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  • Walter, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Blomström, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    "Vad kan jag säga?": Att möta patienter med suicidalt beteende inom akutsjukvården - sjuksköterskors attityder och upplevelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND. Every year, 800,000 suicides are carried out in the world and in Sweden suicidal behaviour is the most common cause of death among individuals 15 to 44 years. The nurse's specific expertise in emergency care consists of the patient's care, a task which the suicidal patients state requires a positive attitude and the opportunity to devote time to the patient. Despite this, this patient group states that they are addressed by sentencing nurses with a lack of understanding. But how do nurses experience this meeting and their attitude towards this patient group? AIM. The aim of this general literature review was to describe nurses’ attitudes to and experiences of meeting patients with suicidal behaviour in emergency care. METHOD. The study's design is a descriptive general literature review. Articles were searched in CINAHL and MEDLINE via PubMed and 12 articles were included in the results. RESULTS. The study showed that nurses in emergency care generally held positive attitudes towards patients with suicidal behaviour. Negative attitudes were also described, which could be influenced by the nurses' own moral and religious values. The encounter between nurse and suicidal patient created great frustration among the nurses, due to lack of time and environmental adjustment for patients with suicidal behaviour, as well as the feeling of not having the knowledge and skills needed to care for this patient group. CONCLUSION. Nurses need education in suicidal behaviour to influence their attitude and experience of meeting this patient group. 

    KEYWORDS: suicidal behavior, nurses, attitudes, emergency care 

  • Bergh, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sievers, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom den psykiatriska slutenvården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:Within the psychiatric inpatient care in Sweden, about one in five patients are cared for against their will, according to the Act on Psychiatric Forcible Care (LPT). Suffering from mental illness and being subjected to obsessive-compulsive care is a life-changing event for patients. It is desirable to improve coercive care and reduce the incidence of coercive measures. To be able to do that, and to be able to provide the best possible care as a nurse, a deeper understanding of patients experience of coercion is required.

    Aim: To describe patients experiences of coercion in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on 13 scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: The results were presented in five categories and showed that many patients have similar experiences of compulsive care. Coercion was often described as the right measure to protect the patient or others, but many patients felt that it was performed incorrectly. Negative experiences mentioned were lack of information and communication, not being able to participate in their own care or being treated as a diagnosis by the staff. However, responsive, empathetic and helpful staff, adequate information on illness and treatment, the sense of participation and autonomy as well as a pleasant external environment and flexible rules were described as positive experiences and favorable to the recovery process.

    Conclusion: Patients often described both good and bad experiences of compulsive care. In order to provide the best possible care, and to minimize the risk of coercive measures, it is important for the nurse to know and understand patients' experiences of compulsive care. Then the patients suffering can be reduced and their recovery can be promoted.

     

  • Hultin, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Unga vuxna och användandet av sociala medier: Tankar och reflektioner av att ständigt vara uppkopplad.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the age group 16-25 years, the internet is the strongest source of information. This age group is also the main users of social media. Social media can have a lot of positive effects. But studies have also shown that the use of some social media may have negative health results for young adults.Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to study the reflections, thoughts and experiences of young adults about social media and its use. The ages studied in this study are 15-30 years.Design and method: The study was conducted via a quantitative cross-sectional study using surveys via Facebook, the questionnaire was designed with 16 questions about how young adults use social media, why and how much. The survey was on Facebook for three days and generated a total of 142 responses.

    Result: The results of the survey showed that all but one used social media. Almost twice as many women as men have answered the questionnaire. The vast majority use social media about one to four hours a day. But they also evoke attitudes and experiences around social media.

    Conclusion: Many young adults use social media several times a day, where they constantly share other people's values ​​and norms. Social media affects young adults in different ways and to varying degrees. Most people are positively or negatively affected or even both, and yet most of them use social media anyway. However, this study does not answer why or in what way social media affects us because it was not the purpose of the study to investigate this.

  • Ekh, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Häggström, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Patienters upplevelser och erfarenheter av digital vård.: En litteraturstudie.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Samhället är under ständig utveckling, inte minst när det gäller teknologin och digitala lösningar. Digital vård har funnits sedan 1950-talet men har fortsatt utvecklas. Idag har de flesta patienter varit i kontakt med den digitala vården på ett eller annat sätt. För att kunna utnyttja de digitala hjälpmedel som finns är god kommunikation och ett gemensamt språk av betydelse.

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva patienters upplevelser och erfarenheter av digital vård. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar, 5 med kvalitativ ansats och 7 med kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: Studiens resultat visade på både styrkor och svagheter i att söka vård digitalt, även användandet kring digitala hjälpmedel. Det som framkom tydligast var patienternas upplevelse av tillgängligheten, tack vare tekniken som möjliggjorde uppföljningar både när det gällde att vårda patienter i hemmet och modet att utföra egenvård. Kommunikationen var kärnan som ledde till ökad trygghetskänsla hos patienten. Svagheter som framkom var teknikens sårbarhet,  uppkopplingar som inte fungerade eller andra problem med de tekniska hjälpmedlen och att patienten inte kunde nå sina vårdare, bidrog till oro.  

    Slutsats: Det framkom i studien att upplevelserna av digital vård skiljde sig hos de olika patientgrupperna. Det som utmärkte sig tydligt var den yngre generationen, de kände en större tillförlitlighet i användandet av digital kommunikation. En annan utmärkande patientgrupp var de som valde att vända sig till sin religion för vägledning i hälsofrågor iställetför till vårdpersonal.

  • Goude, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Svedberg, Zara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Att vårda någon med tvång: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom psykiatrin2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Sweden approximately 12 000 men and women are treated with forced care annually. Forced care is regulated by laws and may only be given to persons who are considered a danger to themselves or their surroundings. This form of care aims to maintain safety for both the patient and the surroundings, the goal is always for the patient to receive voluntary care. Caring for someone with coercion is complex and can lead to difficult situations for nurses, therefore care should be performed as careful as possible to promote patient autonomy and participation. 

    Aim To describe the experiences of nurses working with involuntary treatment in psychiatric care. 

    Method The study was conducted with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the databases PubMed, Cinahl och PsychINFO. Ten qualitative articles and one quantitative article were used the study’s result. The articles have been analyzed and then themes and subthemes have been distinguished.

    Results The result showed that nurses lack alternatives to coercive measures and this has led to ethical dilemmas and negative emotions. Despite this, nurses understood the purpose of the coercive measures and it was seen as a part of the work. Compulsive care was descibed as having a negative impact on health care relationships, and thus the importance of a good and trusting relationship between nurse and patient was also described. The results were descibed in three themes and four subthemes. 

    Conclusions Based on the results of the present literature study, the authors have concluded that there are shared opinions about the view of forced care in nurses. In summary the authors conclude that there was a desire for possible alternatives to coercive measures and more research is needed on the subject. 

    Keywords Compulsory care, Coercive measures, Nurse

  • Randmaa, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Uppsala university; Lishui university, China.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Uppsala university.
    Leo Swenne, Christine
    Uppsala university.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Psychometric properties of an instrument measuring communication within and between the professional groups licensed practical nurses and registered nurses in anaesthetic clinics.2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The most common cause of clinical incidents and adverse events in relation to surgery is communication error. There is a shortage of studies on communication between registered nurses and licenced practical nurses as well as of instruments to measure their perception of communication within and between the professional groups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the adapted ICU Nurse-Physician Questionnaire, designed to also measure communication within and between two professional groups: licensed practical nurses and registered nurses. Specifically, the aim was to examine the instrument's construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and its internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. The setting was anaesthetic clinics in two Swedish hospitals. A total of 316 questionnaires were delivered during spring 2011, of which 195 were analysed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha. To assess items with missing values, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of two sets of data, and to assess the assumption of normally distributed data, we used Bayesian estimation.

