of parents’ divorce on their children’s’ academic performance. Yet these participants recounted that they were able to independently cope with the stressful situations related to their parents’ divorce and reduce, or even remove, the negative influence on their academic studies in the long term. Other participants who regarded themselves as highly social and communicative and/or who received social support did not perceive any negative influence. We show that external factors, such as how parents handle the divorce and support from other family members, teachers and peers, might work together with participants’ internal factors to result in reducing negative influences on academic performance and achievements.

  • Dahlberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Translanguaging as a scaffolding structure in a multilingual group studying English in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

               This study was conducted in order to find out what translanguaging practices are used in an English learning multilingual classroom and how those practices can create scaffolding structures for the students’ language development. By attending a second language English class with adult multilingual students and conducting a structured observation it was possible to achieve gathered material sufficient to answer these questions. In class all the translaguaging incidents were written down and afterwards these incidents were structured into different themes to outline scaffolding structures. After analyzing the notes it was clear to see that in this particular class translanguaging was used as a strategy to develop supportive learning structures. The result shows the translanguaging practices correlation between teacher and students as well as in relation to different types of educational classroom applications. Besides those features the results show some indications about the spoken production of translanguaging.

     

  • Fernkvist, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hållbarhetsrapportering - skapar ESG-faktorer värde för investerare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att öka förståelsen hur hållbarhetsrapportering bidrar med värde ur investerares perspektiv samt studera vilken dimension av ESG som bidrar till högst värde. I studien tillämpas en kvalitativ ansats för att besvara studiens syfte samt frågeställningar. Detta tillsammans med intervjuer och en litteraturgenomgång. Studien har visat på att ESG-dimensionerna ger upphov till värde, dock föreligger det varierande värderelevans mellan dem. Dimensionerna visar på olika nyckeltal som är av värde för investerare.

  • Färnström Sving, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Wilfer, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Samlingen: En intervjustudie om förskollärares reflektioner gällande barns inflytande och åldersindelning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur förskollärare reflekterar och uttrycker sig kring arbetet med samlingen utifrån att den ska vara meningsfull för alla barn och hur de ser på åldersindelningen i relation till detta. Nio förskollärare från åtta olika förskolor intervjuades om hur de förhåller sig i sitt arbete med samlingen. Det insamlade intervjumaterialet analyserades med hjälp av didaktiska och sociokulturella perspektiv och begrepp. Enligt de intervjuade förskollärarnas utsagor om barns inflytande i samlingen visar resultatet att barnens möjligheter till inflytande över samlingen varierade beroende på samlingens struktur. Strukturen i sin tur kunde relateras till vad förskollärarna uttryckte var samlingens huvudsakliga syfte.

  • Wanasinghe, Buddhika Hasantha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Steam driven boiler feed pumps for Lakvijaya Power Station, Sri Lanka2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy saving in coal power plants is a popular topic in present days with the global energy crisis. Internal electricity demand or auxiliary power consumption is an energy portion related with equipment supportive to the main equipment, which is unavoidable but with a proper investigation, some amount of this energy can be saved either by introducing thermally efficient auxiliary equipment or improving efficiencies of available equipment.

    Out of the various auxiliary equipment, the driving motor of boiler feed pump is the largest power consumer of internal electricity demand in 3x300 MW sub-critical Lakvijaya Power Station in Sri Lanka. So it is obvious that prime movers of feed pumps could be contributed for a large percentage of the losses. So it was decided to find out how to minimize the losses related to Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) system using small steam turbine to drive the BFP.

    The widely used alternatives for the BFP drivers are condensing type and back pressure type steam turbines. Eleven (11) different configurations of Condensing type, back pressure type and also extraction back pressure type turbines were considered and software programs for each configuration were implemented using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. The considered configurations are different to each other by inlet steam thermodynamic parameters, steam flow rate, exhaust thermodynamic steam parameters and intermediate extraction parameters etc.

    Thermodynamic analysis ended up with interesting solutions while all the configurations are giving improved efficiencies than existing electrical motor driven mode. But some of them had not improved their net output and hence there were no gain in net generator power output although the efficiencies are higher. Out of other configurations with improved net output and efficiency, the case with back pressure turbine arranged parallel to the HP turbine had the highest net output gain with better improvement in efficiency without changing the input power to the boiler. Considering the CO2 , SOx and NOx emissions, it was cleared that power plant with suggested BFP modes will give more clean energy than existing power plant.

    Considering the partial loads behavior it was observed that power plant with Back pressure turbine, steam extracted from HP turbines inlet for prime movers of boiler feed pumps is more thermodynamically economical than existing power plant.

    Annual financial saving with BFP configurations with positive net output gain and zero boiler input gain were calculated and it will be in between 0.46 and 2.72 UDS million / Year.

  • Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Morberg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Sustainability of world heritage: who inherits the ownership of decorated farmhouses of Hälsingland?2017In: A Good Life for All: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, 139-161 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses sustainability of Sweden’s most recent World Heritage (WH) site, the Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland. A general overview presents what WH is, why it is special and why it should be preserved for future generations. The views of WH farm owners on managing a WH site and how they feel about the task have been assessed. WH must be preserved for future generations and it is necessary for the farms to interact sustainably with their local communities. Most WH farms are privately owned and have been within the same family for centuries. Will this continue in the future or are there problems with succession?

  • Bjerke, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Senobari, Arash
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar kvinnor kapitalstrukturen?: En undersökning om det finns ett samband mellan kvinnor i styrelsen och kapitalstrukturen och mellan en kvinnlig VD och kapitalstrukturen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Does women in the boardroom affect the capital structure? – An analysis if there is a correlation between the proportion of women in the boardroom and the capital structure and between a female CEO and the capital structure.

    Aim: On September 9 last year, Sveriges Television revealed that the socialistic government has presented a proposition to the parliament concerning quotas in listed companies’ boards. The proposition proposes that boards in Swedish listed firms’ should consist of at least 40 percent women.

    • The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a statistical correlation between the proportion of women on the boards of Swedish listed companies and the capital structure, and if there is a statistical correlation between the capital structure and if the company’s CEO is a woman.

    Method: A quantitative method with a deductive approach has been applied. Data has been collected from the Swedish listed companies’ annual financial reports from the year 2015. The data has been used to build up relevant variables, which has then been tested in a multivariate regression analysis.

    Result & Conclusions: On the question if women affect the capital structure, we would like to think that the result of this study indicates the answer is no. The result provides evidence that there is no statistical correlation between the proportion of women on the board and the capital structure but that there is a marginal positive correlation between a female CEO and the capital structure.

