hig.sePublications
12 1 - 50 of 53
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Hansson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hultman, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Resultatmanipulation - En kvalitativ studie om hur revisorer arbetar för att upptäcka och stävja resultatmanipulation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för revisorns arbete med att upptäcka och stävjaeventuell resultatmanipulation.

    Metod: Vår studie antar en hermeneutisk forskningstradition som är ett tolkande perspektiv.Eftersom studien söker öka förståelsen för ett fenomen har vi använt oss av en kvalitativforskningsansats. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom tio semistrukturerade intervjuersom utförts på verksamma revisorer. Dessa intervjuer har sedan tematiskt analyserats ochpresenteras under kapitlet resultat och analys.

    Resultat & slutsats: Studien identifierar att revisorerna generellt anser att resultatmanipulationupptäcks och stävjas genom en väl utförd revision. För att skapa goda förutsättningar att finnaresultatmanipulation anser revisorerna att en genomtänkt planeringsfas är viktig, i vilken eventuellaincitament och rutiner utvärderas. Trots att revisorerna bedömer att deras revisionsprocess ärtillräcklig för att upptäcka resultatmanipulation är det väldigt ovanligt att det upptäcks. Branschenär dock under ständig effektivisering och digitala verktyg har kommit att spela en betydande roll irevisorernas granskning.

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Revisorerna anser att deras revisionsprocess omfattar kontroll aveventuell resultatmanipulation, men att det inte är deras huvudsakliga uppgift. Vår uppfattning är attdet finns en risk att revisorerna inte har ett tillräckligt stort intresse av att stävjaresultatmanipulation, alternativt att de inte besitter tillräckligt stor förståelse för vad som ingår ibegreppet. Detta skulle kunna bero på att revisorerna har en arbetsgång som baseras på väsentlighet,snarare än detaljgranskning.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vår studie har grundat sig på revisorers kunskaper och för att ökaförståelsen om resultatmanipulation anser vi att det skulle vara av intresse att intervjuaredovisningskonsulter samt företagare som ansvarar för redovisningsval.

  • Qvicklund, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sandström, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Medarbetarengagemang: En kvalitativ studie om hur hållbart ledarskap kan främja medarbetarnas engagemang2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ekelöf, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordenståhl, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Utmaningar med ekologiskt ansvarstagande i stora företags leverantörskedjor: - En modellutvecklande studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Based on concepts from CSR, the purpose is to develop a comprehensive model of the most distinctive challenges of ecological responsibility in supply chains, with a focus on implementation, auditing and communication.

    Method: The study is based on hermeneutic theory and social constructivism. The analysis of the scientific research has resulted in a theoretical frame of reference, where different key aspects are pointed out. The chosen method was a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. The empiric data has undergone an adaptation process and been systematized in relation to the theory. An abductive and iterative process influenced the research and working process through an interaction between the theory and the empirical data. To ensure the quality throughout the study, quality criteria were used. The method gave a structuring and categorization of challenges for corporate governance.

    Result & conclusions: The study's results are given in a model of challenges, through an established conceptual framework from empirical data. The theoretical framework presented challenges with ecological responsibility in supply chains.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes theoretically with a conceptualization and a combined theoretical model. A greater knowledge of challenges is given to facilitate methods for sustainable management through new structured categories and conceptual framework from empirical data.

    Suggestions for future research: The study suggests that future research focus on developing models with the same starting points and bases. Through an improved structuring of implementation, auditing and communication with ecological responsibility in supply chains, and through new or existing challenges, this can hopefully be achieved.

  • Friberg, China
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Rosendahl, Klara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Företags och medarbetares utmaningar med medarbetares engagemang i CSR: En modellutvecklande studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Previous studies indicate that a growing number of companies choose to incorporate CSR into their business. However, there are many challenges with engaging employees. Despite this, no model exists illustrating these challenges. The purpose of this study is to create a model illustrating companies and employee challenges with engaging employees in CSR.

    Method: This study is based on a social constructive and hermeneutic perspective. Empirical findings from ten qualitative interviews with employees from four larger companies were compared to previous research in an abductive approach. Based on challenges found empirically and theoretically, challenges were grouped together resulting in a three-part model.

    Result & Conclusion: Our three-part model illustrates challenges with engaging employees in CSR. First, it presents challenges related to both company and/or employee. Secondly, it demonstrates challenges in three main categories; viewpoint, information, and application. Finally, it illustrates that these challenges influence and are influenced by each other.

    Contribution of the thesis: In this thesis, we have developed an integrated model consisting of three dimensions where we demonstrate how challenges can be 1) associated with the company, employee, or both 2) classified in different categories and 3) related to one another. From a theoretical perspective, the model is useful in further research where it can both be modified and added to if needed. From a practical perspective, the model can be used as an overall map and tool for companies to act in different ways when engaging employees. By highlighting if challenges are associated to company or employee, as well as how different challenges relate to one another, we believe that a holistic view can be achieved which further simplifies the CSR-work. Practical advice to managers is to break down the company’s CSR-goal and to have regular information about CSR in meetings.

    Suggestions for future research: Further research is needed to test the model’s accuracy and relevance. A possible alternative to test the models’ accuracy and relevance is to apply it to different contexts such as smaller companies. Another alternative is to further study how challenges identified in this study relate to company or employee or to identify new challenges that could be included in this model.

  • Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Larsson, AnnaKarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Prestationsmätning av servicekvalitet vid digitala möten: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Prestationsmätning av servicekvalitet vid digitala möten: En kvalitativ studie

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Daniel Gustafsson och AnnaKarin Larsson

    Handledare: Tomas Källquist och Pär Villhelmson

    Datum: Januari, 2019

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur prestationsmätning som styrinstrument kan användas för att kvalitetssäkra servicekvaliteten som tillhandahålls vid digitala möten.

    Metod: Studien utgår från den hermeneutiska forskningstraditionen och en världsbild utifrån det socialkonstruktivistiska synsättet med ett aktörsperspektiv. Ansatsen i studien är abduktiv och förståelse har uppstått genom en växelverkan mellan teori och empiri. Det empiriska underlaget samlades in via tio kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer. Dessa låg till grund för en tematisk analys som mynnade ut i studiens resultat och bidrag.

    Resultat: Prestationsmätning framgår vara bristfälligt eftersom allt som efterfrågas inte mäts. Studien påvisar att vissa av servicekvalitetens dimensioner har fått en ökad betydelse för servicekvalitet vid digitala möten. Detta tycks medföra nya krav för att prestationsmätning och servicekvalitet ska kunna samspela vid kvalitetssäkring av digitala möten.

    Studiens bidrag: Studiens teoretiska bidrag är att prestationsmätning och servicekvalitet kan samspela för att kvalitetssäkra digitala möten. Detta tycks dock ställa krav på hur prestationsmätning som styrinstrument används. Studien påvisar att prestationsmätning behöver anpassas efter digitala möten där vissa av servicekvalitetens dimensioner ökat i betydelse och därav bör tas i beaktning.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Studiens begränsningar öppnar upp för två förslag på vidare forskning. Det första förslaget är att genomföra en liknande studie i en annan kontext. Det andra förslaget är att studera vilka mjuka variabler som bör beaktas vid samspelet mellan prestationsmätning och servicekvalitet vid digitala möten.

  • Andric, Filip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Yildiz, Dilan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att öka på konkurrenskraft genom att arbeta med CSR: En jämförande studie av tre olika fastighetsbolag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: “To gain competitiveness by working with CSR” a comparative study of real estate concerns.

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Dilan Yildiz, Filip Andric

    Supervisor: Zahra Ahmadi Date: 2018- may

    Aim: The aim of the study is to gain knowledge for how real estate concerns work with CSR to strengthen their brand and to gain competitiveness.

    Method: The study uses a qualitative method with an inductive research approach. The empirical data consists of ten semi- structured interviews conducted with employees of three different real estate concerns. 

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that real estate concerns work with three dimensions of CSR but of different perspectives and ranges. Furthermore the study shows that real estate concerns mainly work with the environmental dimension of CSR and that working with environmental certifications is a vital factor for the organizations competitiveness and image.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis has contributed with new knowledge about how real estate concerns work with CSR and how they implement it to gain competitiveness by communicating it through their brand.

    Suggestions for future research: The thesis was limited to three real estate concerns that were located in the midst of Sweden. Future research could therefore include more companies and also companies that are located in different parts of Sweden for a greater variety.      Key words: CSR, brand, image, competitiveness, sustainability

  • Bibic, Alen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Krusing, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jämställt ledarskap: En studie om det kvinnliga respektive manliga ledarskapets arbete med jämställdhetsfrågor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att få ökad förståelse för skillnader och likheter som finns mellan hur det manliga respektive det kvinnliga ledarskapet arbetar med jämställdhetsfrågor inom ramen för sitt CSR-arbete.

    Studien upptäckte att det fanns stora skillnader mellan hur de manliga och de kvinnliga respondenterna uppfattade arbetet med jämställdhet. De manliga respondenterna upplevde att jämställdhetsarbetet ofta styrdes av den övergripande CSR-policyn. De kvinnliga respondenterna upplevde däremot att det kvinnliga ledarskapet arbetade med jämställdhet i större omfattning och mer noggrant än det manliga ledarskapet.