    RESULTS: The results support the construct validity and internal consistency of the adapted ICU Nurse-Physician Questionnaire. Model fit indices for the confirmative factor analysis were acceptable, and estimated factor loadings were reasonable. There were no large differences between the estimated factor loadings when comparing the two samples, suggesting that items with missing values did not alter the findings. The estimated factor loadings from Bayesian estimation were very similar to the maximum likelihood results. This indicates that confirmative factor analysis using maximum likelihood produced reliable factor loadings. Regarding internal consistency, alpha values ranged from 0.72 to 0.82.

    CONCLUSIONS: The tests of the adapted ICU Nurse-Physician Questionnaire indicate acceptable construct validity and internal consistency, both of which need to be further tested in new settings and samples.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials http://www.controlled-trials.com Communication and patient safety in anaesthesia and intensive care. Does implementation of SBAR make any differences? Identifier: ISRCTN37251313, retrospectively registered (assigned 08/11/2012).

  • Marquardt, Isak
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Exploaterigs- och markanvisningsavtalens roll i bristen på LSS-boenden: Knivsta, Norrtälje, Gävle och Uppsala kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade (LSS) är en lag med en rad olika bestämmelser som ger personer med vissa funktionsnedsättningar en lagstadgad rätt att få hjälp i vardagen. En av de viktigaste bestämmelserna i denna lag säger att dessa personer har rätt till en bostad med service i den kommun de bor i. Det är kommunens skyldighet att förse dessa personer med ett LSS-boende och även att betala för det. Många av Sveriges kommuner har dock brist på dessa boenden, vilket betyder att människor som har en lagstadgad rätt att få ett boende tilldelat av kommunen inte får det.

    Bristen på LSS-boenden visar att byggandet inte har varit tillräckligt, vilket kan tyckas märkligt eftersom kommunerna har stora möjligheter att påverka byggandet både genom sitt planmonopol och ägande av mark. I studien genomförs en undersökning om kommuner med hjälp av exploaterings- och markanvisningsavtal kan öka byggandet av dessa boenden. Avtalen är ett avtal mellan kommunen och en privat aktör som reglerar bebyggelsen på ett bestämt markområde. Genom dessa avtal skulle kommunerna potentiellt kunna stimulera byggande av LSS-boenden och de skulle därmed kunna vara till stor hjälp för kommunerna för att få bukt med bristen.

    I detta arbete har en undersökning skett av hur kommunerna använder exploaterings- och markanvisningsavtal för att hantera bristen på LSS-boenden och vilka komplikationer som finns för kommunerna när de reglerar in LSS-bostäder dessa avtal. Studien visar att markanvisningsavtal används aktivt för att hantera problemet, men att det finns svårigheter med det. En faktor som försvårar är LOU som kräver att en offentlig upphandling behöver ske om kommunen ska ingå ett avtal med en entreprenör om att hyra eller köpa ett LSS-boende som entreprenören bygger. Kommunen kan därför inte binda sig att hyra eller köpa när ett markanvisningsavtal ingås. För byggarna innebär detta en ökad osäkerhet som kan påverka byggandet. En annan risk som byggarna tar är om det är oklart vilka krav och önskemål kommunerna har på LSS-boenden. Den här osäkerheten kan dock hanteras genom att kommunerna tydliggör sina intentioner, krav och önskemål i program eller riktlinjer. Kraven på avstånd mellan olika LSS-boenden är också något som begränsar möjligheterna att tillgodose behovet av LSS-boenden.

  • Willmer, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 9-Item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a Multi-Occupational Female Sample: A Cross-Sectional Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure of the 9-item Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES-9) in a multi-occupational female sample.

    Methods: A total of 702 women, originally recruited as a general population of 7–15-year-old girls in 1995 for a longitudinal study, completed the UWES-9. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on half the sample, and CFA on the other half.

    Results: Exploratory factor analysis showed that a one-factor structure best fit the data. CFA with three different models (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor) was then conducted. Goodness-of-fit statistics showed poor fit for all three models, with RMSEA never going lower than 0.166.

    Conclusion: Despite indication from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) that a one-factor structure seemed to fit the data, we were unable to find good model fit for a one-, two-, or three-factor model using CFA. As previous studies have also failed to reach conclusive results on the optimal factor structure for the UWES-9, further research is needed in order to disentangle the possible effects of gender, nationality and occupation on work engagement.

  • Fredin Buske, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Jonsson, Marlene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom den psykiatriska heldygnsvården -en beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: All vård ska ges på lika villkor och alltid med respekt för människors rätt till autonomi och integritet. Psykiatrisk tvångsvård krävs i de fall när det finns behov av heldygnsvård på sjukhus, att personen motsätter sig frivillig vård eller att personen lider av en allvarlig psykisk störning. Mer kunskap om patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård kan bidra till en större förståelse hos personalen inom vården. Syfte: Att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom den psykiatriska heldygnsvården. Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie. Tio vetenskapliga kvalitativa artiklar användes i resultatet. Hildegard Peplau´s teori om interpersonliga relationer har använts som teoretisk referensram. Huvudresultat: Resultatet visade mestadels negativa erfarenheter av tvångsvård, där det mest centrala handlade om personalen och patienternas relationer. Patienter önskade mer tillit, ha godare kommunikation och bli bemötta med respekt av personalen. En stor del handlade om förlorad självständighet samt brist på autonomi, information och delaktighet. Det framkom att tvångsåtgärder även kunde leda till negativa följder efter vårdtidens slut. Resultatet beskrevs i fyra teman: Patienters erfarenheter av information och dess betydelse, Patienters erfarenheter av relationer mellan patient och personal, Patienters erfarenheter av livet efter tvångsvård och Patienters reflektioner efter erfaren tvångsvård. Slutsats: Tvångsvård innebär att patientens autonomi, värdighet och delaktighet i vården inte alltid kan tillgodoses. Huruvida patienter upplever erfarenheter som positiva eller negativa beror mycket på vilken relation de har till personalen. Engagerad personal samt en god kommunikation kan bidra till en förbättrad kvalitet av vården.

  • Knarrström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Jackson, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Äldres upplevelser av att leva med depression: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is a common disorder in the world, especially elderly are particularly exposed. It is expected to become the second most common disability after heart disease within a couple of decades. Because of atypical symptoms it is not always identified and thus underdiagnosed and undertreated, particularly in the elderly community.

    Aim: The aim of this litterature-review was to describe the experiences of depressionthe elderly.

    Method: A descriptive litterature-review compiling and analyzing the results of thirteenqualitative studies.

    Main Result: Themes identified were Impact on emotional life, Experience of shameand stigmatization, Views on treatment and recovery, Togetherness and meaningfulnessand The family’s role in recovery. Several studies have shown that the elderly did not understand the impact of thedisorder on their thoughts and feelings. They recognized that misconceptions about thedisorder were widespread within their age group and acknowledged that their ownprevious unfamiliarity with depression lead to a lack of understanding. They sourced this to be a leading factor in the stigmatization of the disorder alongside with a fear ofbeing associated with lunacy. To be able to share experiences with friends and familywere key to combat feelings of loneliness commonly associated with depression.