    Suggestions for future research: The main limitation for this study is that consideration has only been given to one fiscal year, unlike many previous studies that have based the surveys on several fiscal years. Suggestion for further research is to implement this study on several fiscal years to account for any potential patterns in the financing decisions. The quantitative method contributes with data that can be used to detect a statistical relationship. Another suggestion for further research is to accomplish the same study, but apply a qualitative method to analyze the differences in financing decisions by men and women as CEOs and board members.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study has provided theoretical knowledge of factors affecting the capital structure as well as practical knowledge about how a possible quota law may affect the capital structure.

  • Bektasevic, Ajla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Vallin, Tanja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR-prestation och kostnad för eget kapital: en kvantitativ studie på 548 europeiska företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: CSR-performance and cost of equity capital – a quantitative study of 548 European companies

    Aim: The subject of how corporate social responsibility affects the company’s financial performance has been discussed for a long time, which has contributed to conflicting results. This study has applied cost of equity capital in order to measure financial performance. By considering corporate social responsibility as a transparency effect, which increases firms’ transparency, this study wants to examine if corporate social responsibility can minimize the company’s perceived risk to decrease cost of equity capital.

    Method: The study has applied a positivist research philosophy and a deductive research approach with setting of hypotheses. We used a quantitative research method where the secondary data was collected from Thomson Reuters DataStream. The sample of the study includes 548 companies from eight European countries. The collected data has been processed and analyzed in the statistical program called SPSS and JASP.

    Result & Conclusions: Our results prove that a positive respective negative relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity exists depending on nation.

    Suggestions for future research: One suggestion for further research is to investigate why the relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity appears different in nations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to an increased understanding for how corporate social responsibility can affect the company’s cost of equity capital in a European context. The study have contributed to a new research turn concerning how corporate social responsibility can work as a transparency effect too reduce the firms cost of equity capital. It provides further acknowledge on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance which in previous research shows conflicting results. 

  • Källman, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lindberg, Emmelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR-rapportering - från legitimitet till marknadsinformation?: En jämförelse mellan redovisningslitteraturens och storföretagens motiv för hållbarhetsrapportering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: CSR-reporting - from legitimacy towards market information? A comparison of the motives for sustainable reporting between accounting research and large corporations

    Aim: During recent years, there has been a shift in focus among accounting researchers, from the premise that CSR-reporting is primarily used for gaining legitimacy and a better reputation, towards the view that reporting is mainly used to inform investors. The aim of this study was to examine whether the motives for CSR-reporting for large corporations between the years 2004-2014, has shifted in the same way.

    Method: Our study has its basis in the philosophy of positivism, with a hypothetical-deductive approach and a descripto-explanatory purpose and a longitudinal time horizon. We have used quantitative secondary data from the database Datastream, from large companies in the US and Canada in one sample, and 17 European countries in the other sample. All our analyses - paired t-tests and multiple regressions - have been made using the statistical program SPSS.

    Result and conclusions: In our first analysis, we found that the CSR-reporting of the companies had increased significantly between the years 2004 and 2014. Our other two analyses showed that the companies’ motive for legitimacy was unchanged, while the strength of the correlation of the CSR-reporting and market value was unchanged or weakened, depending on the sample. Since an increase in reporting did not necessarily equal financial gain, these results also supported that the companies’ motive for reporting was not primarily about informing the market.

    Suggestions for future research: The area where the results of most previous studies differ most is whether CSR-reporting has any financial benefit for the company. Therefore, that area is still the one most in need of further studies.

    Contribution of the thesis: Our results showed that the accounting researcher’s shift in focus concerning the motives for CSR-reporting, did not correspond with a similar shift in the companies’ motives for reporting. Our first analysis also contributes with over 630 observations showing the extent of CSR-reporting in North America and Europe. Lastly, our study contributes with empirical data showing a positive correlation between CSR-reporting and market value.

  • Alvarado Orellana, Sara Lucia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kamariza, Cynthia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    An analysis on how the media describe intimate partner violence from a social constructionist perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding on how Swedish media describes intimate partner violence from a social constructionist perspective. This was done by analysing the way this violence is projected in three Swedish newspapers namely Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter & Expressen. Our study focused on heterosexual relationships and investigated how some sample of Swedish newspapers described the image of “men and women as perpetrators; gender construction”, “the presentation of the violence” and “the way society treats intimate partner violence victims (male/female)”. The theoretical approach in this analysis was based on social constructionism with a special focus on gender. In order to address the research objectives, a content analysis was performed and some comment and analysis on themes were given. The research findings revealed that both men and women could be perpetrators and victims of intimate partner violence with a main focus on woman as victims from media.

  • Strid, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ethernetbaserad fältbusskommunikation inom processindustrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fieldbuses plays an increasingly more important function in the process industry. Modern distributed control systems coupled with advanced end nodes such as "smart" substations and frequency converters which in many cases have their own internal control systems. This places high demands on secure and reliable data communication within a process industry. Today mainly two types of fieldbus technologies are used: Serial communication via RS-485 and packet based communication based on IEEE 802.3, also known as Ethernet. Serial field buses dominate the market today, even though it is an obsolete technology compared to Ethernet. There are several reasons for this: Serial field buses have been in operation in the process industries for over 25 years, it a proven technology and the skills to maintain and troubleshoot the system are often found out on the floor. Process industries prioritize reliability and the threshold to move to a new system is high. Another reason is that the processes that are controlled are generally slow, usually a cycle time of 1s is sufficient, and that the amount of data transferred is relatively small so the slower transmission rate in a serial field bus has not been a limitation. Ethernet-based field buses, however, possess interesting advantages over serial buses but also has limitations that must be considered. At the beginning of this paper the process industry's general requirements on a fieldbus is examined. Then the pros and cons of Ethernet-basedfield buses are studied. After that it was investigated if one of the protocols used for fieldbus communication over Ethernet, Profinet IO, lived up to the requirements. One advantage that emerged with Ethernet-based field buses is that very robust networks can be established with the protocols that are available. A disadvantage is that it’s difficult to determine the delay due to the best effort principlein packet switched networks. Profinet IO solves this by synchronous data transfer directly out the link layer. Lastly there’s a practical implementation of an Ethernet-based fieldbus, where a control system communicates with a frequency converter over a redundant ring network.