  • Rosen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Singh, Amarvir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Honungsbi-ledarskap i e-handelsföretag i Sverige: - en studie av hållbart ledarskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Honeybee leadership in e-commerce businesses in Sweden - a study of sustainable leadership

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for bachelor’s degree in business administration

    Author: Cecilia Rosen and Amarvir Singh

    Supervisor: Kristina Mickelsson and Agneta Sundström

    Date: 2019 - January

    Aim: The aim of the study is to gain further knowledge of how business leaders in e-commerce businesses in Sweden handle sustainability through honeybee leadership, aimed at

    innovation, environmental and social responsibility, and through investment in employees.

    Method: This study uses a qualitative method based on the hermeneutic approach. A comparative design is applied to compare the two selected e-commerce companies where 10 semi-structured interviews have been conducted with five managers and five employees. Respondents have received their own anonymity code in order not to be traceable back to them.

    Empirics: The interviews have been coded into 4 different themes with 3 categories developed from each theme to present the result of the study in a simpler way. These themes have received a separate headline to follow more easily, what has been found in the study.

    Conclusion: The study shows that business leaders in the e-commerce industry work consistently with innovation and personnel investments, but not as distinctive when it comes to environmental and social responsibility. There is a need to develop the common environmental goals of the organizations and to convey these in a better way within their organizations. One of the companies also showed the need to develop their ability to train their staff as they lack a strong educational culture.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has contributed to an increased understanding of how individual principles in honeybee leadership can be studied within organizations. Our study has also contributed to an insight on how e-commerce managers invest in their staff by recruiting and working with staff who can take responsibility.

    Suggestions for future research: To strengthen our study, we recommend it to be replicated and compared with other e-commerce companies based on the same three principles. A more comprehensive study of e-commerce companies that include the majority, or all principles than those we have chosen, would also be useful to get an overall picture of how the principles affect each other and how e-commerce companies work with honeybee leadership.

    Key words: Honeybee Leadership, Sustainable Leadership, E-commerce, Innovation,Investment in Personnel, Environment and Social Responsibility.

  • Lempart, Michael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Machine learning and augmented data for automated treatment planning in complex external beam radiation therapy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    External beam radiation therapy is currently one of the most commonly used modalities for treating cancer. With the rise of new technologies and increasing computational power, machine learning, deep learning and artificial intelligence applications used for classification and regression problems have begun to find their way into the field of radiation oncology. One such application is the automated generation of radiotherapy treatment plans, which must be optimized for every single patient. The department of radiation physics in Lund, Sweden, has developed an autoplanning software, which in combination with a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS), can be used for automatic creation of clinical treatment plans. The parameters of a multivariable cost function are changed iteratively, making it possible to generate a great amount of different treatment plans for a single patient. The output leads to optimal, near-optimal, clinically acceptable or even non-acceptable treatment plans. In this thesis, the possibility of using machine and deep learning to minimize the amount of treatment plans generated by the autoplanning software as well as the possibility of finding cost function parameters that lead to clinically acceptable optimal or near-optimal plans is evaluated. Data augmentation is used to create matrices of optimal treatment plan parameters, which are stored in a training database.  Patient specific training features are extracted from the TPS, as well as from the bottleneck layer of a trained deep neural network autoencoder. The training features are then matched against the same features extracted for test patients, using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Finally, treatment plans for a new patient are generated using the output plan parameter matrices of its nearest neighbors. This allows for a reduction in computation time as well as for finding suitable cost function parameters for a new patient.

  • Notstrand, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Virtual Reality för Offentliga Miljöer: Utformning av en självgående VR-installation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt examensarbete är genomfört som en undersökande designprocess, vars syfte är att undersöka vilka krav en VR-upplevelse, med hög immersion, ställer på den fysiska miljön för att sedan omsätta dessa krav i ett färdigt koncept av ett fysiskt rum som ska fungera självgående.

    Med det fysiska rummet syftar jag till det verkliga rummet i vilket det virtuella rummet finns tillgängligt att uppleva via VR-utrustning. Det fysiska rummet är i detta fall också platsspecifikt då jag har jobbat med beställarna Länsmuseet Gävleborg samt Region Gävleborg, men konceptet går att anpassa till andra miljöer, utefter kraven som dessa ställer. 

    Detta rum kommer främst att användas för visning av olika världsarv i VR, och världsarvet som inviger rummet är Hälsingegården Bortom Åa, även kallad Fågelsjö Gammelgård. Det virtuella innehållet har delvis påverkat rummets utformning, främst i valen av grafisk utsmyckning. 

    Designprocessen har bestått av ett kontinuerligt researcharbete, problemanalys, användarobservationer, idégenerering som innefattar workshop, deltagarobservationer, prototypbygge, konceptutveckling och sammanställande samt visualiserande av färdigt koncept. 

    Jag har under processen arbetat med det fysiska rummet i dessa fem problemområden: planlösning, säkerhet, inbjudande och inkluderande, utrustning samt instruerande.

    Något som har präglat min process mycket är kravet om att rummet ska fungera självgående, det vill säga att ingen extra instruktör eller övervakare ska behövas för användning av rummet. Detta är ett krav från Länsmuseet Gävleborg och är av ekonomiska och praktiska skäl.

    En viktig poäng med mitt arbete har varit att tillgängliggöra kulturella upplevelser för de som inte har möjlighet att ta sig till den verkliga platsen. Av den anledningen har jag jobbat mot att rummet bör vara tillgängligt för så många som möjligt. Genom att presentera ett världsarv via en modern och spännande teknik kan det bidra till ökat intresse av historia och kultur bland unga samt generera fler besökare till museet och i förlängningen ekonomiskt gynna kulturutvecklingen i Gävle. Det kan även minska klimatpåverkan genom att resor till platser långt bort inte behöver genomföras, så som studiebesök. 

    Mitt examensarbete har resulterat i ett innovativt koncept av ett rum tillägnat offentliga utställningar i VR, med vissa plats- och situationsspecifika detaljer, så som storlek och val av vissa grafiska detaljer. Det fysiska rummet består i sin helhet av två mindre delrum. I de rummen finns både rent tekniska, visuella och sensoriska lösningar som behandlar de olika problemområdena. 

    Detta rum har presenterats med renderingar, illustrationer samt skalmodell. I skrivande stund har konceptet i sin helhet redan förverkligats på Länsmuseet Gävleborg och finns där att besöka, men det jag presenterar i denna uppsats är arbetet som ledde fram till konceptet.

  • Ekberg Leo, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Att leva med ett syskon som har missbruksproblem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly half a million Swedes have an addiction to alcohol. The corresponding figure for drugs is 55 000 people. Many of these people have siblings.

    The main purpose of this thesis was to increase understanding of how siblings of young people / young adults who abuse drugs experience their life situation. Another purpose was to investigate what kind of support for the siblings needed from society and if they have received sufficient support. A total of seven semi- structured interviews have been conducted. In order to analyze the data obtained, inductive thematic analysis has been used. The result has been mainly discussed in relation to the SSCS model. Before the addiction, the respondents generally found that the sibling relationships were close and strong. During the addiction, respondents perceived that sibling relationships became conflicted and distant. This meant that the occurrence of threats and violence, concern about the addict and the absence of the addicting sibling became normal. When the sibling became drug-free the trust in the relationship towards that sibling was damaged. Several siblings have in their families had roles that were not age-appropriate, such as an adult partner´s relationship with one parent at the same time as they had parenting roll against the drug abusing sibling or against younger siblings. The siblings have consistently had a flawed social network. The respondents experienced different feelings towards the addict such as feelings of sadness, missing and loneliness, anger, helplessness and other feelings. The most common coping strategies have been to try to support the addict, to confront and eventually withdraw from the addict. Good support has been to meet others in the same situation in the form of support groups or to talk to someone who can get into the situation of the sibling. Preferred support has been counseling where information about drugs and how relatives of addicts are affected, or counseling to improve communication with everyone involved in the family. To live with a drugabusing strongly effects the other siblings situation. The loss of the near relationship to the sibling and to be in a vulnerable lifesituation rises the question what the society can and should do.

  • Simu, André
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Textbook - Servant or Master?: A Study of the Role of Textbooks in English Second Language Learning in Swedish High Schools2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textbooks are considered an integral part of language teaching-learning. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between textbooks and teachers as well as students. Through the use of a mixed methodology by combining interviews with teachers (a qualitative element) and a survey questionnaire for students (a quantitative element) the present study intends to provide an answer to the research question: What is the role of textbooks in English second language learning in Swedish high schools? More specifically the study aims to examine the advantages and disadvantages of ESL textbooks as well as compare differences between how ESL textbooks are used in Sweden and other countries. Lastly, the study will also investigate what changes need to be made to ESL textbooks in Swedish high schools. The results of the study indicate several advantages and disadvantages with the use of textbooks. The advantages of textbooks afford teachers short-term benefits in the form of inspiration, ready-made material and a framework for the course and curriculum. The disadvantages of textbooks are the need for adaptation and modification to fit course criteria as well as learner group and situation which present as long-term problems that require time, knowledge and skill to overcome. Analysis of the results presents the question of whether or not the short-term benefits of textbooks are substantial enough to justify the time it takes for teachers to modify and adapt them as no textbook is perfect for every learner group or situation. In conclusion, the study shows that textbooks are best considered temporary servants that in the hands of their masters, the teachers, are best utilized to build a comprehensive language teaching-learning environment that better enables students to learn and utilize the English language.