    Conclusion: The litterature-review revealed that the experience of stigmatization and feelings of loneliness were central to the elderly’s experience of depression. To improve treatment and ease the experience, it was useful to dispel false beliefs and misconceptions about the disorder and to include family when family-relations were deemed good and nurturing.

  • Björklund, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Shumina, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld mot äldre anses vara en enstaka eller upprepad handling som orsakar skada eller smärta hos en äldre person. Personer som blir gamla kan behöva ökad hjälp av andra människor för att klara sin vardag. Äldre personer med multipla sjukdomar blir lätt beroende av vårdpersonalen. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie bestående av nio artiklar, tre med kvantitativ ansats samt sex med kvalitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev att mötet med en våldsutsatt äldre väckte många känslor, där känslan av maktlöshet och otillräcklighet var mest påträffad. Sjuksköterskor var överens om att det finns ett behov av att hjälpa vårdpersonal att hantera misshandel och försummelse av äldre. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver nya riktlinjer och utbildning gällande rapportering samt hur man vårdar de våldsutsatta äldre. Genom att införa fler resurser kan man minska arbetsbelastningen för varje enskild sjuksköterska och på så sätt minska på den arbetsrelaterade stress som kan leda till misshandel och försummelse.

  • Hemlin, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sasse, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av palliativ vård av barn på sjukhus: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The main purpose in palliative care is relieve of symptoms from conditions that’s not curable. For children, these conditions can be cancer or some neurologic diseases. Getting palliative care as a child is a right according to WHO. The children wanted their parents. The parents felt that they lost their parental role when their children were cared for palliatively. The parents had different views on how a nurse in palliative child care should be, and how the care should be conducted. The nurse's task is to relieve symptoms and support both children and parents in a family-centered care.

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences with palliative care of children in hospitals.

    Method A descriptive literature study that identified 11 articles through the databases Medline via PubMed and Cinahl. These articles have been analyzed and thematized for this literature study.

    Results Nurses felt that nursing was conducted unequally, as a result of inadequate guidelines. There were also ethical dilemmas in palliative child care, which could be about communication problems, and that nurses felt that some children were over-cared for. Nurses experienced emotional difficulties, which were best processed through debriefing. Main categories identified were; The Nurses experience of Prerequisites in Palliative Child Care, Ethical Dilemmas, Over-Care, Emotional Load, At the End of Life and Debriefing.

    Conclusion Nurses experienced uncertainty in working with children in palliative care, due to lack of guidelines, education and knowledge. Ethical dilemmas arose in the care, and the nurses could experience emotional difficulties that can affect nursing. Therefore, the nurses need time for reflection to be able to perform Nursing of the children.

     

  • Bjerking, Mandella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    I fotbollen får mannen slå tillbaka: En historisk studie av den sociala kulturens förändring inom fotbollen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en historisk litteraturstudie av en förändring i Sveriges mansideal under sekelskiftet. Författaren har uppmärksammat en destruktivitet i dagens sociala manskultur inom fotboll och annan lagsport, där en exkluderande och våldsfrämjande mansnorm råder. Hon söker svar på hur det gick till när kyrkans inflytande på manlig fostran minskade och hur detta har samband med att fotbollen etablerades i Sverige. 

     

    I arbetet studeras vad som hände med det kristna mansidealet när män på grund av den industriella och vetenskapliga revolutionen flyttades från kyrka och hushåll till fabriker, byggarbeten och akademier. Studien omfattar även hur fotbollen gjorde entré bland de unga männen när fäderna inte längre fanns närvarande i landets hushåll. Arbetet ger en grundläggande inblick i det socioekonomiska samhällets uppkomst och konsekvenser, en ny uppdelning mellan de binära könen samt vad som gick män förlorat när samhällsstrukturen förändrades under den industriella och vetenskapliga revolutionen. 

     

    Studien lutar sig mot begreppen sekularisering och hegemonisk maskulinitet. I arbetet framgår att män hamnade i utanförskap och minskat maktinflytande då de separerades från kyrka och hushåll. Framför allt män i arbetarklassen fick utstå ett förtryck där de dagligen förnedrades i sin samhällsposition. Fotbollen introducerades av medelklassen som ett sätt att fostra arbetarklassens unga män då dessa uppfattades som lösaktiga och ovårdade. Snart blev fotbollen en plats som ersatte utanförskapet och förtrycket med klassöverskridande manlig gemenskap och som stärkte mäns självförtroende genom att bekräfta en fysisk överlägsenhet.

  • Donoyan, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Wahlberg, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan 2D- och 3D-fastigheter för station och spårsträcka i upphöjt läge2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This document is a degree project written at the University of Gavle.

    By station and track section in elevated position is meant that they lie on a plane above the ground surface. Previously, ground planes in the air with the help of 3D properties have never been implemented in Sweden.

    Today, relatively few 3D properties are formed in Sweden in comparison to how many properties there are in total. This study aims to investigate which property formation is most appropriate and what advantages there are with using 3D or traditional 2D properties for a station and track section in elevated position.

    In order to get answers to the questions, the thesis work was initiated with a literature review and then interviews and the collection of legal acts were applied. These collections were later compiled in a result of what advantages are available with 2D and 3D-properties, respectively, and what is most appropriate for a station and track section in elevated position.

    The authors examined a planned railway station and track section in elevated position in Norrkoping municipality in connection with the implementation of Ostlanken. Ostlanken is a railway project for double-track high-speed rail between Stockholm and Linkoping. The purpose of Ostlanken is to increase the capacity for rail traffic for both passenger and freight traffic and to expand a new strain path. It is an investment in environmentally friendly communications and faster trains that contribute to sustainable travel and transport. The property for the future railway station in Norrkoping has not yet been formed and this study will be the basis for decisions. The study was designed to apply generally to railway tracks in elevated position and can be applied to similar cases like that in Norrkoping municipality.

    The authors compared which property formation is most appropriate for a station and track section in elevated position. The conclusion is that 3D properties have more advantages and benefits compared to a traditional 2D property and associated easements, which means that 3D properties should be used for such an infrastructure project as a railway station in elevated position.

  • Jonsson, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Öhman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hur personer med hypotyreos upplever sin livskvalité2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. Every year, people get sick with the disease and most commonly, women are affected. Being affected by hypothyroidism means that there is a lack of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and makes the energy production goes to a low saver. Competence requirements are imposed on the nurse in the caring process of patients with hypothyroidism as the consequences of the disease may appear diffuse and difficult to measure. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe how people with hypothyroidism experience their quality of life. Method: This study is a descriptive literature study. Eleven articles with both qualitative and quantitative design have been analyzed and divided into themes and sub-themes. Main Results: People with hypothyroidism experienced neither a better quality of life nor improvements in thyroidrelated symptoms despite being medicated. The feeling of these people was that they felt weak, powerless, drained of energy and that their daily activities were limited. A feeling of misunderstanding was experienced in health care when the doctors focused mainly on the person's test results. Although the doctor mentioned that the blood values were within reference, people with hypothyroidism felt that a number of symptoms remained. Conclusion: People with hypothyroidism expressed dissatisfaction with their experience of quality of life, their medication and even the care relationship. Living with hypothyroidism meant that you could have remaining symptoms despite medication and the quality of life for these people was adversely affected. Through an increased understanding of this complex illness, the nurse could contribute with greater security and help these people by creating a better care relationship. 