  • Eriksson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Levin, Michaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Stereotypa barriärer för kvinnor: Hur kvinnliga styrelseledamöter i svenska aktiebolag hanterat stereotyphot och “glastaket” för att nå en högre position2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Stereotypes makes it difficult for women to reach senior positions, the women who does reach leadership positions have crossed barriers to get into that position. We want to find out how they managed to cross the barriers. The aim of this study is to create a greater understanding for the way female board members in registered companies perceives and manage the barrier stereotype. The purpose should be answered using the following research questions:

    • In which way do women perceive that the barrier stereotypes affect their possibilities to reach higher positions?
    • How can women affect the barrier stereotypes?

    Method: The study has been conducted in a qualitative way, and data is collected through semi-structured interviews. A total of 10 female members of Swedish companies was interviewed, six from Uppsala, three from Bollnas and one from Gavle. The collected data has been analyzed by a thematic analysis.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that women experience stereotype threat in the form of barriers, but they manage to get through these. The barriers make it difficult for women to achieve leadership positions and women deal with these barriers by reading more and prove that they can, persistence is an important characteristic for success. Affirmative is a draft law from the government in order to get more women on boards is not a good idea.

    Suggestions for future research: After this study carried out, we believe it is necessary to study how organizations can work to create awareness about the stereotype and how they should work to eliminate them.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study's contribution to research is that we have been able to name some of the barriers that women face in the workplace. We have investigated how women have experienced the barriers. We have also contributed with answers to how they handle the barrier stereotypes. The study has created an awareness among women about stereotypes.

  • Eklund, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Knezevic, Marija
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Stressfaktorers inverkan på innovativt beteende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how stressors affect the individual innovative behavior positively.

    Method: The study applies a qualitative approach with semi structured interviews. In total, eleven interviews were conducted within Volvo Group Trucks Technology and one interview and a complementary conversation with two former employees were carried out. Interview responses have been analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Result & Conclusions: Nine stress creating stressors were identified; demands, time pressure, control, support, roll, culture, risk appetite, distraction and goals. The study also identified five individual capabilities, which are termed as influencing factors; personality, problem solving, personal responsibility, experience, motivation. The study finds that stress can lead to increased innovative behavior when stressors are combined with influence factors contributing to positive stress in the individual.

    Suggestions for future research: To further increase the understanding of stressors and innovative behavior, more qualitative research within this field is necessary. Stressors and influencing factors, being identified in this study, should be studied in more detail. Future research should aim to study innovative behavior and stress for all three phases of Innovative Behavior. Further studies within this field should also include more women and research on how organizations can organize for innovation.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study's main contribution is the Model 2: Stressors ID, which shows how stressors affect innovative behavior. The model provides support for leaders who wish to enhance employees' innovative behavior to increase the company's competitiveness. The model provides knowledge about the importance of personal capabilities in order for positive stress to evolve and influence the innovative behavior positively.

  • Eriksson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Olsson, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Könsstereotyp, ett hinder för kvinnornas framgång?: Hur påverkas kvinnornas karriärambitioner i organisationen av stereotypiska hot inom ledarskap?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to create a deeper understanding of how stereotypical threats for women's career ambitions perceived influence their success in the organization. To understand the women and the organization we designed research questions for this purpose; How does gender stereotypes in leadership impact women's idea of leadership? How does the stereotypical threat impact women's career aspirations to climb in the organization? How do women experience that their success is influenced by stereotypical threat in leadership?

    Method: The study used a qualitative research with a hermeneutic research approach. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, analyzed with a thematic analysis.

    Conclusions: The study's conclusion is consistent with previous research regarding the three main consequences of stereotypical threat. Women experience low career prospects, separate identity and increased anxiety. The study also found stress as a consequence of a longer experience of separate identity, which previous research has not found. Consequences gave us a deeper understanding of how women's success in the organization is influenced by stereotypical threats.

    Suggestions for future research: To get an even deeper understanding, we suggest further research to investigate how stereotypical threat affects an organization for a long time, using the longitudinal method.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to a deeper understanding of how the stereotypical threat to women's career ambitions affect their success in the organization.

  • Possner, Hugo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Tiri, Felicia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Gerillamarknadsföring i den digitala världen: Gerillastrategins effektivitet och inverkan på word-of-mouth2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between guerrilla marketing and Word-of-Mouth (WOM), through analysing the differences between guerrilla marketing of product and services and what type of WOM it generates.

    Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered from 105 participants of the Generation Y who responded to an online survey.

    Findings: Results show that there is a weak connection between guerrilla marketing and WOM. The majority of the answers showed a lack of interest in the marketing examples, suggestion a advertisement-tiredness in Generation Y. However, guerrilla marketing for services gave slightly higher response than marketing for products, and out of all the reactions a passive behaviour was noticeable.

    Research limitations/implications: Due to the size of the survey and the shortage in certain sample groups, generalisations cannot be made. Although, the findings aim to help fill in knowledge gaps in the research area for guerrilla marketing and WOM.

    Practical implications: The results of this study provide guidance for businesses in terms of not relying solely on digital marketing since the customer of today is not yet ready to make such strategy efficient.

    Originality/value: This study is the first to examine guerrilla marketing and WOM in terms of differences between products and services, and the different types of WOM it produces.

  • Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Påverkansfaktorer i radikaliseringsprocesser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka begreppet radikalisering som process. Med litteraturstudiet som metod har syftet varit att undersöka utvalda forskares uppfattning om vilka faktorer som påverkar till radikalisering, vad som kännetecknad en individ som går in i en radikaliseringsprocess och vilka faktorer som i första hand påverkar vägen ut ur ett radikaliserat tänkande. Syftet har inte varit att finna en absolut sanning i det som studerats, utan undersökningens ambition har istället varit att bidra med en fördjupad insikt och förståelse för att begreppet radikalisering är komplext. Resultatet av studien visar att en extremist eller terrorist inte är någonting en människa föds till att vara, snarare är detta något personen blir genom olika faktorer som påverkar dem på vägen. Majoriteten som radikaliseras är ungdomar mellan 15-30 år. Personer som saknar känslan av identitet och mening i livet, och därför upplever rotlöshet, löper större risk för att radikaliseras och ansluta sig till fundamentalistiska grupper.

  • Tsakalou, Eleni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Why are women underrepresented in engineering management?: the case of Asea Brown Boveri (ABB)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the underrepresentation of women in managerial positions in engineering sector. The study is based on the fact that there are less female leaders both in management and in engineering.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The method used in order to accomplish this research is a qualitative approach. The primary data was collecting by semi-structured interviews with employees of the case company (ABB). The sample consists of ten employees, males and females, who hold different positions in the company.