  • Hadin, Joacim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Learning by Gaming: Investigating the Influence of Playing Video Games on Vocabulary Level among Swedish ESL Learners2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is one of the fastest growing markets in the world today. The fact that playing video games has become such a popular recreational activity among youths and adolescents has created a need for research investigating the effects of video game playing. Because of the role of the English language as a global lingua franca, most video games are released in English. Since most video games are released in English, many believe that the utilization of video games can help learners of English to improve their knowledge of how to utilize the English language. The aim of this study is to investigate whether video game playing does positively influence the English receptive vocabulary level of ESL learners. In addition, the present study also investigated the influence of other factors, such as the utilization of online communication tools, the average time spent playing video games, and the type of video games played, on English receptive vocabulary level. The study was conducted using quantitative research methods. Since the aim of the study was to investigate the relation between two separate aspects, the study had to utilize two separate elicitation methods for the data collection: one questionnaire (that was supposed to determine each informant’s video game habits) and one vocabulary test (that was supposed to get an approximation of each informant’s receptive vocabulary level). When the data had been collected, the tests were corrected, and the participants were categorized according to the previously mentioned variables. The mean scores of the categories were later examined and compared to each other. Differences between groups that were of high importance were further examined, with a t-test, to determine whether the difference was statistically significant or not. The results of the study show that the vocabulary level difference between ESL learners that do play video games and ESL learner that do not play video game is insignificant. The results further show that the utilization of online communication tools while playing video games positively influences vocabulary level, as the mean score difference on the vocabulary test between OCT users and OCT non-users was revealed to be significant by the t-test. The analysed data thus show that the influence of the utilization of online communication tools on English receptive vocabulary level are more significant that the influence of playing video games.

  • Magdasdotter, Rania
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Islam och muslimer i svenska medier: En kvalitativ studie om representationer inom opinionsbildande artiklar september 20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien består av en undersökning om hur islam och muslimer representeras i svenska opinionsbildande artiklar online under september 2018. Undersökningen avser att studera hur och inom vilken kontext islam, muslimer och muslimska fenomen diskuteras och framställs. Studien visar på att representationerna av muslimer och islam samt att muslimska fenomen diskuteras genomgående ur politiska kontexter där muslimer och islam sammankopplas med samhällsutmaningar.

  • Peltonen, Måns
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Hammarström, Andréa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    En heteronormativ diskurs i förändring: En diskursanalys av kön och genus i två läromedel för religionskunskap 12018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As teacher students, we have on many occasions come across and studied different textbooks for religion. The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to research how sex and gender are presented in the textbooks for the course “religion 1” in the Swedish upper secondary school. The two thesis questions are: How are sex and gender presented in two different teaching materials in the Abrahamic religions? How does school law's demands for equality manifest in the analysed textbooks?

    When limiting the scope of the research to get a manageable amount of data we chose two textbooks written after the new guidelines for the Swedish upper secondary school which took effect in the year 2011 and are used in the public schools in Gävle. Further limiting the amount of data we decided to only go into detail on the Abrahamic religions, which had dedicated chapters in each book.

    For the method we decided discourse analysis would be fitting as what we are researching is how sex and gender are represented in the text. As both textbooks contain images on almost every page we also use some methods for analysing images from the book Reading Images (Kress & Van Leeuwen 2006).

    The results showed a heteronormative discourse which is present in both textbooks and is especially noticeable when describing the relationship between God and man. God is usually described with the pronoun He while humans present in the books are referred to as she. The discourse also changes depending on the topic. In the topic of describing the history of the religions men are more present, and in the rare cases when women are present the text doesn’t treat them as individuals. When discussing the present questions about feminism and changing the religions to fit the modern society are more frequent, but even here God is referred to as a man and it’s described that mankind - she - is supposed to follow and obey.

  • Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hjalmarsson, Klara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kristendomsundervisningens innehåll: En kvalitativ studie om lärare och prästers uppfattningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka vad lärare och präster anser är viktig kunskap inom kristendomen och vad som bör läras ut till ungdomar. Eftersom präster är betydelsefulla representanter för kristendomen ansåg vi det vara av intresse att undersöka deras uppfattningar i relation till lärares åsikter samt granska eventuella skillnader och likheter. För att undersöka dessa likheter och skillnader har två stycken frågeställningar formulerats som uppsatsen utgått från. För att under intervjuernas gång få svar på de tidigare formulerade frågeställningarna utformades fyra stycken intervjufrågor som ställdes till samtliga informanter. Den använda metoden för intervjuerna är semistrukturerade intervjuer, vilket sedan analyserades med hjälp av en tematisk analys samt framework. Resultatet visade fler likheter än skillnader mellan lärare och prästers uppfattningar och att det viktigaste innehållet var relationer, upplevelser, kristen värdegrund, kristendomens särdrag och likheter i förhållande till andra världsreligioner samt förståelse. Inom dessa teman uppfattades ett flertal subteman där likheter och skillnader mellan de båda yrkesgruppernas uppfattningar om vad som är viktig kunskap kunde utrönas.

  • Ederyd, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Fyra tolkningar av elevinflytande i kursen Religionskunskap: En kvalitativ studie på högstadiet om religionslärares uppfattningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utifrån ett religionsdidaktiskt perspektiv undersöka vad religionslärare på högstadiet anser om att ge elever inflytande i religionsundervisningens planering och genomförande. Samt ta del av hur lärare väljer att tolka begreppet elevinflytande. Frågorna som ligger till grund i undersökningen är följande: Vad anser lärare om att involvera elever i kursens planering? Hur tolkar lärare begreppet elevinflytande? Hur arbetar lärare med att involvera elever i undervisningen? Studien avgränsar sig till fyra högstadieskolor i Mellansverige. Metoden som har används för att få fram det empiriska materialet utgår från semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra religionslärare. Det empiriska materialet analyserats med stöd av teorin Sociokulturella perspektivet. I resultatet får vi ta del av att det råder delade meningar om hur lärare tolkar begreppet elevinflytande samt att de väljer att arbeta olika med att involvera sina elever i religionsundervisningen och dess planering.

  • Bärj, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Tro via rus: Svenskars andliga sökande via psykedeliska substanser2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med studien är att undersöka om användningen av psykedeliska droger i syfte av att nå religiösa mål ökar i Sverige. Studien utgår ifrån ett religionssociologiskt perspektiv för att besvara varför alternativa livsåskådningar uppstår i samband med användandet av psykedeliska droger. Studien utgår ifrån en kvalitativ forskningsmetod och har genomförts med hjälp av intervjuer. Syftet har varit att undersöka om de intervjuade personerna fått en förändrad existentiell livsåskådning efter att de brukat psykedeliska preparat samt om de tror att dessa typer av sökande ökar i Sverige och vad det kan bero på. Informanterna i studien berättar om sina liv före och efter sitt religiösa uppvaknande via psykedeliska substanser. Studiens resultat påvisar varför personer väljer att använda sig av psykedeliska droger och om de tror att användningen av dessa ökar i Sverige idag. Den data som samlats in består av tidigare forskning samt empiri från de genomförda intervjuerna. Materialet har kategoriserats och diskuterats utifrån ett religionshistoriskt- och religionssociologiskt perspektiv.

  • Berglund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Språkutveckling inom gymnasieskolan: En kvalitativ studie med utgångspunkt i momentet buddhism2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka hur en lärare kan arbeta språkutvecklande inom religionsundervisningen, med fokus på undervisning i momentet buddhismen. Undersökningen grundar sig på fem stycken intervjuer med tre religionslärare samt två svensklärare. Resultatet visar att lärarna anpassar det språkutvecklande arbetet till varje elevgrupp. Lärarna kan inte förutsätta att alla elever har samma språkkunskaper. Resultatet visar att religionslärarna med hjälp av olika metoder arbetar språkutvecklande i religionsundervisningen. Resultatet visar också att religionslärarnas undervisning påverkas av Lev Vygotskijs tankar om utveckling, det vill säga teorin om den närmaste utvecklingszonen. Denna teori faller in under det sociokulturella perspektivet och det är denna teori som den här undersökningen förankrar sig i.

  • Allard, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Från djävulsdyrkan och kyrkobränder till idoldyrkan och ut ur kyrkan: black metal som väg till religiös livsåskådning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en kvalitativ undersökning på hur en del använder black metal som en väg till religiös livsåskådning. Den är baserad på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem män som är fans eller musiker inom black metal. Syftet är att studera hur dessa människor använder black metal och dess uttryck som en arena för religiös praktik. Dessa intervjuer är sedan analyserade med hjälp av teorierna re-enchantment och occulture. Studien visar på att black metal är en individuationsprocess där unga fans börjar att bygga upp sin personlighet och lär sig att både bearbeta och hantera känslor. Studien visar även på de negativa aspekterna av subgenren, så som kyrkobränder och mord, som uppkommit inom kultiska miljöer. Med dess resultat visar det att deltagarnas sökande efter en religiös livsåskådning som mötte upp med deras känslor och behov, var influerat av black metal. 