  • Forsell Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hedblom, Anna-Carin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hur mödrar upplever postpartum depression och mötet med vården2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the major changes in our lives. It is, in most cultures, perceived as a joyful experience. For some motherhood can instead become a time when they feel anxious, depressed and emotionally labile. These emotions normally pass over a period of a few weeks. But for some this turns into a postpartum depression. The guilt and shame often turns people away from seeking help and therefore the depression goes undiagnosed. Purpose: To describe the maternal experience of being affected by a postpartum Depression and describe how they experienced the meeting with caregivers. Method: The thesis work was done as a literature study built on 13 scientific articles, all with qualitative approach. The database Cinahl, PubMed and PsycINFO were used, with the restrictions peer-reviewed, Max 10 years, available via HiG. Mainresult: The most commonfeelings were guilt and concern that something might happen to the child. The nurse's attitude was of great importance to whether the mothers felt confident enough to share their thoughts and feelings. The mothers hope was that the nurse would bring up postnatal depression, and by doing so the mothers would dare to open up more about their own feelings. Because of this, the mothers wished to meet with the same nurse every time. Conclusion: In order to give women suffering from postnatal depression the best possible care, nurses need more knowledge in the field. Women avoid seeking help as they usually do not know where to turn and therefore it is important that the first meeting with the nurse will make women feel safe. Mothers want the nurse to have an empathetic attitude to create a safe environment. With knowledgeable caregivers, the relationship between them and the mothers will be strengthened.

    Keywords: Mother, Postpartum depression, Experience

  • Fure, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Signe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Att beskriva livskvalitet hos personer med palliativ vård2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When cure is no longer possible, palliative care begins. Palliative care is about creating conditions so that the person with palliative care and his or her relatives experience the highest possible quality of life. To meet people who are dying and care for them is an inevitable part of the nursing profession. Descriptions of quality of life by persons with palliative care is therefore an important source of knowledge for nurses. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how persons with palliative care experience quality of life. Method: A descriptive literature review based on 13 scientific articles. All the included articles had a qualitative approach and were found through the PubMed database. Main results: Persons with palliative care described that their mindset changed after the onset of the disease. This was seen as a strategy for managing the disease and to increase the quality of life. Something that further increased the quality of life was to maintain relationships with friends and relatives and to be surrounded by family. The main reason for decreased quality of life was describes as when symptoms appeared and when the disease was experienced to control the persons life. Conclusion: To suffer from an incurable disease and receive palliative care affected the quality of life. The experience of quality of life could both increase and decrease during the course of the disease and having a nurse with a holistic approach towards the person with palliative care was essential to maintain quality of life. 

  • Takanen, Jenna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Dixon, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Från bokmal till digital fjäril: En kvalitativ studie om den tryckta bokens värde i förhållande till ljudböcker2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ovsiannikov, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Liewendahl, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Transpersoner och icke-binäras erfarenheter och upplevelser av hälso-och sjukvården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transgender and non-binary people are a stigmatized group within the society. Members of this group often experience a deep sense of exclusion, and are statistically over-representeded in mental healthcare. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how nurses providing care in these situations should appropriately behave and interact in meetings with transgender and non-binary people in healthcare. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of transgender and non-binary people in meetings with healthcare providers. Method: The study is based on a literature review with a descriptive design. Literature searches identified ten qualitative studies that met the study’s inclusion criteria. Findings from an analysis of the relevant literature are grouped into two overarching themes and seven further sub-themes. Main results: The findings of this study showed that the majority of transgender and non-binary people have experienced, on at least one occasion, being met with ignorance in healthcare situations. Those self-identifying as non-binary often reported feeling as though they are required to fit into categories they are uncomfortable with. Evidence also suggests that the kind of language used by healthcare providers played an important determining role in how meetings were experienced by transgender and non-binary people. Use of appropriate pronouns and terminology by staff appears to help make feel more accepted. Conclusion: Due to the widespread lack of knowledge, healthcare providers often found it difficult to know how to behave and interact in meetings with transgender and non-binary people. Problems rooted in the lack of understanding contributed to negatively affect people’s experience with the healthcare system. Therefore education about transgender and non-binary people should be more available for healthcareproviders

  • Ganstrand, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Tesfaye, Hilina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Unga vuxna personers upplevelser av leva med Diabetes Mellitus Typ 12019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att leva med diabetes typ 1 innebär ett stort ansvar gentemot sin hälsa samt upplevelser av livsförändringar. Den senaste forskningen påvisar att personer med Diabetes Mellitus typ 1 har specifika behov av stöd i det dagliga ansvaret för hantering av kost, motion, blodsocker övervakning och medicinering. Att leva med diabetes är en utmaning för både patienter, anhöriga och vårdgivare. Sjuksköterskans roll är att vägleda med behandling samt lära patienten att ta ansvar över sitt hälsotillstånd.

  • Öhman, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Jonsson, Isabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hur personer med hypotyreos upplever sin livskvalité2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. Every year, people get sick with the disease and most commonly, women are affected. Being affected by hypothyroidism means that there is a lack of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and makes the energy production goes to a low saver. Competence requirements are imposed on the nurse in the caring process of patients with hypothyroidism as the consequences of the disease may appear diffuse and difficult to measure. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe how people with hypothyroidism experience their quality of life. Method: This study is a descriptive literature study. Eleven articles with both qualitative and quantitative design have been analyzed and divided into themes and sub-themes. Main Results: People with hypothyroidism experienced neither a better quality of life nor improvements in thyroid-related symptoms despite being medicated. The feeling of these people was that they felt weak, powerless, drained of energy and that their daily activities were limited. A feeling of misunderstanding was experienced in health care when the doctors focused mainly on the person's test results. Although the doctor mentioned that the blood values were within reference, people with hypothyroidism felt that a number of symptoms remained. Conclusion: People with hypothyroidism express dissatisfaction with their experience of quality of life, their medication and even the care relationship. Living with hypothyroidism means that you may have remaining symptoms despite medication and the quality of life for these people is adversely affected. Through an increased understanding of this complex illness, the nurse could contribute with greater security and help these people by creating a better care relationship.

  • Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Skoglund, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av yrkesrelaterad stress som skulle kunna leda till utbrändhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working as a nurse is often stressful and long term sick leave among nurses could often be connected to stress. Long term stress could lead to burnout and signs of burnout was common among nurses and impaired their work ability. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of work related stress that could lead to burnout. Method: A descriptive literature review, where the databases MEDLINE via PubMed and CINAHL was explored with the search words “Burnout, professional”, “Nurses”, “Experience”, “Qualitative studies”. 10 studies were analysed through a simplified thematic analysis. Main results: The nurses experienced stress related to a strenuous work environment and emotional commitment in nursing and they described positive and destructive methods of coping. The extent of adversities and the lack of support was noteworthy for the nurses in the studies. Conclusion: High workload, lack of support, big responsibility and emotional commitment in nursing was revealed as experiences of work related stress that could lead to burnout. The coping methods varied and through the nurses experiences an understanding was created for how nurses experience work related stress that could lead to burnout.