    Findings: The empirical findings and the analysis show the factors regarding the underrepresentation of women in managerial positions. The study indicates that glass ceiling, gender stereotyping, engineering culture and balancing professional and family life, are major obstacles in women‘s career today.

    Limitations: I limited my study to only one engineering company therefore the results cannot be generalized for the whole engineering industry. Also, even though this study examines why women are underrepresented in engineering industry, I interviewed both male and female employees in order to illustrate both perspectives about the issue.

    Contribution: This study confirms the existing theories regarding the affect of underrepresentation of women in engineering industry and highlights the facts that delay women‘s advancement. Engineering culture does not encourage mentoring towards women and women are seen as outsiders in networking activities. Thus, this study gives the opportunity to managers in engineering to consider the reality about females in the sector in order to improve the current situation.

  • Gutke Jonsson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Kartläggning av navigationsenheters noggrannhet med hjälp av geovisualisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av digital hälsa har bidragit till att flera aktörer är villiga att satsa på e-hälsa för förbättringar inom hälsovård, som t.ex. vid effektivisering och utbyte av patientinformation. I framtiden kan även utbyte av information mellan patienter och sjukvårdare, vid bedömning och kartläggning av patientens fysiska aktivitet, vara aktuellt. Syftet med studien är att utvärdera olika navigationsenheter i olika prisklasser samt redovisa deras pålitlighet vid påverkande faktorer. För analys och visualisering av resultatet tillämpades GIS.

    För studien samlades data in med hjälp av testpiloter. För utvärdering av navigationsenheterna utfördes 10 mätningar med mätinstrumentet GNSS RTK- nätverk i varierande terräng. Dessa mätpunkter fungerade som referenspunkter vid beräkning av avvikelse hos samtliga navigationsenheter. Resultatet av visualiseringen visar navigationsenheternas positionering och att påverkande faktorer kan kopplas till avvikelserna. Av resultatet kan navigationsenheternas noggrannhet visuellt avläsas i olika miljöförhållanden.

  • Torvang, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Hedman, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Möjligheter och utmaningar med att använda IKT i pedagogisk dokumentation: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pedagogisk dokumentation rekommenderas av Skolverket som metod för att arbeta med de avsnitt i förskolans läroplan som berör uppföljning, utvärdering och utveckling. IKT är numera ett vanligt inslag i den svenska förskolan och används av både barn och pedagoger. Det finns bristfällig forskning på hur dessa två arbetsverktyg kan sammanföras och användas i förskollärarens didaktiska arbete. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur förskollärare resonerar om användningen av IKT i den pedagogiska dokumentationen. Tio förskollärare intervjuades för att ge en bild av förskollärares synvinkel och på så vis bidra med bredd till den befintliga forskningen på området. Det insamlade materialet bearbetades genom tematisk analys för att urskilja betydelsefulla teman. Resultatet visade att förskollärare både ser möjligheter och utmaningar med användningen av IKT i arbetsprocessen pedagogisk dokumentation. Alla intervjuade förskollärare var positivt inställda till IKT som arbetsverktyg men det framkom att det finns ett behov av att erövra IKT som egna verktyg. En framstående möjlighet är att viss typ av IKT kan bidra till barns delaktighet samt att det underlättar för att utveckla förskollärarens didaktiska arbete. Vidare diskuteras hur barns delaktighet med hjälp av IKT kan lösa etiska dilemman och underlätta för problematik som tidigare forskning tar upp kring pedagogisk dokumentation.

  • Sundholm, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Krange, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Professionals´perspectives on their collaboration in working with unacompanied refugee children: A qualitative study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore some social workers’ and psychologists’ perspectives ontheir collaboration concerning unaccompanied refugee children. More specifically; in which situations do the social workers and psychologists collaborate with each other in their work with unaccompanied refugee children and what challenges and possibilities do they describe in their collaborative work? This qualitative study was carried out in one municipality in Sweden with a high quantity of unaccompanied refugee children. Three social workers and two psychologists were interviewed. The interviewees described existing collaboration between the two professions when working with unaccompanied refugee children as regarding the young person ́s health. Most often the collaboration was described as taking place in so called sip-meetings that is an obligatory meeting between the two professions regarding the young person's health. However, also challenges regarding their collaboration as lack of resources and communication between these two professions emerged and are discussed.

  • Algerstam, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Andersson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    A Narrative Study About International Adopted Young Adults' Experiences Regarding Identity Development2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on three interviews with three internationally adopted young adults. The aim of the study was to explore how international adopted young adults have experienced their identity development in a retrospective perspective in relation to family and friends. To answer the research-questions semi-structured qualitative inter­views have been performed. A narrative method was chosen to explore how the parti­cipants' described their experiences. Topics that appeared in the result where topics such as family relationships, the society’s influence on the participants and connections to other adoptees. The conclusions of this study were that com­muni­cation and connections to family was an essential factor in the subjects' identity develop­ment. The informants feeling of belonging was affected by society´s influence on appearances and it was important for the participants to have someone in their life that they could talk to and get support from.  

  • Båld, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Mahammed, Maryama
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Adjustment of Somali women in relation to societal systems in the Swedish society: A qualitative case study of five Somali women’s experiences2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study are; (a) to explore how Somali women experience their adjustment in the Swedish society in connection to societal systems, and (b) to investigate these women’s perspective of how to make the adjustment process more effective in respect to their needs. The adjustment of the participants has been investigated through a social ecological theoretical framework. Thematic analysis has been utilised to present three themes; assistance, inclusion and self-sufficient which are discussed using social ecological theoretical perspective. Results showed that lack of assistance and sufficient information has led to these women feeling helpless and lost motivation to adjust. The women showed disappointment with regard to self-sufficiency which has not been what they have expected. The suggestions made by the interviewees included assistance in their native language during their first years in the new country, inclusive opening of meeting places and an increased assessment of personal resources when receiving help to find employment. Making adjustment more effective for newly arrived immigrants in new countries is fundamental to international social work.