  • Palm, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Att möta barn i svåra livssituationer i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande arbete undersöker hur förskollärare bemöter barn i svåra livssituationer i förskolan. Syftet är att få kunskap om hur förskollärare på bästa möjliga sätt kan ge stöd till sådana barn, för att de lättare ska kunna komma ur den svåra livssituationen. Arbetet baseras på muntliga intervjustudier med erfarna förskollärare kring deras kunskaper, erfarenheter och råd i frågan. Intervjuerna resulterade i flera metoder i att bemöta barn i svåra livssituationer i förskolans verksamhet, för att kunna ge dem bekräftande närhet, trygghet, rutiner och se deras individuella behov. Intervjuerna resulterade även i flera metoder som förskollärarna använts sig av för att bemöta de berörda barnens föräldrar, liksom förlag på kreativa sysselsättningar för barnen för att kunna bearbeta den svåra livssituationen.

  • Eldesten, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Kommunikation i förskolan: En studie baserad på semistrukturerande intervjuer och observationer av kommunikationssituationer på förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the preschool's activities there is constant communication between children and adults but how it looks can look different. This study investigates how preschool teachers communicate with younger children and how the children themselves communicate with each other. The methods on which the study is based on are semistructured interviews with 10 preschool teachers from two different preschools as well as observations of adult and child communication with each other. The collected material has been analyzed and categorized according to the questions asked during the interviews and study question. What the outcome of the study shows is that the preschool plays a major role in the communicative development of children and that it affects their participation in activities and games. That's why it's important that the preschool teacher takes advantage of the children's interests and needs.

  • Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Wallberg, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Barns inflytande över den fysiska miljön i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnens inflytande över förskolans verksamhet är något som länge prioriterats här i Sverige. Läroplanen som förskolan ska följa poängterar även barnens rätt till inflytande över sin vardag, detta är dock ett problematiskt område då den inte specificerar hur inflytande ska se ut vilket gör att det är förskollärarens egna tolkningar som ligger till grunden för hur arbetet med inflytande ser ut. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilket reellt inflytande barnen har, främst över den fysiska miljön men även i den övriga verksamheten så som i den fria leken och hur förskollärarna kommer fram till vad de ska arbeta med i exempelvis temaarbeten, då allt detta går in under barnens inflytande. Frågeställningen vi haft under detta arbete är vilket inflytande ges barn i den fysiska miljön i förskolan? Detta har undersökts via intervjuer med sex förskollärare där de fått berätta om sina verksamheter och hur de arbetar med inflytande för barn i förskolan. Resultatet av studien visar att nivån av inflytande som barnen får är sammankopplat med pedagogernas synsätt kring vad de ser som inflytande för barnen, samt vilja att släppa in barnen i beslutsfattningen. Av studien drar vi slutsatsen att möjlighet finns att låta barnen vara delaktiga i beslut rörande den fysiska miljön på förskolan. Detta då många av våra informanter berättar hur de via olika arbetssätt faktiskt ger barn inflytande inom detta område.   

  • Tenglund, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Åberg, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sitter det i väggarna?: En kvalitativ studie om offentlig sektors arbete för främjandet av innovativt beteende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Sitter det i väggarna? En kvalitativ studie om offentlig sektors arbete för främjandet av innovativt beteende

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Felicia Tenglund och Stina Åberg

    Handledare: Agneta Sundström och Kristina Mickelsson

    Datum: 2019 - Januari

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur ledare inom offentlig sektor arbetar för att utveckla bra arbetsklimat och hur det främjar ett innovativt beteende. 

    Metod: Studien tillämpar en kvalitativ metod, där utgångspunkten är den hermeneutiska vetenskapstraditionen. Totalt har tio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med chefer på olika nivåer inom en offentlig verksamhet. Det empiriska materialet har med hjälp av en tematisk analysmetod tolkats och analyserats.

    Slutsats: Studien visar att det finns både skillnader och likheter med tidigare forskning och hur våra respondenter inom offentlig sektor ser på arbetet med ett innovativt beteende. Enligt våra respondenter behövs inte ett ökat arbete gällande innovativt beteende vilket tidigare forskning antydde.

    Studiens bidrag: Vår studie bidrar med att öka förståelsen för hur ledare inom denna offentliga verksamhet ser på innovativt beteende, samt hur de som ledare arbetar för att främja ett innovativ beteende och ett bra arbetsklimat. Genom att ta del av denna studie kan ledare och medarbetare inom offentlig sektor få en ökad förståelse för hur de bör arbeta med att skapa ett bra arbetsklimat på sin arbetsplats, vilket i sin tur kommer bidra till ett ökat innovativt beteende.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi anser att vidare forskning genom en liknande studie kan fokusera på ledare och studera om inställningen till och främjandet av det innovativa beteendet ser olika ut beroende på vilken position ledaren har inom organisationen. Det skulle även vara intressant att göra en liknande studie på en annan organisation inom offentlig sektor då denna studie inte kan spegla hela den offentliga sektorns syn på innovativt beteende.

  • Hanna, Mariam
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Prodani, Olivia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Den hållbara arbetsmiljön: En kvalitativ studie om kopplingen mellan sociala hållbarhetsfaktorer och arbetsmotivation.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how leaders work with social sustainability factors, and how this affects the employees’ work motivation.

    Method: This study applies a qualitative method which proceeds from the hermeneutic science tradition. The empirical material has been collected through 13 semi structured interviews. To capture both perspectives, we've interviewed both leaders and employees. During the transcription we identified themes and categories which founded the empirics and analysis.

    Result & conclusions: Our study indicates that all leaders work both with the fundamental motivation factors and the factors of social sustainability. It appears that how the leaders work with the factors differs, which imply that there are several different methods for achieving each factor.

    Contribution of the thesis: It has been shown that the interpretation differ of which factors leads to an increased work motivation. This refers both between the leaders and the employees, but also to the individuals within the same group. The result from this does not agree with previous research.

    Suggestions for future research: For further research, we recommend a study to investigate on why certain factors lead to work motivation while others solely are prerequisites to achieve it. Other elements are in addition to that a combination of both. An understanding behind this pattern would contribute to expand the current research field.

  • Larsson, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Peters, Kevin
    Stressar du eller påverkas du av andras stress?: En kvalitativ studie om att öka försåelsen för hur hållbart ledarskap och LMX-teori kan hantera stress hos medarbetare inom Försvarsmakten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Stressar du, eller blir du påverkad av andras stress? En kvalitativ studie som ökar förståelsen för hur hållbart ledarskap och LMX-teori kan hantera stress hos medarbetare inom Försvarsmakten.

     

    Nivå: C-uppsats i företagsekonomi

     

    Författare: Kevin Peters och David Larsson

     

    Handledare: Agneta Sundström och Kristina Mickelsson

     

    Datum: 2019 - januari

     

    Syfte: Att öka förståelsen för hur hållbart ledarskap med inriktning mot LMX-teorin kan hantera stress hos anställda inom Försvarsmakten.

     

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod med ett hermeneutiskt synsätt har tillämpats. Tio semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med sex stycken ledare och fyra stycken medarbetare inom Försvarsmakten. Empirin har sedan tolkats tematiskt och en analys har genomförts genom kodning och tematisering.

     

    Slutsats: Det studien visar är en ökad förståelse för hur stresshanteringen ser ut inom Försvarsmakten, och vilka verktyg som anses vara mest effektiva. Slutsatsen är att alla stressrelaterade problem kretsar kring hur relationen mellan medarbetaren och ledaren är. LMX-teorin var till stor hjälp för att öka förståelsen till hur stresshanteringen är utformad. Vidare påträffades flera effektiva verktyg i samband med att relationen mellan medarbetare och ledare utvecklas, som vi sedan presenterar i en modell.

     

    Studiens bidrag: Denna studie lämnar ett teoretiskt bidrag i form av en modell som blivit framarbetad genom en analys av empiri och teori. Modellen ger en ökad förståelse för på vilket sätt ledare och medarbetare kan hantera stressfyllda situationer effektivt inom Försvarsmakten. Studien lämnar även ett praktiskt bidrag om hur Försvarsmakten kan förbättra sin stresshantering proaktivt och reaktivt samt vilket typ av uppföljning som ska genomföras. 

     

    Förslag till vidare forskning:Under vår genomgång av teori framgår det att LMX-mätningar av både ledare och medarbetares perspektiv är undermålig. Vi anser att fler LMX-mätningar av både ledare och medarbetares perspektiv ska finnas då detta hade resulterat i mer generaliserbara slutsatser och givit mer pålitliga resultat.

     

    Nyckelord: arbetsrelaterade faktorer, stress, ledare, medarbetare, hållbart ledarskap, förebyggande åtgärder, LMX-teori, relationer. 

  • Rodestrand, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åberg, Filip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Val av intern kommunikationskanal -En generationsfråga?: En kvalitativ studie ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The choice of internal communication channel - A generation issue?