  • Haglund, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Lindgren, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjukvårdspersonals följsamhet till hygienrutiner inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major problem that affects patients treated in emergency care every year. If healthcare personnel follow the hygiene guidelines, HAIs can be reduced. In Sweden, Basic hygiene routines (basala hygienrutiner) are usually used as guidelines for hygiene in health care. Nationally, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are used in 5 steps to help healthcare professionals follow the hygiene guidelines. Working in emergency care means that healthcare personnel are faced with pressure and quick action in decisions in emergency situations. Unfortunately, adherence to hygiene routines is often given priority for a variety of reasons.  Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe the compliance of healthcare professionals to hygiene routines in emergency care.  Method: A descriptive literature study with results based on 12 scientific articles. The literature search was performed in the MedLine database via PubMed.  Main result: The result showed that healthcare personnel in emergency care had low adherence to hygiene routines. The adherence to performing hygiene routines according to regulations after the medical staff had tended to a patient proved to be the step that was best followed. Adherence to hygiene routines before patient contact as well as prior to routine was found to be lower. The results differ between different occupational categories and depending on whether the health care professionals estimated themselves or were observed.  Conclusion: Adherence of healthcare personnel to hygiene routines in emergency care was low. When introducing interventions and training, the staff's compliance with hygiene routines increased. By highlighting the importance of good adherence to hygiene routines to avoid HAIs, patients' suffering and additional costs in healthcare can be reduced

  • Hammarström-Rooth, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Mang Son, Nian Lun Cing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Personers erfarenheter av att leva med försämrad talfunktion på grund av afasi eller dysartri2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Communication is about mediate information between individuals. Speech difficulties can occur as a result of aphasia or dysarthria. Dysarthria means that articulation is affected due to paralysis in speech muscles while aphasia is due to an injury in the brain's speech center. In order to achieve good nursing of people with speech difficulties, it was important for the individual to feel seen and heard. Great emphasis was then placed on the nurse and her ability to perceive what the person with aphasia wants to convey both verbally and non-verbally. It was therefore important to pay attention to people's experiences of living with speech difficulties. Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe people's experiences of living with impaired speech function due to aphasia or dysarthria. Method: A descriptive literature study where 12 scientific articles were the basis for the result. All articles were of a qualitative approach. Main result: The result has shown that the life situation has changed for people with speech difficulties, they were affected emotionally negatively and forced to find new strategies and ways of dealing with their speech difficulties. The view of the future was very individual. People with speech difficulties experience both positive and negative changes in relationships with family, friends and the environment. In contact with health care, people with speech difficulties have experienced both positive and negative experiences. Conclusion: Good encounters and good relationships with health care professionals has played an important role in the recovery process for people with speech difficulties, therefore the nurse should be aware of this in order to be able to create the best conditions for the patient.

  • Johansson, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Borgvald, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Att beskriva personers upplevelser av vardagen och livsstilsförändringar efter en hjärtinfarkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the most common diseases that lead to sudden death around the world. In Sweden, 25300 people is affected by MI each year. Stress, anxiety, depression and an unhealthy lifestyle are just some risk factors that increase the risk of MI. After a MI, lifestyle changes are required to achieve good health, such as physical activation, healthy diets and smoking cessation. Aim, the purpose of this literature study was to describe how people experience their everyday life and lifestyle changes after a MI. Method, this thesis is a descriptive study that is based on 12 articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach. The articles selected correspond to the purpose of the study. The PubMed database via MedLine was used to find the articles. Main results, the study shows that many patients experience problems in everyday life after a MI and have difficulty adjusting to the lifestyle changes that are necessary after a MI .The result shows that people's mental, emotional, physical health and social life are negatively affected after a MI. This can lead to problems in everyday life, like relationships and intimacy. In conclusion, MI can lead to an emotional, existential and physical daily struggle. The nurse should be able to provide support, information and rehabilitation to the person concerned so that they can return to a more healthy everyday life. People may also need help with different coping strategies by the nurse to better handle the new life situation. People’s experiences of the daily life can provide the nurse with valuable knowledge, which can improve the future care for the person concerned.

  • Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Consumers And Enterprises As Actors On The Market2019In: 12th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business Conference Readings: Business Management Theories and Practices in a Dynamic Competitive Environment / [ed] Demetris Vrontis, Yaakov Weber, Evangelos Tsoukatos, Euriomed Press , 2019, , p. 13p. 989-996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper discusses the phenomenon of differentiation made possible through branding or innovation or a combination of the two. Differentiation is eventually the driving force for the development of its own negation, commoditization. When customers have endured a commoditized market long enough the opportunities open up for creative destruction, this concept of Schumpeter (1942), means that an entrepreneur invents a completely new way of satisfying the customers’ unsatisfied needs, making the industry that no longer bothered about their customers. Many researchers have tried to re/brand destructive innovation as their own, with concepts, such as of ”transilience”, and “blue ocean strategy’, as opposed to ‘red ocean strategy’.

    The paper focuses on innovation as a differentiation strategy and on temporary monopoly rent as a driver of innovation. Increased competition and shortening and life cycles makes capitalism more volatile and the strategies to reduce the risks involved are discussed. These strategies lead to the real-world implementation of the concentration of capital forecasted by Marx and feared by Schumpeter.

    The paper identifies the need to continuously monitor the concentration of capital and to understand individual markets by studying the firm’s profit.

  • Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Cost-structure and the volatility of capitalism2019In: 12th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business Conference Proceedings: Business Management Theories and Practices in a Dynamic Competitive Environment, Euromed Press , 2019, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper explores the phenomena of changing cost-structures and the implications for the volatility of capitalism and the possibility to manage firms in such a hostile environment and proposes future research. It also provides an explanation of why the relevance of accounting is lost, the so-called “relevance lost” debate (see among others Francis

    & Schipper, 1999).The changing cost-structures raises fundamental questions concerning the resulting the volatility of capitalism and the management of firms in such an increasingly more volatile environment. In Philipson, Johansson & Scheley (2016), we raised the question if it was possible to “...to ride the dragon.” Considering the importance of these phenomena, it is astonishing that we have not found any empirical research concerning them. They restresearch questions, based on the author’s almost 25 years of experience, as a senior executive in Scandinavian industry.

  • Chibsah, Alimatu Alhassan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ford, David Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Freight Transport in Urban Areas:: Investigating the Environmental and Societal Impacts of Increased Production Volume on Dominant Stakeholders in Urban Areas. A Mixed Method Approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an on-going trend, the greening of logistics actions in business activities has become a critical issue for companies and society. Stakeholders are asking companies to minimize their negative impacts on the environment and society, and create effective business, sustainable environment, stakeholders’ benefits and quality of life. Through a case study approach, this research study aimed to examine the environmental and societal effects of freight logistics on dominant stakeholders in urban areas as a result of a company’s production volume increased. Furthermore, the study also aimed to pinpoint and discuss the suitable research method for a multifaceted research study. A mixed- method research approach of both qualitative (case study) and quantitative (simulation) methods were applied in this study consisting of dominant stakeholders (a Swedish company, a Swedish municipality, the Swedish transport administration, and local urban residents). The research revealed that a company’s production volume increase creates development for the company, local municipalities, and residents within the company’s business environment, however, freight trucks logistics that are used in this process to deliver raw materials to the company’s production site(s) creates negative environmental impacts (carbon emission, road congestion, noise, and pollution) on routes and urban areas. Moreover, as production volume is further increased, these negative impacts also increase. The study also revealed that a mixed-method approach is suitable for multifaceted research studies that comprise of multiple conditions, variables, and data from several sources. As such, the qualitative method can be used in the first phrase to collect formative data, which can then be tested and supported for effectiveness with a quantitative method in the second phrase.