  • Lind, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Öhlin, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Transgenderism and the Social Services: A qualitative study about transgender people and their experiences of the Social Services in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how transgender people may experience the services that are offered by the Social Services. To fulfill the aim, the researchers decided to focus on the transgender peoples’ perspectives, and therefore chose to interview them and put them in an expert position. In this study a qualitative approach was used, and the data was gathered through two semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The main result was that the participants experienced that the Social Services sometimes might not have the right knowledge to give them proper information, sufficient support and the help they needed. Therefore, the participants often searched for information on their own, and the trust for the Social Services was unsatisfactory. One conclusion that could be drawn from this study was that the Social Services need to increase and improve their level of knowledge within this subject.

  • Vanler Pedersen, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Att bära hijab i en svensk kulturell kontext: En intervjustudie av åtta svenska muslimska kvinnor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of Muslims living in Sweden has, through the last few decades’ immigration, increased greatly. This has also led to Islam becoming more visible as part of the religious public room in Sweden, a country where the majority population is Christian. Islam's increased presence and visibility in Swedish society has inevitably led to a number of discussions and tensions. One of the most current and medially guarded discussions in this regard is the question of the veil, or scarf, worn by many Muslim women. An alarming increase in Islamophobia in the Western world since the September 11th attacks in New York, which in many respects seems to be due to a lack of knowledge both in terms of religion and culture, gives extra relevance to studies that seek to increase knowledge in this area. In particular, there is a lack of studies that give special attention to women within the Muslim minority in the western world.

    Events in recent years, such as the hijab ban in French schools, raises a lot of questions around this so clearly symbolically loaded garment worn by many Muslim women and how this relates to the supposed increased vulnerability of Muslims living in countries with a Christian majority population. By starting out in existing literature on the subject and using qualitative interviews this study seeks to highlight the religious practice of young Muslim women living in Sweden to wear the veil. The study intends to examine the context in which it is worn, what meaning it has for young women, and what possible consequences it has in their lives. Through a qualitative research strategy based on interviews with eight young Swedish Muslim women, the study has generated results that show that the wearing of the veil in a Swedish cultural context is associated with a variety of difficulties, but that these difficulties can also act as strong identity-builders.

    The study shows that the wearing of the veil in a Western cultural context is often a struggle in many different respects. This battle seems to affect both women’s feelings and views of one's own identity as a religious exercise. To practice the traditional custom of wearing the veil is seen by many as particularly important in a secular cultural context, as a way of both externally for and for oneself clarifying the religious part of one's identity.

  • Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fläckman, Birgitta
    Department of Health Care Sciences of Ersta, Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, China.
    Systematic pain assessment in nursing homes: a cluster-randomized trial using mixed-methods approach2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Chronic pain affects nursing home residents’ daily life. Pain assessment is central to adequate pain management. The overall aim was to investigate effects of a pain management intervention on nursing homes residents and to describe staffs’ experiences of the intervention.

    Methods

    A cluster-randomized trial and a mixed-methods approach. Randomized nursing home assignment to intervention or comparison group. The intervention group after theoretical and practical training sessions, performed systematic pain assessments using predominately observational scales with external and internal facilitators supporting the implementation. No measures were taken in the comparison group; pain management continued as before, but after the study corresponding training was provided. Resident data were collected baseline and at two follow-ups using validated scales and record reviews. Nurse group interviews were carried out twice. Primary outcome measures were wellbeing and proxy-measured pain. Secondary outcome measures were ADL-dependency and pain documentation.

    Results

    Using both non-parametric statistics on residential level and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to take clustering effects into account, the results revealed non-significant interaction effects for the primary outcome measures, while for ADL-dependency using Katz-ADL there was a significant interaction effect. Comparison group (n = 66 residents) Katz-ADL values showed increased dependency over time, while the intervention group demonstrated no significant change over time (n = 98). In the intervention group, 13/44 residents showed decreased pain scores over the period, 14/44 had no pain score changes ≥ 30% in either direction measured with Doloplus-2. Furthermore, 17/44 residents showed increased pain scores ≥ 30% over time, indicating pain/risk for pain; 8 identified at the first assessment and 9 were new, i.e. developed pain over time. No significant changes in the use of drugs was found in any of the groups. Nursing pain related documentation was sparse. In general, nurses from the outset were positive regarding pain assessments. Persisting positive attitudes seemed strengthened by continued assessment experiences and perceptions of improved pain management.

    Conclusion

    The implementation of a systematic work approach to pain issues in nursing homes indicates that an increased awareness, collaboration across and shared understanding among the team members of the pain assessment results can improve pain management and lead to decreased physical deterioration or the maintenance of physical and functional abilities among NH residents. However, pain (proxy-measured) and wellbeing level did not reveal any interaction effects between the groups over time.

    Trial registration

    The study was registered in ISRCTN71142240 in September 2012, retrospectively registered.

  • Svedvall, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Är alla lika inför Gud?: En diskursanalytisk undersökning av den kristna kvinnans roll under 1800-talet med utgångspunkt i skapelseberättelsen och Luthers hustavla2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur diskurser i den kristna skapelseberättelsen i Bibeln kan komma att reflekteras i ojämlika maktförhållanden främst gällande genus i en senare tidsperiod. Metoden för undersökningen har varit en kritisk diskursanalys av skapelseberättelsen och den senare nedtecknade hustavlan av Martin Luther för att finna samband mellan diskurser i texterna. I uppsatsen visas ett samband mellan de två texterna som undersökts och senare patriarkal makthierarki i Sverige under 1800-talet. Slutsatsen blir att synen på kvinnan och hennes egenskaper verkar ha förts vidare från den kristna skapelseberättelsen, till senare texter såsom hustavlan och slutligen även influerat svensk lagtext. Det synliggörs hur traditioner och berättelser inom den kristna traditionen har kommit att bidra till att upprätthålla ett patriarkalt styre i Sverige.

  • Rydhage, Moa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Unga kvinnors syn på alkohol: En kvalitativ studie utförd på unga kvinnor i årskurs 92016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). This study explored young women’s attitudes to alcohol consumption. The choice of young women as a study group was motivated by the fact that young women typically start to consume alcohol at an earlier age than young males in the same age group. The study consisted of two focus groups with a total of nine young women in ninth class from a public school in a small town in the south of Sweden. The result showed that the young women believed that the consumption of alcohol with other young women occurred due to a combination of peer pressure and the effect that parents have on their child. The young women thought that if there were clear rules in the home the children would know what was expected from themselves. The result also showed that a need to be accepted by other peers were believed to constitute an additional important reason behind alcohol consumption. In sum, both previous research and the results of this study converge to indicate that parents' influence on their youth and peer pressure have a major impact on how young people choose to act on various health related life-style choices.