     

    Level: Final assignment for bachelor degree in business administration.

     

    Author: Filip Åberg and Robin Rodestrand

     

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström and Kristina Mickelsson

     

    Date: 2019 - januari

     

    Aim: The aim of the study is to increase understanding of how managers choice of internal communication channels can be adapted to employee’s generation and how it can contribute to more effective communication between managers and employees.

     

    Method: The study is based on a hermeneutic research tradition in which a qualitative research design was used to gather empirical work through semi-structured interviews with employees in a specific organization. Thereafter a thematic analysis was conducted, through which we compiled themes based on the respondent’s perspective. A typological analysis was used to show differences and similarities between different generation preferences in the choice of communication channel.

                                                                                  

    Conclusion and contribution: The study's contribution is that there are more similarities than differences between baby boomers, generation Y's and generation X's preferences of internal communication channels. The only differences that the study illustrates is that generation X values ​​e-mail higher than other generations. And that generation Y values ​​communication through chat features higher than the other two generations. The study also states that other aspects such as relationship, context and information overflow are significant in the leaders choice of internal communication channel.

     

    Suggestions for future research: This study proposes to investigate how generations differ in their preferences of internal communication channels in other contexts than those studied in this study. Another suggestion for further research is to deeper investigate the generation Y's use of e-mail and generation X's use of chat features. Furthermore, future research can investigate how the relationship between leaders and employees, as well as information overflow, affect leaders' choice of internal communication channels

                                                                                  

    Keywords: Internal communication, internal communication channels, baby boomers, generation X, Generation Y.

  • Danielsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Modéen, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jämställdhet i små kunskapsföretag: en studie om ledarskapets betydelse för social hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att få en ökad förståelse för ledarskapets betydelse för social hållbarhet i form av jämställdhet i små kunskapsföretag.

     

    Metod: Studien utgår från en kvalitativ metod och har genomförts genom tio semistrukturerade intervjuer med ledare och medarbetare på tre små kunskapsföretag inom den företagsfrämjande sektorn.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Resultatet visar att ledarskapet är av stor betydelse för ett framgångsrikt arbete med jämställdhet som en del av social hållbarhet. Studien identifierar en modell för hållbart ledarskap för jämställdhet och påtalar ett behov av ett mer systematiserat arbete för kvalitativ jämställdhet.

     

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Vi har identifierat områden i det hållbara ledaskapet som vi uppfattar har stor betydelse för ledarens framgång i hållbarhets- och jämställdhetsarbete med fokus på organisation och ledarskap. Detta har bidragit till att utveckla en teoretisk modell av företagens jämställdhetsarbete. Vi menar att små kunskapsföretag kan tillämpa modellen för att leda och utveckla det kvalitativa jämställdhetsarbetet till att bli organisationsövergripande, samt ha den som grund för att skapa och behålla en inkluderande arbetsplatskultur med regelbunden och systematisk uppföljning.  

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien visar att det finns behov av fortsatt forskning som studerar hur modellen kan implementeras och verifieras i små kunskapsföretag. Det finns även behov av ytterligare studier av hur det kvalitativa jämställdhetsarbetet kan utvecklas till att skapa jämställt hållbara organisationer över tid. Ytterligare förslag till fler studier är att mer detaljerat definiera varje element av hållbart ledarskap som vi identifierat samt studera hur ledare bäst kan utveckla dessa element.

  • Hollsten, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Svensson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Insiderägande, CSR och dess påverkan på skatteaggressivitet: En kvantitativ studie på 273 europeiska börsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: CSR is an often-used term and a well-discussed topic. Corporate tax is also an often debated subject where many of the methods used by companies to greatly reduce tax can be questioned. Since tax can be seen as a way to contribute to society at large, studies of CSR, which is a way for companies to take social responsibility, have become interesting to study in relation to tax. Contradicting studies, however, lead to the need to investigate factors that may affect the relationship. Ownership structure can have an impact on corporate social responsibility and how tax-aggressive a company is. This study therefore investigates whether insider ownership is a factor that has a moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and tax aggressiveness.

    Method: The study is based on a positivistic research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductive approach. The study has a quantitative strategy and a longitudinal design using ten-year data of 273 public European companies, for the years 2008-2017. In the study, secondary data has been used retrieved from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database. Collected data has been analyzed in the statistical program SPSS.

    Result & Conclusions: The results show that insider ownership has a moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and tax. This study shows that it is the level of insider ownership that determines the direction of the relationship between CSR and tax aggressiveness. The conclusion that can be reached is that ownership structure is a factor that should be taken into account in studies examining the relationship between tax and CSR.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study provides a unique contribution to the field of accounting research as it is the only one to study the impact of ownership structure on CSR and tax aggressiveness by examining insider ownership. The study also provides a practical contribution to government institutions and organizations about the ownership structures that can affect companies’ attitude towards sustainability reporting and tax behavior. In addition to this, empirical research on European companies and the relationship between CSR and tax are broadened.

    Suggestions for future research: Further research is needed in the form of studies on the type of shares held by insiders, i.e. if the holding contains voting shares or not. Further research is also needed to study different groups of insiders as there may be differences within a broad definition of insiders as to whether the person is largely associated with the company or not. In addition, there are also suggestions for more research that does not measure CSR as one variable. By studying the dimensions that make up CSR as separate variables there may be differences that are not detected when it is measured as one variable.

  • Eriksson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Henriksson, Vilma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Finns det ett dubbelriktat samband mellan CSR och innovation?: En kvantitativ studie av 569 globala bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: I takt med att hållbarhet blivit en alltmer viktig fråga har forskare försökt finna medlande variabler mellan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) och den finansiella prestationen (FP), då lönsamhet är en av de mest betydelsefulla faktorerna för företag. Som ett led i forskningen har innovation uppdagats vara en medlande variabel eftersom CSR och innovation antyds uppnå maximalt värde för företag när de slås ihop. Vidare ses innovation förekomma i störst grad hos industriföretag. Med grund för detta är föreliggande studiens syfte att undersöka hur stark CSR och innovations kausala samband är genom att se till både CSRs påverkan på innovation, samt innovations påverkan på CSR hos industriföretag. Det vill säga om det existerar ett dubbelriktat kausalt samband som visar på en positiv spiral. 

    Metod: Studien tar avstamp från positivismen med en hypotetisk-deduktiv ansats. Vidare baseras studien på en kvantitativ metod och har utifrån en longitudinell design inhämtat data från Thomson Reuters. Datan representerar ett urval av 569 publika och globala bolag för tio år, vilka sedan har analyserats i statistikprogrammet SPSS. 

    Resultat och slutsats: Studien visar ett existerande dubbelriktat kausalt samband hos industriföretag, där vi dels kan se att bolagsstyrning- och miljödimensionen inom CSR utgör den främsta påverkan på företagens investeringar i innovation, som i sin tur utgör störst effekt på miljödimensionen inom CSR. 

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning:Några förslag på vidare forskning är att inkludera andra mått av CSR eftersom det existerar flertalet olika mätningar. Vi ser även att vidare forskning kan studera sambandet mellan CSR och innovation hos icke börsnoterade bolag för att möjliggöra ett ännu mer generaliserbart resultat, samt studera hur lönsamheten påverkas i det dubbelriktade sambandet mellan CSR och innovation.

    Uppsatsens bidrag:Studien bidrar främst med att fylla det forskningsgap som finns gällande CSRs samband med innovation genom att se till CSRs dimensioner, samt till industribranschen. Studien kan ge bevis för att företag som ser variablerna som två separata aktiviteter drar större fördel att istället förena strategierna till en.

  • Hohenthal, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Setterberg, Edvard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    CEPs effekt på FP i fossila bränsleintensiva företag: Påverkas relationen om företaget har en CSR-kommitté?: En kvantitativ studie av 827 publika globala bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The company's environmental responsibility has become an increasingly central issue for the company's stakeholders. Earlier studies that have addressed the relationship between Corporate Environmental Performance CEP and Financial Performance FP have resulted in varying outcomes. Two factors that are considered to affect this relationship are differences between industries and shortcomings in internal organization work. In order to get a clearer picture of the relationship between CEP and FP, research needs to be developed for companies acting in an environmentally heavy industry. The purpose of the study is to explain if there is a connection between CEP and FP in fossil fuel firms and see if the association is stronger or weaker if the company uses a CSR committée.

    Method: This study is based on a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive approach. The study has a quantitative strategy and has been formed of a longitudinal design, where secondary data has been collected for the years 2014-2017 from the Thomson Reuters Datastream database. This has generated a sample of 827 public companies worldwide whose data has been analyzed in the SPSS statistics program and presented in tables.

    Result & Conclusions: The result of the study shows that there is a positive correlation between the environmental dimension CEP and the financial performance, measured based on both the accounting measure ROE and the market measure Tobins Q for fossil fuel firms. For the fossil fuel firms with a CSR committée, the result also showed a stronger relationship between CEP and FP than for companies without a CSR committée. A comparison between sectors showed a clear variation between the results, where some sectors had a negative link between CEP and FP.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to empirical research and understanding of the relationship between CEP and FP by studying fossil fuel firms, which is an environmentally heavy industry. The study also contributes with theoretical information about whether continuous work through CSR committees affects this relationship. The study also provides a practical contribution by encouraging companies to engage in CEP activities, instead of the emergence of compelling environmental regulations, to achieve profitability.