  • Lindberg, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Arbetsuppgifter, arbetsskador och upplevd arbetsmiljö: skiljer det sig mellan kvinnor och män på en könsneutral arbetsplats?: En tvärsnittsstudie från ett kontorslandskap 2016. Arbetsskador i förhållande till män och kvinnor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender equaltiy and occupational injuries are an issue for the public health. Women are more often reported sick then men. There are some differences between the occupations you have and what injuries you developed. It is known that men and women performs a task different from eachother and that will expose them for different injuries.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relation between occupational injury and gender (Man and Woman) in a gender equality workplace.

    Methods: A group of 40 computerworkers, Men (N=16) and woman (N=24). They completed a questionare about their workenvironment and injuries. Analysis were about different variables crossing with gender.

    Results: You can see a difference between men and women between how much workload they take home. Women had a higher risk to take their workload home and continue to work at home.

    Conclusion: Although women had a higher risk to take their workload home, you can’t say that the gender was the factor but the level of stress was. So the higher level of stress that you experiencing the more was the risk of you taking home your work.

  • Langenheim, Nora
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Läroböckernas Islam: En komparativ studie av Islam i läroböcker före och efter den 11 september år 20012017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en komparativ studie om hur Islam presenteras i svenska läroböcker avsedda för gymnasiet före och efter terroristattackerna den 11 September år 2001. Tre läroböckers presentation av Islam före år 2001 har analyserats och sedan jämförts med tre läroböcker producerade efter år 2001. Detta för att urskilja likheter och skillnader i presentationen av Islam och muslimer. Vidare undersöks presentationen av religionen och dess utövare utifrån ett postkolonialt perspektiv.

    Studiens resultat visar att det ur ett postkolonialt perspektiv inte går att uppfatta någon större skillnad mellan böckerna skrivna före samt efter år 2001. Däremot är de perspektiv som den postkolonialistiska teorin skildrar tydligt urskiljbara i samtliga läroböcker där en andrafiering av muslimer sker både före och efter år 2001. Samtliga läroboksförfattare tenderar att ha sin utgångspunkt i Kristendomen när Islam presenteras och vidare framställa Islam och muslimer i lärobokstexterna som något främmande. Detta genom att författarna gör skillnad på ett vi och dom när religionen presenteras.

  • Borg, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbetsrelaterad identitet och motivation hos chefer och medarbetare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there are any differences in work-related identity and work motivation depending on gender, age (employees) and type of employment (executive vs. employee) where three types of identity (professional identity, organizational identity and workgroup identity) and two types of motivation, inner and external motivation (inner=challenge and entertainment, external=compensation and recognition) were examined. The result showed significant differences in organizational identity and professional identity between executives and employees, where executives identified more with the organization and had a higher level of professional identity. Among the employees, there was a significant gender difference: men identified more with the organization and the work group than women. 

  • Pethman Estliden, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    ” Why is it important to learn English?”: A study of attitudes and motivation towards English and English language learning in Swedish upper secondary school2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study of motivation in language learning and language teaching has a long history. The present study investigates what attitudes students in upper secondary school have towards the English language and what motivates them to learn it. The study is based on a questionnaire regarding motivation and sixty students have participated. The study shows that the students have acknowledged the status of the English language in the world and its function as an international language as well as its function as a tool for communicative purposes. A conclusion is that they have positive attitudes in general towards the English language as well as learning English. 

  • Gindin, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Får man spela får om man är utvecklingsstörd: De begränsningar som kan finnas i teaterarbetet med funktionsnedsatta2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur en teatergrupp inom en kommunal daglig verksamhet hanterar de etiska dilemman som kan uppstå med utvecklingsstörda skådespelare som har insatsen Daglig verksamhet enligt LSS. Detta är en kvalitativ studie med en hermeneutisk ansats som undersöker vilka etiska dilemman och andra upplevda svårigheter som drama-/teaterledare kan komma att ställas inför under arbetet med teater för funktionsnedsatta, samt de resonemang som förs kring handlingsalternativ. Studien startar med flera frågeställningar som löpande korrigeras till det slutgiltiga undersökningsproblemet. Metodinsamlingen har skett genom informella samtal och formella djupintervjuer med de medarbetare som är anställda i anknytning till teaterverksamheten. Teatergruppen i denna studie har sin grund inom dramapedagogikens konstpedagogiska perspektiv där de två primära målen är att individen ska få utveckla sin förmåga att uttrycka sig i konstnärlig form, sin personlighet och sociala samarbetsförmåga samt att skapa en konstnärlig produkt som kan visas för publik. För att åstadkomma detta är teaterföreställning den dominerande metoden och vid sidan av den finns improvisation, rollspel och kreativitetsövningar. Rapporten visar individens rätt att få delta utifrån sin funktionsnedsättning och vikten av att acceptera olikheterna. Att det är människans upplevelse som skall styra vad och vem du spelar och när du är i roll. De dilemman som rapporten berör är de svårigheter informanterna anser kan vara för intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta som att förstå skillnaden mellan fiktion och verklighet, om vad som är viktigast, bra teater eller nöjda skådespelare och om skådespelarna alltid måste förstå i vilket sammanhang de befinner sig i. Rapportens slutsats är att det alltid är individens upplevelse och behov som ska styra. Ett accepterande av olikheter och rätten att få delta utifrån sin funktionsnedsättning och allas vår rätt att få möjlighet att uttrycka sig med teater. Studiens slutsats har en tydlig riktning i betydelsen av att ständigt ifrågasätta de rådande normer som vi alla omges av i teaterarbete med funktionsnedsatta. Studien startar också med flera frågeställningar som löpande korrigeras till det slutgiltiga undersökningsproblemet.

     

  • Crowley, Kieran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy mapping of public buildings: A study at Älvkarlebyhus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to identify all energy systems in the Skutskärs Vårdcentral and Folktandvården building, Centralgatan 12 building and the Library building to be studied in this report and carry out an investigation on whether the energy systems efficiency may be increased by improving on the elements or factors that affect the energy systems.

    A model of the buildings energy systems were created in Microsoft excels using the steady state method and modifying it to calculate an average heating session. Average monthly temperatures calculated over a thirty year period were used to calculate heat loss due to transmittance, infiltration and ventilation. Internal heat gains and losses were included in this model. Where calculation for heat gains or losses was to complex or the required data was not available rule of thumb was used.

    Once results were gained it was seen that the greatest area of loss of heat was from the building structure by transmittance of heat through the materials. An investigation was carried out to reduce the heat loss due to transmittance. Both solution involved adding insulation to the wall and top ceiling in both solution the insulation level was varied to show how much energy could be saved by varying the thickness of insulation. It was found in both solution that the energy saving ranged from 9% to 13%. Go to section 4.6 for details in improvements. Unfortunately quotes for material and labour for each method could not be obtained and without quotes a recommendation to which to invest in cannot be given. The Älvkarlebyhus management should use the areas of the external wall and ceiling area provided in appendix A to obtain quotes from respected companies in Sweden. The areas in appendix A should be double checked before looking for quotes to ensure accuracy in obtaining quotes. This was tried by the author but failed for the following reasons:

    • Companies would not respond to e-mails
    • Also when searching for Swedish companies online there web site was in Swedish and no English option to read the material on the site was available. Meaning the author could not gain the required information needed to calculate cost.

    The third solution involved lowering the internal temperature of the building. When the internal temperature was lowered to 17°C and 15°C reduction in energy usage by 10.95% and 16.82% was seen respectively.

    No other area where improvements could be carried out for the following reasons:

    • The heat pump combined with the district heating and the use of heat recovery devices makes the energy system providing heat for hot water and the heating system highly efficient. There are no improvement worth the financial cost and the interruption to the occupants of the buildings.
    • On Visual inspection the equipment was maintained to a high standard avoiding the need to create a maintenance schedule.
    • Insulation on pipes and ducts coming and going from plant rooms to the building were to a high standard. No repairs or improves are needed.
    • The lighting system is an area where energy can be reduced to justify the cost of installing more energy efficient lights and better controls. An experienced person should investigate this as it requires specify knowledge and experience to select the suitable lighting system to reduce cost. Implementing lights with the wrong controls system can cause poor lighting levels in the building and health problems such as headaches for the occupants. It may also increase the energy consumption of the building if the wrong lighting fixtures and controls were selected.

    A cheap and easily technique to implement would to advice the occupants of the building to turn off equipment and lights when are not needed. Hanging signs by exits of room as a reminder. This seems obvious but as the author carried out a visual inspection of the buildings concerned in this report it was noted that lights were left on in areas no one was to be seen. The same was seen for equipment such as computers.

    The insulation levels for the walls and ceiling should be increased to improve heat loss due to transmittance. Improving insulation would also decrease the heat loss due to infiltration. There is no reliable way of calculating the percentage of reduction as using the results from a pressure test is the only reliable way of calculating heat loss from infiltration once the improvements have been carried out. Also to compare before and after the improvements a pressure test would have to be done before any improvements are carried out to make an accurate comparison.

    The buildings in this report relies heavily on electricity for providing lighting, heating and ventilation. For this reasons it is recommended that a feasibility study be carried whether PV solar panels or wind turbines could produce electricity for the buildings studied in this report. The advantages and disadvantages of PV panels and wind turbines are covered in the conclusion section of this report.

    Älvkarlebyhus can be proud that the building in this thesis releases no CO2 or other harmful greenhouse gases as the greenhouses gases released from the production of the district heating system and electricity suppliers are taken into account by the suppliers of these energy sources. Making them an environmentally friendly building.

  • Lundberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Johansson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mirror mirror on the wall, will sponsorship help my brand equity grow tall?: Hur konsumenter uppfattar ett varumärke vid sponsring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to examine how sponsoring affect consumer’s perception of a brand.

    Method

    Through a deductive approach has literature and scientific articles been analyzed to get an overview of previous research. Data were collected through a survey where the results have been analyzed by using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Furthermore, a discussion has been made overthe results of the study which leads to a conclusion of the study.

    Conclusions

    Based on the study, we can determine that the sponsorship has a positive impact on consumer brand awareness and brand image. The audience for a sporting event has the ability to recognize and recall a brand which leads to an improved brand image. The sponsorship will help to create associations that are significant for how the consumer further values the relationship with a brand.

  • Horn, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Severus, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Exploring the Trust Generating Factors of Video Tutorials2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have increased the possible ways in which humans interact and as a result require new as well as old ways to establish trust. The findings of this paper suggest that trust should be divided into three main categories of trust drivers, exchange factors, design factors and motivational factors. The results indicate that tutorials can, and should, include drivers that build these categories. While we found varying degrees on how well implemented these were, we found that design factors were generally more prominent and found opportunities for tutorials to improve on the exchange side.

  • Galvsby, Gabrielle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Miljöredovisning i allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag: En kvantitativ studie av 134 bostadsaktiebolag tillhörande SABO2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish real estate sector contributes to a large part of the country’s environmental impact. Collectively, real estate companies account for 10 to 40 % of Sweden's energy consumption and hazardous chemicals, waste generation and emissions. Despite this impact, there is a large spread in the extent to which Swedish public municipal housing companies conduct environmental reporting. From previous research, variables were identified that are assumed to affect the extent of environmental reporting, which formed the purpose of the study:

    • The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent municipal housing company in Sweden conduct environmental reporting and analyze how the amount of legal environmental disclosures is affected by company size, profitability, leverage, quality of the environmental management system and local government politics.

     

    This document analysis conducts a content analysis to collect numerical data mostly from annual reports of 134 public municipal housing companies. To analyze the collected data, descriptive statistics were compiled and a multiple linear regression analysis was performed.

     

    The study finds that there is a large spread in the extent to which public municipal housing companies conducts environmental reporting. In addition, the study distinguishes that the environmental reporting is small in scaleamong many of the companies. The findings are consistent with previous research that also studied environmental reporting in real estate companies. The regression analysis shows that leverage andlocal government politics have a significant positive impact on the extent of environmental disclosures.

     

    Since this study only examines environmental reporting for a particular fiscal year, an interesting aspect for future research can be to examine a longer period of time. It had also been of interest to study other types ofhousing companies, such as privately owned.

     

    There are few studies that focus on public municipal housing companies and environmental reporting. Unlike previous studies, the extent of environmental reporting is assessed by counting number of words related to the company's interaction with the environment. With the help of this study, real estate companies can see whether improvements are required.