    Suggestions for future research: A proposal for further research is to go deeper into more sectors to see differences between industries and to make deeper analyzes between them to gain a better understanding of the relationship between CEP and FP. There may also be differences between companies of different sizes, so a second proposal is to divide and compare the results between large and small companies.

  • Nordin, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Onsgård, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur andelen kvinnor i styrelsen påverkar sambandet: Aggressiv skatteplanering och CSR: En kvantitativ studie på 883 globala företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Hur andelen kvinnor i styrelsen påverkar sambandet:Aggressiv skatteplanering och CSR -  En kvantitativ studie på 883 globala företag

    Nivå: Examensarbete på Grundnivå (kandidatexamen) i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Katarina Nordin & Sofie Onsgård

    Handledare: Jan Svanberg

    Datum: 2019-Januari

    Syfte: Det finns ett ökat krav på att företagen ska CSR- rapportera och det har därmed blivit viktigt för företagen att investera inom CSR (corporate social responsibility). Det finns tidigare studier som pekar på att företag som utför aggressiv skatteplanering går emot det CSR står för, då skattepengarna går till företagen istället för att gå till samhällsutveckling och att det därmed skulle föreligga ett negativt samband mellan CSR och aggressiv skatteplanering. Generellt finns det få kvinnor i företagens styrelser trots att kvinnor har andra egenskaper än män, som kan påverka styrelsens beslut och vad de väljer att investera i, bland annat anses kvinnor kunna påverka företagets CSR-prestation. Syftet med studien är att förklara hur andelen kvinnor i styrelsen påverkar sambandet mellan CSR och aggressiv skatteplanering.

    Metod: Studien har en positivistisk vetenskaplig utgångspunkt där en kvantitativ forskningsmetod med deduktiv ansats har använts. Sekundärdata har samlats in från databasen Thomson Reuters datastream. Vid insamling av datan har en longitudinell design använts för åren 2008–2017. Studiens urval omfattar 883 globala och publika företag, som därefter har analyserats i programmet IBM SPSS.

    Resultat & slutsats: Studien finner ett negativt signifikant samband mellan företags CSR-prestation och skattebetalning, företag med bra CSR-prestation utför således aggressiv skatteplanering. Vidare visar resultatet inget signifikant samband för interaktionseffekten (andelen kvinnor*CSR) och skattebetalning, det finns således ingen moderation som kan påverka effekten av CSR-prestation på den aggressiva skatteplaneringen. Kvinnor har därmed ingen påverkan på CSR-prestationens effekt på aggressiv skatteplanering. Studien finner inte heller något signifikant samband mellan interaktionsvariabeln och aggressiv skatteplanering för företag med färre än tre kvinnor i styrelsen samt företag med tre kvinnor eller fler i styrelsen. Resultatet visar därmed att kritisk massa-teorin inte har någon effekt, att antalet kvinnliga styrelseledamöter inte har någon betydelse.  

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Genom denna studie tillkommer ny kunskap inom det företagsekonomiska ämnet då vi fyller ett forskningsgap genom att undersöka hur andelen kvinnliga styrelseledamöter kan påverka sambandet mellan CSR och aggressiv skatteplanering. Studien ger värdefull kunskap till företagsledningen och företagets intressenter gällande kvinnliga styrelseledamöter, CSR och aggressiv skatteplanering.    

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Då denna studie har använt ett sammanslaget mått på företags CSR-prestation har inte alla olika dimensioner kunnat studerats. Ett förslag till vidare forskning är därmed att studera sociala-, ekonomiska- och miljömässiga dimensionerna för att se hur de påverkar bland annat aggressiv skatteplanering. Vidare forskning kan även använda andra mått än ETR för att mäta aggressiv skatteplanering och studera industri- och landstillhörighet mer ingående för att se skillnader i dessa faktorer.

    Nyckelord: CSR (Corporate social responsibility), aggressiv skatteplanering, kvinnliga styrelseledamöter, kritisk massa

  • Sjödin, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Ling, Rickard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Hinsides människor i populärkultur: En medieanalys av serien Hemsökt: övernaturliga upplevelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Annis, Nicole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The relationship between religion and science: Illustrated through creationism and humanism2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is going to examine the relationship between science and religion with humanists and creationists as examples. The research done in this study is inductive and inspired from grounded theory, furthermore, aims to be explanatory. This is, more specifically, a literature analysis. The ambition of this essay is to identify the relationship science and religion share via humanism and creationism exclusively through secondary sources. The analysis will be inspired by Ian Barbour’s (1998) typology within religion and science, however this essay will only have three divisions. These three divisions are, science a threat to Christianity, harmonizing and different domains/ purposes. The research done in secondary literature proved that no singular solution is suitable being that the subjects’ religion and science are so immense with various perspectives and theories. Understanding and knowledge is what is needed in order for this vast subject to be well-defined. However, if the subject is to become more accurate then it needs to be more all encompassing. This can in turn lead to a clearer understanding of the field religion and science. 

  • Jonasson, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Reidler, William
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Knutby - en ny värld: En religionsbeteendevetenskaplig analys av Sara Svensson2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2004 riktades media mot tätorten Knutby i Uppsalas kommun i Sverige. Sara Svensson, en medlem i den lokala religiösa församlingen, hade skjutit två personer. Denna kvalitativa undersökning formades med hermeneutiken som metodansats. Med Peter L. Berger och Thomas Luckmanns kunskapssociologiska teori och med understöd av Hjalmar Sundéns rollteori som teoretiskt perspektiv tolkades och gavs hennes handlingar en förklaring. Undersökningen visade att Sara Svenssons verklighetsuppfattning kom att förändras i och med intåget i Knutby församling. Hennes religiösa uppfattning och den relation hon hade till andra medlemmar förändrande och utvecklade hennes verklighetsuppfattning till att rättfärdiga de förödande handlingar hon utförde.

  • Al Abdalla, Yazan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Sju & de abrahamitiska religionerna: Ett heligt tal?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Purpose: The study focuses on the number seven in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The purpose of this essay was to find out where in the Holy Scriptures and traditions the number seven can be found and also to understand what purpose the number have in these religions.

     

    Method: In order to answer the purpose of the work, various literature studies were used with previous research on the subject. The studies used gave a deeper understanding of the historical background of the number seven. In addition to literature studies, the religious scriptures, the Bible and the Qur'an were used.

     

    Theory: The theory used in the work is intertextuality. Intertextuality is based on the fact that most texts are based on other texts. Given that the religious scriptures were studied in the paper, this theory was very helpful.

     

    Result: The survey of the religious texts revealed that the number seven addresses the moderation of the creation myth which made the characters in the biblical story use the number seven as a symbol of moderation.

     

    The analysis part led to the second result which is based on intertextuality. This theory tells us that religious scriptures are part of an intertextual chain, for example, the Quran incorporates certain elements from previous writings. The same applies to, for example, the Bible. The result of this is that the religious texts are based on each other which means that the number seven may have been mentioned in early texts as a sacred element and texts that came later on incorporated that theory.

  • Ling, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Sjödin, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hinsides människor i populärkultur: En medieanalys av serien Hemsökt: övernaturliga upplevelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur hinsides människors samvaro med den fysiska människan gestaltas i serien Hemsökt: övernaturliga upplevelser. Medieanalysens resultat utförs ur ett multimodalt perspektiv. Serien är multimodal vilket betyder att flera modaliteter samspelar för att få effekt för ett kommunikativt syfte i hur hinsides människors samvaro gestaltas. I resultatet förekommer det semiotiska resurser i modaliteterna miljö och föremål, kommunikation, fysisk gestaltning av hinsides människan, kamerans position och rörelse, ljus och bild samt ljud och musik som leder till tolkningen att serien som multimodal formar en fiktion så pass nära en människas vardag som om fiktionen blir en skildring av verkligheten. Resultatet diskuteras sedan mot teorin medialisering som beskriver att västvärldens människor har media som den primära källan om information och kunskap i hur världen fungerar. Serien Hemsökt: övernaturliga upplevelser, utifrån teorin medialisering, bevisar att paranormala händelser är mer accepterat och en mer accepterad uppfattning om vad som händer utanför livet som de existentiella frågorna inte når.

  • Wallin, Axel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Antisemitism i Sverige: Hur kommer antisemitismen till uttryck inom alternativhögern i nutida Sverige?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antisemitism is a word connected with the rise of the Third Reich during the 30s and 40s in Europe. But it is still very relevant today with alt-right movements growing and becoming stronger. This essay aims to show how the growing alt-right movements in Sweden expresses their antisemitic ideologies. Studies has shown that antisemitism has become stronger and more spread across Europe and Sweden. This essay will explain different scenarios from the past two years, which are connected to antisemitism in Sweden. These scenarios will later be analysed through different methods. Examples from alt-right websites and twitter accounts will also be presented to contribute to a thorough analysis. Later a parallel will be drawn between the scenarios and the ideologies of the Third Reich.

  • Pehrsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Töyrä, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies. 1988.
    Framtida CFP:s påverkan på nuvarande CSR-investeringar: En kvantitativ studie på 890 europeiska bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The relationship between CSR and CFP has been investigated many times without any conclusion if there is any relationship or not. Because of the lack of conclusion there are different opinions about what motive companies have when they invest in CSR. The research that has been done in the field have focused on two motives: profit maximization- and the philanthropical motive. We have identified a possible third motive to CSR-investments, namely that company’s information about future CFP motivates current investments in CSR. The aim of our study is to investigate if future expected CFP explains current CSR-investments among companies.

     

    Method: Our study is based on a positivistic research philosophy with a hypothesis-deductive approach. The study has a quantitative strategy with a longitudinal design. We have collected data from 890 European companies during the period of 2008-2016 from Thomson Reuters Datastream. We have analyzed the data in the statistical software SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The result of the study indicates that the future CFP explains current CSR-investments. This happens because the company’s private information regarding future CFP influences the commitment to CSR-activities, which make the information-motive the main motive to CSR-investments. The result also shows that companies do not invest in CSR for philanthropic reasons, while a subgroup of companies chooses to invest in CSR with profit maximization as a motive.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study provides a contribution to the research about how different motives drive companies’ decision-making process about CSR-investments through the third identified motive, which is an unexplored field. Different stakeholders can appreciate the knowledge of this motive because of the private information the companies reveal with the CSR-investments that they do.

     

    Suggestions for future research: We have done our study on large public European companies. Future studies in the field should aim non-public companies or specific countries. We suggest a qualitative study to get a more detailed picture about how companies reveal private information in this field.

  • Johansson, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Ring, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sambandet mellan kvinnor i bankstyrelser och bankens kreditbetyg: En kvantitativ studie på banker i Europa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the proportion of women in bank boards in Europe and the banks credit rating. The study has a positivistic approach and is characterized by a quantitative method to respond to the purpose of the study. Furthermore, the study has used a cross sectional design which means that it has observed several cases at a given time.

    The empirical data has been collected partly via the database Thomson Reuters Eikon which present financial data from listed companies worldwide. The study has also collected information about the banks credit rating from the database of Standard & Poor. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis has been completed in order to discover any connections between the dependent variable, credit rating and the independent variable, the proportion of women in the board. The study also presents descriptive statistics together with a correlation analysis over the collected data.

    The result from the study shows a positive correlation between the proportion of female board members in european bank boards and the banks credit rating. This means that if the proportion of women in bank boards increases, the banks credit rating also increases which indicates that the banks credit risk decreases. This result supports previous studies that say that women in boards are more risk averse than men (Arayssi et al., 2016; Huang och Kisgen, 2013).

    Suggestions for further studies within the field is to do a similar study but to study several cases over time which would allow investigation of causality between the variables. Furthermore, it would be interesting to take the board members age into account as previous studies indicates that the risk profile changes depending on age. Another suggestion for further studies is to collect credit ratings from more than S&P in order to investigate if the result may differ from this study. Finally, it could be of interest to consider if the bank has scattered or controlled ownership as these factors can affect the credit rating and thus the credit risk. 

  • Saglind, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Selimi, Egzon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hållbarhetsrapportering: En kvantitativ studie om företag som påverkas av de nya direktiven i årsredovisningslagen väljer att presentera sin hållbarhetsrapport i årsredovisningen eller i en separat publikation.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Sustainability reporting - A quantitative study on how companies affected by the new directives regarding the annual report choose to present their sustainability report either in the annual report or in a separate document.

    Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 HP

    Author: Kristoffer Saglind & Egzon Selimi

    Supervisor: Fredrik Hartwig

    Date: 2019 – Januari

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate whether Swedish companies affected by the new reform (SFS 2016: 947) choose to present their sustainability report in the annual report or in a separate publication. The study also investigates whether industry affiliation, the number of women on the board and leverage can explain if the sustainability report is presented in the annual report or in a separate publication.

    Method: The study is based on a positivist philosophy and applies a deductive approach. In order to respond to the aim of the study a quantitative research strategy has been applied through a content analysis. Thus, hypothesis has been designed to then be tested in a regression analysis. Data collection for the survey has been retrieved from the database Retriever where all companies affected by the new legislation are being investigated.

    Result & Conclusions: The results of the study shows that 45.42% of all the companies investigated choose to place their sustainability report in their annual report, while 54.58% present it in a separate document. Furthermore, the study finds a positive significant correlation between 2 of the 28 investigated industries and integrating the sustainability report into the annual report. The study also finds a positive significant correlation between the number of women on the board and an integrated sustainability report. Finally, leverage show no significant correlation in the study.

    Contribution of the thesis: The practical contribution of the study is that the probability is higher that more women present on the board makes the probability higher that the sustainability report is included in the annual report. Furthermore, companies active in the sectors of "business services" and "real estate activities" tend to place the sustainability report in the annual report. The theoretical contribution is that there is a positive significant correlation between the factors number of women on the board, and to some extent the industry of the company in integrating the sustainability report in the annual report. Furthermore, the factors leverage and company size did not find any significant correlation and therefore can not explain anything.

    Suggestions for future research:  We propose that further research should investigate whether other factors can explain where a company chooses to place its sustainability report. Furthermore, we suggest that further research should investigate how it differs between different countries where a similar regulation exists. This study should then use the same independent variables to make the study comparable.

  • Duberg, Michael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hellberg, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Obligatorisk hållbarhetsrapportering och dess påverkan på mängden hållbarhetsinformation: En kvantitativ studie på svenska företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explain how the quantity of sustainability information companies issue is affected when sustainability reporting is mandatory.

    Method: This study is based on a quantitative method with a positivistic view and applies a deductible research effort. The data in this study have been collected through a content analysis and secondary analysis. To analyze the data we have used descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis.

    Conclusion: In this study we have come to the conclusion that the introduction of mandatory sustainability reporting leads to companies reporting more sustainability information, which we explain by means of coercive isomorphism.

    Contribution: In this study we confirm previous studies which conclude that sustainability disclosure is affected by sustainability reforms. We also confirm that coercive isomorphism may be a reason why companies report more after a reform. Our practical contribution is that reforms can be an effective way of getting companies to report more sustainability information.

    Suggestion for further research: Suggestion for further research is to study more specific how the sanction affect the quantity of sustainability information firms report. We would also suggest to research if the increase in sustainability information is temporary or permanent.

  • Samuelsson, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sandå, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Har hållbarhetsrapporternas granskningsnivå förändras efter reformeringen av årsredovisningslagen?: - En kvantitativ studie på 1 730 svenska aktiebolag.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the level of review of sustainability reports has changed due to mandatory regulation, namely the reform of the Swedish årsredovisningslagen 2016. The study also seeks answers to whether industry affiliation, size and leverage can explain the level of review of sustainability reports.

    Method: We apply a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive approach. To answer the purpose of the study, a quantitative method with a longitudinal design has been applied. We have conducted a content analysis of 1730 Swedish companies' annual reports and sustainability reports for the years 2016 and 2017. Based on previous research and theories, hypotheses have been formed and tested using a logistic regression analysis.

    Results & conclusion: The result of the study shows that in the case of mandatory regulation of sustainability reporting, the companies tend to comply with the law. We can also show that the level of review on the sustainability reports has changed after the introduction of the mandatory regulation. The proportion of sustainability reports that have undergone an extended review has decreased after the introduction of the mandatory regulation. Our results also show that there is no significant connection with the level of scrutiny. 

    Contribution of the thesis: The study can contribute both theoretically and practically. The theoretical contribution can be attributed to the regulatory compliance, that the Swedish companies covered by the regulation follow the regulation, and thus show a high regulatory compliance with the regulation on sustainability reporting. The practical contribution is that the management who is responsible for the review of the sustainability report can make use of our study in the decision-making on which level of examination is to be used. 

    Suggestions for future research: Since our study only measured the outcome of the regulation before and immediately after the introduction of the regulation, there is a need to see if the time will affect an increase among the companies to follow the regulation. Further research could also use other independent factors to try to explain the company's choice of audit level to the sustainability reports.

  • Hollström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Törnqvist, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kulturens modererande effekt på sambandet mellan andelen kvinnliga styrelseledamöter och CSP: En kvantitativ studie på 673 börsnoterade företag i Europa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: As the awareness of consumers and other stakeholders increases, higher demands on

    Corporate Social Performance (CSP) are required to keep the companies successful. These

    increased requirements have contributed to new restrictions and law on reporting non-financial

    information, for which corporate governance is responsible. The increased reporting requirement

    also mean that some major companies should report on their diversity. This study aims at

    investigating the relationship between female board members and CSP as well as whether national

    cultural features have a moderating effect on the relationship.

    Method: The study applies a positivistic research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductible

    approach. The study has a quantitative research strategy and a longitudinal research design carried

    out with data for the six-year period 2012-2017 for 673 public European companies. The study is

    based on secondary data retrieved from the Thomson Reuters Datastream, which is then analyzed in

    the IBM SPSS statistics program.