  • Hedkvist, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Hur elever påverkas av provveckor: En enkätstudie som undersöker elevers attityder till provveckor i gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elever anser att de påverkas av provveckor och om eleverna tycker det är ett koncept som fungerar. I studien användes en enkätundersökning, beståendes av en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ del. Två klasser från en gymnasieskola i mellersta Sverige deltog i studien. Den kvantitativa delen av enkäten sammanställdes via hemsidan SurveyMonkey, datan exporterades sedan till Excel i form av diagram. Den kvalitativa delen av enkäten kodades med hjälp av en tematisk analys. Resultatet visar att eleverna anser att provveckor är ett koncept som fungerar bra i gymnasiet gällande betygen. Majoriteten av eleverna tycker att de presterar måttligt eller bättre på provveckorna. Eleverna har blandade åsikter gällande bibehållandet av kunskap efter provveckor. De elever som tycker att kunskaperna finns kvar efter kursen studerar generellt mer inför provveckorna. Eleverna anser att de blir stressade och får prestationsångest på grund av provveckorna som påverkar elevernas hälsa överlag. Även om hälsan påverkas så anser majoriteten eleverna att det är positivt med provveckor och de är inte intresserade av att byta gymnasium efter att ha haft konceptet i två år på sitt gymnasieprogram.

  • E Cascante Quirós, María Jesús
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Schlothauer, Natalia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    From Sole-Creation to Co-Creation: Social Marketing Value Creation through Corporate-NPO Collaboration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of social marketing within a collaboration between non-profit organisations (NPOs) and business organisations as well as whether this collaboration facilitates the process of social marketing for the NPOs. For this purpose, Austin and Seitanidi´s (2012a, 2012b, 2014) Collaborative Value Creation (CVC) framework was applied to social marketing as value outcome by combining it with Andreasen and Kotler´s (2003) model of the social marketing process in NPOs.

    Method: A qualitative study was conducted based on secondary and primary data. Hereby, primary data was gathered from a total of seven NPOs and twelve respondents across Sweden by the use of face-to-face and phone interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: Two main findings were identified in this study. Firstly, within the process of social marketing in a corporate-NPO collaboration the NPOs predominantly plan and design the campaigns independently. Hereby, it is shown that the NPO´s organisational model of operation influences the collaboration structure. Secondly, it is demonstrated that the corporate-NPO collaboration facilitates the NPOs social marketing process.

    Suggestions for future research: Further investigations of NPOs could be undertaken by distinguishing between their organisational model and area of operation in order to complement the presented theoretical model of the social marketing process in the corporate-NPO collaboration. Additionally, the perspective of business organisations could be considered.

    Contribution of the thesis: The present study contributes to literature by providing a theoretical model based of the social marketing process in the corporate-NPO collaboration. It demonstrates that this collaboration facilitates the social marketing process of the NPOs.

  • Silik, Aksu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Strukova, Karina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Cross-Cultural Knowledge Transfer of Turkish Expatriates in a Serbian Subsidiary2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the role of culture in the process of knowledge transfer through expatriates, while also aiming to identify factors that are influential in this process other than culture.

    Method: The aim has been reached by adopting a qualitative case study, with a focus on a single case. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with expatriates to gain data.

    Findings: The study proves the importance of culture in a cross-border expatriates knowledge transfer. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions have been found to be determinants in this process. Language has also been outlined as an important component in this regards.  In addition, type of knowledge, recipient’s ability to absorb, and the source’s capabilities to transform are also influential factors stated by expatriates.

    Limitations: The study is limited to a single company. Further, the data have been collected only from expatriates, not the local employees’ point of view.

    Suggestions for future research: Further research can be done in the same field, but with focus on different sectors, and different countries. The academic world can also benefit from studies that focus on countries that are different from each other, in order to understand how the knowledge transfer is effected by those differences.

     

  • Hellbom, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Kjellström, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur arbetar små och medelstora företag med socialt ansvarstagande?: En kvalitativ studie på företag i Gävleborgs län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Today companies are required to work for a sustainable society based on individual organizational conditions. Based on that, we have studied how small and medium-sized enterprises in Gavleborg are working with social responsibility on the basis of the conditions they possess. The study was conducted in order to expand the existing research for what small and medium-sized enterprises can contribute to social responsibility.

    The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of how small and mediumsized companies work with social responsibility from an internal and external organizational perspective.

    Method: We have used a qualitative research method. To collect data, we conducted semi-structured interviews and then processed them in the analysis tool Nvivo. The empirical material is presented in a private chapter.

    Analysis & Conclusions: The analysis of the study suggest that the work of social responsibility is important regardless of the size, industry and economic possibilities the company possesses. Differences in the results arose between the internal and external social responsibility as the external was perceived as more difficult in the interviews.

    Suggestions for future research: We suggest that the study should be the basis for research on a larger scale, preferably with more small and medium-sized enterprises. Further research may be conducted with more respondents and in other positions than those who were interviewed in this study, which we believe can contribute to other insights.

    Contribution of the thesis: The theoretical contribution represents a qualitative perspective to increase the understanding of how small and medium-sized companies work with social responsibility. The practical contribution is an overview of how small and medium-sized enterprises can work with social responsibility on the basis of organizational conditions.

  • Flodin, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Writing in School: A study of how students in upper secondary school use adjectives and adverbs in school writing2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to see how often, and to what extent, students in upper secondary school use adjectives and adverbs in their school writing. Additionally, a comparison was made between girls and boys. 40 texts were used in total, and 20 of them were written by girls and 20 written by boys. I counted the adjectives and adverbs in the texts and took notes of what kind of adjectives and adverbs were used as well as how often each of them were used. In this study, I found that girls outperform boys in both total number, of both adjectives and adverbs, as well as in variety. Furthermore, I found that students use far more adjectives than they do adverbs in their school writing. 

  • Norstedt Hedman, Terese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Negating the mother & the maternal body in the Hebrew Bible: From Eve to Sarah, Rachel and Hannah2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to examine and identify a negation of the mother and the maternal body within the Hebrew Bible. The starting point has been an understanding of a denial of feminine powers related to reproduction and women being primarily presented as vessels for paternity.

    A selection of biblical narratives was made to elucidate this negation through the structure of the texts by using an interdisciplinary method which combines a feminist hermeneutic with Russian Formalism. Previous feminist theologies like that of Ilana Pardes, Phyllis Trible and Esther Fuchs have assisted in highlighting the presentations of the mother and her role in the texts. Formalism has allowed a rejection of authorial context and intent; the study is synchronic, i.e. focus is on the text and its internal structures. 

    Upon examination, the narratives have shown that the mother’s textual life span is chiefly limited to achieving maternity, but that as a mother she is in secondary position to the father, has no creative powers of her own, and lacks parental rights. The maternal body is entirely excluded from the Creation narratives, it is the sole reason for infertility, and it is rigidly controlled by the Father-God.