    Result & Conclusion: The studys results show that there is a positive link between female board

    members and CSP, and that national cultural features have a moderating effect on this relationship.

    The result indicates that women's power in the board when it comes to CSR activities is influenced

    by national cultural features.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes from a theoretical perspective to business

    research by examining the impact of national cultural features on the relationship between female

    board members and CSP, thereby increasing knowledge about the subject. This study provides

    practically important information for companies that want to improve their social performance.

    Suggestion for future research: In this study, we have studied only the moderating effect of

    cultural on the relationship between female board members and total CSP. It would be interesting to

    see the effect on the respective dimension of CSP in order to determine if there is any difference

    between them. There is also the possibility of conducting a similar study but including countries

    from more continents.

  • Alfredsson, Pierre
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wikström, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Styrelsens könsfördelning och dess effekt på företagets hållbarhetsprestation: en kvantitativ studie om förhållandet mellan BGD och CSP hos europeiska bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study is carried out in order to investigate whether there is a link between BGD (Board Gender Diversity) and total CSP (Corporate Social Performance) as well as between BGD and the environmental and social dimension respectively.

     

    Method: In this study we adopt a positivist research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductive approach. Two samples with different board systems are studied. 403 European companies in total are studied. 121 companies with a two-tier board system and 282 companies with a one-tier board system. The quantitative research strategy is based on a longitudinal design implemented between 2008-2017. All data was collected through Thomson Reuters Datastream and then analyzed using SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study finds a significant positive relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension respectively. Companies with higher BGD seems to be more likely to invest in CSR. The relationship is found within the two-tier board system as well as the one-tier board system. However, the impact of BGD is stronger within the one-tier board system.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study provides new knowledge about the relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension. The study is among the first to make a comparison between the two-tier board system and the one-tier board system. The result is relevant in view of the increasing demands on companies to act sustainably as well as the ongoing debate on whether the EU should introduce mandatory gender quotas on boards.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Further research at country and industry level is needed as the relationship may differ between different countries and industries, thus affecting the logic behind mandatory gender quotas. Future research is also proposed to include the third board system, mixed board structure. Furthermore, the proposal to look more closely at the corporate risk and its importance within various board systems, partly with regard to the companies’ sustainability performance, but also with regard to BGD, is given. Finally, it is proposed that future research could investigate the individual CSP dimensions more closely in order to determine what may be behind BGDs greater impact on the social dimension.

     

  • Rydén, Tatiana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öman, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att vårda person med demenssjukdom i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    I Sverige finns det cirka 160 000 personer med demenssjukdom. Av dessa uppskattas ungefär 8000-9000 personer vara under 65 år. Tillsammans med anhöriga är omkring 1 000 000 drabbade av demenssjukdom och dess följdeffekter. Allt fler äldre och sjuka bor kvar i hemmet och anhörigas vårdinsatser i hemmet ökar. Genom att tillämpa familjefokuserad omvårdnad kan sjuksköterskan stödja hela familjen och på så sätt främja hälsan.

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att belysa anhörigas upplevelser av att vårda en nära anhörig med demenssjukdom i hemmet, samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupper i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Metod:

    En beskrivande litteraturstudie som inkluderade tolv vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes fram i databaserna Cinahl och PubMed.

    Huvudresultat:

    Problem som anhöriga upplevde, gäller både problem i vardagen, förändring i familjens funktion, relationer och anhörigas känslor och reaktioner. Vårdandet ledde till att de anhöriga kände sig ensamma och isolerade. Några upplevde en brist på information och stöd, andra ansåg att supportgrupper och att träffa andra som befann sig i samma situation som stödjande. Anhöriga upplevde även en oro och rädsla inför framtiden. Några nämnde positiva aspekter som kommit av vårdandet. I artiklarna som utgör resultatet var det mellan 6-42 deltagare, de flesta deltagarna var kvinnor, åldersspannet var mellan 25-88 år och vård längden varierade mellan 1-14 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Anhöriga var i stort behov av avlastning. Det är därför viktigt att sjukvården känner till anhörigas upplevelser och skapar en tillit till dem, så att de törs överlämna vårdandet av sin närstående och nyttjar den hjälp som samhället har att erbjuda. En omvårdnadsåtgärd som sjuksköterskan kan använda sig av är hälsostödjande samtal. Genom samtalet kan sjuksköterskan hjälpa familjens att inspektera de resurser som finns inom och utanför familjen.

  • Varzandeh, Navid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    New immobilizer concept based on Scania’s electrical platform2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilizers are security systems that are set up and installed in modern vehicles in order to prevent thieves from starting the vehicles. The idea is that if any wrong keys are used to start the vehicle, the immobilizer detects the wrong key and start the immobilization procedure to stop the vehicle from turning on.

    The vehicle ignition key (key transponder or key fob) is one of the important components in an immobilizer system. An ignition key in an immobilizer system has a Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) chip inside it. This RFID chip holds a specific encryption algorithm and particular number of bits (encryption key bits) in itself. Using the encryption algorithm and encryption key bits, RFID chip inside the key authenticates and identifies itself as the right key to the immobilizer system in order to disable the immobilization procedure and start the vehicle.

    However, there are two ways thieves can disable the immobilization procedure and start the vehicle. The first approach is by discovering the specific encryption algorithm and key bits in the right key transponder (RFID) and using them to duplicate the correct RFID chip to disable the immobilization procedure and start the vehicle. The second approach is by exploiting the vulnerabilities and weaknesses in vehicle security network (CAN bus) to bypass the immobilizer and manipulate the immobilization procedure to start the vehicle.

    Scania vehicles are not using the most secure RFID and immobilization procedures, hence they are vulnerable to two vehicle theft approaches above.

    Therefore in this thesis project, I have done research and investigation on Scania vehicles key transponder (RFID) and analyzed their immobilization procedures in order to identify the roots and origins of vulnerabilities in Scania RFID and immobilization procedures.

    As the first result of this thesis work, I have found and proposed an RFID chip having one of the strongest encryption algorithms and proper number of encryption key bits for all Scania vehicles. As the second result of this thesis project, I have proposed and introduced two new individual immobilization procedures exclusively for Scania hybrid and electrical vehicles.

    Both proposed RFID (encryption algorithm) and immobilization procedures will be implemented in Scania vehicles in near future and will increase the security of Scania immobilizers significantly.

  • Lundqvist, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Aldous Huxley’s Dichotomized Beginning towards Spirituality: An Analysis of Religious Aspects in Crome Yellow2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is an analysis of the religious aspects of Crome Yellow. The main focus is to discover what Aldous Huxley’s views on religion were at the time he wrote Crome Yellow and to explore how Huxley’s contemporary surroundings influenced his views on religion. Huxley was born into a family and a society where there was a conflict between science and religion and this conflict together with the crises of his early life, came to affect him greatly. This essay conducts an analysis of Crome Yellow by utilizing Peter Berger’s theory of social construction, which includes information about Huxley’s contemporary surroundings. Huxley seems to have been ambiguous towards religion. He was concerned about the future of society and opposed to organized religion. He was longing for answers and meaning, and he had begun to form a spiritual belief where colour and light are central. These spiritual aspects can be seen as the beginning of Huxley’s spiritual enlightenment.

  • Lindholm, Helene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Sahlberg, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Musikhandledning: - Ett pedagogiskt verktyg i förskoleverksamheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att skapa ett pedagogiskt redskap i form av en musikhandledning för att ge förskollärare och andra yrkesverksamma ett hjälpmedel för lärande och utveckling i musikaktiviteter med barn. Musikhandledningen har utformats för att uppmärksamma barns utveckling i samband med musik och har sedan prövats och utvärderats av åtta förskoleavdelningar. Förskollärare och barnskötare på avdelningarna har besvarat en enkät och deras åsikter har sedan analyserats och diskuterats. Resultaten visar att musikhandledningen gav inspiration samt underlättade för musikaktiviteter tillsammans med barn och kan användas som ett återkommande pedagogiskt redskap i förskoleverksamheten. 

  • Gunnarsson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Hernandez Campos, Doris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Förskollärarnas uppfattning om jämställdhetsarbete2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förskollärarnas uppfattning om jämställdhet i förskolan. Detta undersöktes genom individuella intervjuer med sju förskollärare på tre olika förskolor i Gävleborgs län och i Stockholms län. Vi ville undersöka hur förskollärarna arbetar i sina arbetslag för att sträva efter en jämställd förskola samt ta del av förskollärarnas eget intresse och erfarenheter om jämställdhet. Studien visade att jämställdhetsarbetet handlade om att alla barn ska få samma möjligheter och rättigheter i förskolan. Materialet som framkom under intervjuerna med förskollärarna transkriberades och analyserades. Detta resulterade i att förskollärarnas uppfattning om jämställdhetsarbetet kategoriserades efter olika teman. Dessa teman är: könsroller, arbetet med jämställdhet i barngrupp, förskollärarnas tankar om jämställdhetsarbetet i verksamheten och att rusta inför framtiden med jämställdhetsarbetet. I studie lyfts även läroplanens (Skolverket, 2018) mål och riktlinjer som förskollärarna förhåller sig till i jämställdhetsarbetet samt forskning som belyser om jämställdhet.