  • Jansson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Jagheden, Beatrice
    Substansbrukande patienters upplevelser och erfarenheter av bemötandet från sjuksköterskor2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lundaahl, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Strömberg, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning  

    Bakgrund: En av tre kvinnor i världen uppskattas ha upplevt fysiskt, psykiskt eller sexuellt våld. Våldet utförs oftast av en närstående partner och konsekvenserna av våldet har en stor betydelse för den utsatta kvinnans välbefinnande. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal har en betydande roll i både bemötandet till och identifieringen av våldet hos den utsatta kvinnan.

    Syfte: Att beskriva vilka upplevelser sjuksköterskor har av att möta våldsutsatta kvinnor samt vilken upplevelse sjuksköterskor har av att agera vid misstanke om våld.  

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Sökningar av artiklar som användes genomfördes i både CINAHL och MedLine, där författarna hittade 11 artiklar; nio stycken med kvalitativ ansats och två stycken kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna har granskats av båda författarna objektivt.    

    Huvudresultat: I studiens resultat framkom både positiva och negativa känslor hos sjuksköterskorna vid mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor. Dessa upplevelser beror på olika faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskorna. Upplevelserna har i sin tur betydelse för hur sjuksköterskor agerar vid misstanke om våld.  

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskors positiva och negativa upplevelser i mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor tycks ha ett samband med sjuksköterskornas utbildning inom ämnet, utomstående resurser samt vilken stöttning de upplever sig ha. Upplevelserna har i sin tur ett samband med om och hur sjuksköterskor agerar vid misstanke om våld hos en kvinnlig patient. 

    Nyckelord: Sjuksköterskors upplevelse, vuxna våldsutsatta kvinnor, intimt partnervåld, screening

  • Såsser, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Nordin, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Endometriosdrabbade kvinnors erfarenheter av bemötande inom hälso- och sjukvård: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en kronisk inflammatorisk gynekologisk sjukdom som cirka 176 miljoner kvinnor globalt beräknas lida av i form av stark menstruationssmärta, infertilitet och dyspareuni. Dessa besvär ger konsekvenser på kvinnornas vardagliga liv, relationer och sociala samvaro. Sjukdomen har länge förskjutits av forskare och än idag saknas mycket kunskap inom hälso- och sjukvården kring endometriosvård.Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva endometriosdrabbade kvinnors erfarenheter av bemötande inom hälso- och sjukvård.Metod: En litteraturstudie med beskrivande design baserad på elva vetenskapliga artiklar varav två hade en kvantitativ ansats, åtta kvalitativ ansats och en mixad metod. Artiklarna söktes i databaserna CINAHL och MedLine via PubMed.Huvudresultat: Endometriosdrabbade kvinnor upplevde ibland ett gott bemötande inom hälso- och sjukvård där de kände sig sedda och bekräftade men mer ofta bemöttes de av dåliga attityder präglade av misstro och ignorans från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal. Kvinnorna upplevde att deras symtom normaliserades, att personal saknade kunskap om sjukdomen, att kommunikationen var bristande och att diagnosen fördröjdes relaterat till feldiagnoser och sen specialistkonsultation. Slutsats: De negativa upplevelser av bemötande som endometriosdrabbade kvinnor rapporterade tyder på att hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal behöver utöka sin kunskap om endometrios. Sjuksköterskor kommer i kontakt med dessa kvinnor i många olika vårdsammanhang och måste bemöta dem med empati och förståelse för att omvårdnaden ska vara av god kvalitet.

  • Edlund, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Wiklander Palmertz, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Upplevelser av icke farmakologisk smärtlindring hos patienter med cancerdiagnos2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det vanligast förekommande symtomet hos patienter diagnosticerade med cancer är smärta, detta resulterar i fysiskt och psykiskt lidande hos den drabbade. Smärta är en obehaglig sensorisk och känslomässig upplevelse förenad med vävnadsskada eller beskriven i termer av sådan skada. Cancersmärta finns i flera olika former och därför finns ingen standardiserad behandling utan behandlingen sker med hjälp av olika metoder samt olika metoder i kombination. Smärtan kan behandlas med hjälp av farmakologiska och icke farmakologiska behandlingsmetoder.  

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva cancerpatienters upplevelser av icke farmakologisk smärtlindring.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en deskriptiv litteraturstudie. 

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet visar att en majoritet av de patienter som behandlats med akupunktur och taktilmassage har positiva upplevelser. En stor del av patienterna beskriver både en smärtlindrande upplevelse och andra positiva upplevelser som återkommer i resultatet är bland annat lindring av andra fysiska symtom. Flertalet patienter upplevde också en ny form av energi efter behandlingen och ett ökat välbefinnande. Dock upplevde en liten del av patienterna motsatt effekt av behandlingen där de fysiska symtomen tilltog i styrka samt upplevelsen av effekt uteblev efter behandling. 

    Slutsats: Smärta är en central känsla och upplevelse för denna patientgrupp, det är vanligt att smärtan drabbar patienten både fysiskt och psykiskt. Det framkom i föreliggande litteraturstudie att patienterna hade både positiva och negativa upplevelser av akupunktur och taktilmassage, majoriteten av patienterna hade dock positiva upplevelser. Upplevelserna behandlade både smärtlindrande effekt men även god effekt på andra symtom som denna patientgrupp är drabbad av i olika utsträckning. Detta bekräftar att icke farmakologisk smärtlindring kan vara en viktig del i behandlingen av patienter diagnosticerade med cancer.  

  • Rydstrand, Olivia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Vem riskerar att drabbas?: En beskrivande litteraturstudie om riskfaktorer för att drabbas av en förlossningsdepression2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Efter en förlossning är det vanligt att bli nedstämd. Detta går oftast över men ibland kan det resultera i en förlossningsdepression. Tillståndet drabbar ungefär en av tio kvinnor och kan även drabba medföräldern. Förlossningsdepressioner är ofta underbehandlade och underdiagnostiserade, detta leder till att den som drabbats ofta lider i tystnad. En förlossningsdepression kan leda till exempelvis nedsatt energi, svårigheter att känna anknytning till barnet, skuldkänslor, känslor att vilja skada sig själv eller barnet, minskad livslust och sociala rädslor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva riskfaktorer för att drabbas av en förlossningsdepression hos mödrar. Metod: Studien gjordes genom en beskrivande litteraturstudie som var resultatet från 11 vetenskapliga artiklar med kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: De riskfaktorer som främst framkom i artiklarnas resultat var att bli förälder vid ung ålder, ingen eller låg utbildning, nedsatt hälsotillstånd, inget eller lågt stöd från omgivningen, ingen eller dålig relation till den andra föräldern, tidigare historik av psykisk ohälsa, inte känna någon anknytning till barnet, stressig förlossning samt bristfällig amning. Samband påvisades även mellan dåliga levnadsvanor, exempelvis hög stressnivå och rökning och högre risk att drabbas av en förlossningsdepression.

    Slutsats: De som enligt föreliggande studies resultat löper störst risk för att drabbas är unga föräldrar, liten eller ingen utbildning, med en instabil boendesituation och inkomst, som genomgått en stressig förlossning, som har en dålig eller ingen relation alls till barnets andra förälder och som tidigare lidit av psykisk ohälsa och där amningen varken fungerar eller existerar. På grund av stigmatisering och skam vågar inte alla mödrar fråga om hjälp och sjuksköterskan kanske inte frågar hur modern upplever sin situation.

  • Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Teaching Sustainability in European Higher Education Institutions: Assessing the Connections between Competences and Pedagogical Approaches2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Analysing the incorporation of Sustainable Development into European Higher Education Institutions’ curricula2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Skogberg Lundin, Anja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    A Journey Greater Than You Think, Unknown in Its Details, But More Loving Than Nostalgia: -An Analysis of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay is an analysis of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and it explores how identity and ideology always exist in a context of time. The American 1920s society was influenced by theories brought by Marxism, Albert Einstein and Freud. This era was highly influenced by cultural influencers, individuals such as Fitzgerald who became one of the greatest to mould and describe the era he lived in.

    When reviewing Fitzgerald’s text almost a century later, and at the verge of entering the 2020s, it becomes clear that some fundamental features of culture remain ever-present in the American culture. The multifaceted perspective presented to readers by Fitzgerald raises important questions regarding where the real is overruled and transformed by the ideal. The American 1920s was an era of contradictions which also is reflected in Fitzgerald’s ironic tone and in Gatsby’s smile. Fitzgerald offers an understanding which reaches as far as anyone would want to understand.

    Linchpins in this essay are the interaction between identity, ideology and social codes and the morality which drives actions and reactions and forms a link between the coexistence of contradictions. Social structures are part of history and the impact history possesses over culture, via nostalgia, is relevant for ideas today. Which clues do history and Fitzgerald’s text provide and store for us and can old ideas enlighten us to bring new solutions, or clarity, to apprehend anything about the future? There is a correspondence, a red thread, between eras such as the 1920s and the year of 2019 in the American society today, which explains why the ideas and ideals Fitzgerald portrayed as important parts of identity and culture a hundred years ago, also matter today.

  • Holman Fält, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Mohamad, Aya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av mötet med den våldsutsatta kvinnan: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2018, 22,400 sexual offenses were reported in Sweden, of wich 96% of them were against women. The Council of Europe had started in 2014 and the Convention on the Prevention and Control of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. At the same, the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 2017: 857 and 2018: 1135) made a change and from 1 July 2018, it became a requirement for nures to have knowledge of women who are subjected to violence.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe nurse´s experiences of meeting abused women.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. The result is based on 11 scientific articles which were reviewed and analyzed. The articles are both of quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Main Results: Knowledge and guidelines are essential for nurses in providing care for sexually, mentally and physically abused women. If the nurses received adequate education, knowledge of resources in the hospital but also in society, it resulted in a safer care and environment for the women and the nurses, they felt mor secure in asking and talking about partner violence. 

    Conclusion: The nurse´s encounter with violent subjwomen aroused many strong feelings, and they were affected both during working hours and in private life. More training and knowledge in the subject are required for the nurses to be able to meet and care for women who are subjected to violence in a professional manner, which means more quality assured care. 

  • Göransson, Moa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Lindén, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av att leva med ett barn med cancer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Background: The most common cause of death for children aged 1-14 is childhood cancer. There is about a third who suffers from leukemia, a third who suffers from brain tumors and the last part constitutes the rest of the diagnoses. It is important to know how to respond parents 'thoughts and feelings about living with a child with cancer, since caregivers must individually the care of the child to their parents' needs. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe parents experience ́s to live with a child with cancer. Method: A literature study based on 11 articles with qualitative approach with the keywords: child, childhood cancer, cancer, family experiences, parents’ experiences and pediatric. The Cinahl database was used to search for articles. Main result: It has been consistent in the result that parents experienced anxiety, depression, anger and lack of sleep. Life is affected by parents after the children’s cancer diagnosis as there is a lack of everyday routines and normality. At a cancer diagnosis, the parents had a hard time seeing a future with the cancer sick child, which shows that the parents longing for the moment the child is cured. Conclusion: It became clear that parents of children with cancer experienced an initial need for support and the importance of getting the right information. Parents isolate themselves from their surroundings but can find other parents in the hospital with the same experience.

  • Hedlund, Elias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Landquist, andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Faktorer som påverkar motivationen till livsstilsförändringar efter hjärtinfarkt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Liewendahl, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Ovsiannikov, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Transpersoner och Icke-binäras erfarenheter och upplevelser av hälso-och sjukvården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transgender and non-binary people are a stigmatized group within the society. Members of this group often experience a deep sense of exclusion, and are statistically over-representeded in mental healthcare. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how nurses providing care in these situations should appropriately behave and interact in meetings with transgender and non-binary people in healthcare.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of transgender and non-binary people in meetings with healthcare providers.

    Method: The study is based on a literature review with a descriptive design. Literature searches identified ten qualitative studies that met the study’s inclusion criteria. Findings from an analysis of the relevant literature are grouped into two overarching themes and seven further sub-themes.

    Main results: The findings of this study showed that the majority of transgender and non-binary people have experienced, on at least one occasion, being met with ignorance in healthcare situations. Those self-identifying as non-binary often reported feeling as though they are required to fit into categories they are uncomfortable with. Evidence also suggests that the kind of language used by healthcare providers played an important determining role in how meetings were experienced by transgender and non-binary people. Use of appropriate pronouns and terminology by staff appears to help make feel more accepted.

    Conclusion: Due to the widespread lack of knowledge, healthcare providers often found it difficult to know how to behave and interact in meetings with transgender and non-binary people. Problems rooted in the lack of understanding  contributed to negatively affect people’s experience with the healthcare system. Therefore education about transgender and non-binary people should be more available for healthcare-providers

  • Sahlström, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Knapp, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Erfarenheter av återhämtning hos personer med diagnosen schizofreni: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness where symptoms can generate functional limitations that impede the person from coping with everyday life. Research shows that individuals who suffer from schizophrenia in addition to their mental and physical health risk being marginalized both financially and socially.

    The aim was to describe the experience of recovery in individuals with the diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on 12 scientific articles where 11 articles had a qualitative approach and 1 article was a mix-method where only the qualitative part of the result was used.

    Main result: Individuals with the diagnosis schizophrenia described their experiences of recovery as a dynamic process with a step-by-step progression. The onset of the illness was a chaotic and frightening life situation that interrupted their lives. Only when the individuals accepted their illness and gained insight into the illness could they begin their recovery. Emotions of hope and motivation were important factors to their recovery that provided the power to seek to move forward, as well as providing a reason to continue to live. Professional support strengthened the recovery as it included individualized care and treatment programs. Social aspects that proved important for the recovery were relationships with other people and inclusion in social contexts.

    Conclusion: Individuals with the diagnosis of schizophrenia described experiences of recovery taking place in various stages such as a dynamic process, the importance of hope and motivation, care and treatment that promote recovery and social aspects of importance. The nurse has a prominent role in enabling individualized care as well as supporting these individuals to maintain and create good relationships with other people and participate in social contexts.

  • Dahlberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Dahlqvist, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta familjecentrerat i relation till barn inlagda på sjukhus2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindberg, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Tillgänglighet i det tillfälliga offentliga rummet: Fallstudie av möjligheter och nackdelar för sommargågata på Östra Ågatan i Uppsala2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A socially sustainable society is based on creating an environment in which all individuals are respected and given equal opportunities to participate in society. Public spaces play an important role in the social sustainability of being involved, safe and accessible. People with different conditions should be able to participate in society and public environments need to be planned after physical accessibility so as not to exclude certain groups. Which groups that participate in the public space affects how society develops over time. The study draws attention to how temporary use can be used as a method to bring forward work on social sustainability. A summer pedestrian street is a temporary use of a place during the summer months when use is temporarily changed to pedestrian advantage by turning off the street for automobile traffic. The concept of summer pedestrian street is studied in this study from the perspective of social sustainability, by examining the possibilities and disadvantages that may arise when introducing temporary pedestrian streets and how these can be used in community planning to increase physical accessibility and socio-economic inclusion. A case study has been carried out across Östra Ågatan in Uppsala to investigate the possibilities and disadvantages of organizing a summer pedestrian street based on social sustainability. The results show that broadening the concept of accessibility enables public places to become more inclusive and several groups may be involved in the public environment. If this happens, temporary use can be a way to create meeting places and increase accessibility. Furthermore, it is essential to create an inclusive location for a long-term goal for the site to be expressed

  • Edström, Gabriella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Känslor inför partier och socioekonomisk status hos väljare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate what kind of emotions the propaganda of the parliamentary parties generates and what level of education the Alliance and the Red-Green voters have. The study examined which block generated the most negative versus positive emotions about how Sweden looks today. The feelings used in the study was developed from Paul Ekmans theory of basic emotions. The method used was a quantitative survey and the outcome was that 93 of the distributed questionnaires could be analyzed. The result showed that there was no significant difference between what emotions the Alliance and the Red-Greens brought out about how Sweden looks today. A significant difference, however, was that the Swedish Democrats generated more negative and fewer positive emotions about how Sweden looks today than the other two blocks did. There was no significant difference between the Alliance and the Red-Green voters regarding educational level. 

  • Åberg, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The process of Individuation in Willy Loman: A Jungian Archetypal Literary Analysis of the Protagonist in Arthur Miller’s Play Death of a Salesman Compared to the Classical Hero of Odysseus in Homer’s The Odyssey2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an archetypal literary analysis of Arthur Miller’s play Death of a Salesman and Homer’s The Odyssey. The analysis aims to demonstrate how Arthur Miller’s protagonist, Willy Loman, in Death of a Salesman demonstrates several stages of Carl Gustav Jung’s theory of the individuation process, similar to Odysseus in Homer’s The Odyssey. This is done by identifying set archetypes and stages of Jung’s individuation process, the persona, the shadow, the anima, and the self. After that, the stages are applied to both Miller’s play and Homer’s epic poem. The analysis shows that both protagonists demonstrate and complete Jung’s individuation process. Willy Loman completes a symbolic journey, whereas Odysseus completes a physical one.

  • Gran, Lillian
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Molstad, Christina Elde
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Digital Bildung: Norwegian Students' Understanding of Teaching and Learning with ICT2019In: Tidsskriftet Digital kompetanse, ISSN 0809-6724, E-ISSN 0809-714X, Vol. 14, no 1-2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to elaborate on how students perceive their own learning and democratic development in relation to their digital interactions and competencies. This paper seeks an understanding of students' perspectives on digital Bildung. We investigate these issues by comparing different notions of Bildung perspectives among young students from four Norwegian schools. The study consists of interviews with 12 focus groups of 3 students in each. The results indicate that the students experienced unwanted interference by the teachers during the school day, and that they felt a lack of democratic involvement in social conflicts, digital usages and other daily forms of decision-making. Further, the interviews indicated that students perceived their teachers as biased when it came to helping students in situations of bullying or other relationship challenges. In investigating digital interactions and competencies among Norwegian students, we identified a visible gap in the notion of Bildung and identity development between the students and the teachers. This finding suggests a need to further discuss the role of students in creating a better school system based on democratic ideals.

  • Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nature Routines of Children as Leverage Point for Sustainable Social-Ecological Urbanism: Connecting childhood and biosphere to design sustainable civilizations in the human habitat2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong sustainability requires enhanced knowledge and understanding of complex social-ecological interactions, but it also implies a ‘novel’ conceptualization of the relationship between humans and nature, one in which individuals perceive themselves as embedded members of the Biosphere. The aim of this Licentiate thesis is to investigate the validity of a strategy that is centered on designing the urban green infrastructure to nurture such human-nature relationship in children’s attitudes. The research is framed by spatial cognition, conservation psychology, and social-ecological sustainability and it focuses on the validity of this strategy. Hence, the Licentiate analyzes how reoccurring experiences of nature that are situated in the everyday habitat (i.e. nature routines) affect personal human-nature attitudes and how these can be implemented as leverage points to change social-ecological systems using sustainable urbanism. Paper 1 tests the assumed link between the nature routines in Stockholm and preschool children’s development of cognitive and emotional affinity to nature. The results show that nature-rich routines over a period of four years are significantly correlated with the strength of preschooler’s affinity with nature. Paper 2 uses a mixed methods approach to evaluate changes in Connection To Nature (CTN) in 10 years olds who partake in a project of nature conservation. The results of Paper 2 show that there is an evaluative gap between theory and practice in connecting children with nature that impedes the evaluation of how children’s CTN changes over short periods of time and that impedes the creation of an evaluative framework for nature experiences. Paper 3 considers these empirical results in theorizing an approach to sustainable urban design based on social-ecological sustainability that includes CTN. In order to overcome existing limitations Paper 3 presents the concept of cognitive affordances as a theoretical tool to embed cognitive and emotional attitudes towards nature into the design of urban spaces. All combined these papers provide valid evidence that nature routines in cities, especially for children, can be a significant leverage point to enable future sustainable civilizations. 

  • Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Tranevall, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld i nära relationer är ett folkhälsoproblem och en kränkning av de mänskliga rättigheterna som leder till att offrets välbefinnande hotas. Detta kan drabba både kvinnor och män, trots detta är det oftast kvinnor som utsätts för systematiskt våld där män är förövare. Våldet kan vara fysiskt, psykiskt eller sexuellt men kan också utföras genom social eller ekonomisk utsatthet. Sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnadsarbetet med våldsutsatta kvinnor är att skapa en omgivning där hennes hälsa främjas. Syfte:Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som innefattade 11 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar som sökts fram genom databaserna Cinahl och Medline via Pubmed. Resultat: Sjuksköterskorna beskrev negativ och positiv påverkan som uppkom i mötet. De beskrev även vilka svårigheter och möjligheter som fanns för att hjälpa kvinnan återskapa ett hälsosamt liv. Sjuksköterskor hade delade uppfattningar om vilket ansvar de hade i omvårdnadsarbetet samt att det fanns en kunskapsbrist gällande dessa situationer. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor har beskrivit känslor, möjligheter och svårigheter som uppstått i mötet. Sjuksköterskor beskrev osäkerhet angående hur de ska hantera de känslor som uppstår, vilket ansvar de har i omvårdnadsarbetet samt hur de ska gå vidare för att ge kvinnan god omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskor påvisade ett behov av stöd för att kunna hantera dessa möten professionellt utan påverkan på privatlivet. Tydligare riktlinjer och utökad undervisning under grundutbildningen ger sjuksköterskor ökad förståelse för dessa situationer vilket kan leda till att vården för våldsutsatta kvinnor förbättras.

  • Giusti, Matteo
    Home for future Earth lovers: Foundations of nature-connecting habitats for children2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern childhood is increasingly segregated from nature. Yet, children’s nature experiences are first steps for sustainable futures. In this thesis, I research the foundations of habitats that can connect children to nature. I call them nature-connecting habitats. Five papers in this thesis answer: (RQ1) what is children’s human-nature connection (HNC)?; and (RQ2) what are the requirements of nature-connecting habitats for children? The preschools paper shows that five-year-olds with nature-rich routines have higher HNC than children with nature-poor routines, but it cannot understand which nature experiences are most influential. Hence, the salamanders paper assesses children’s participation in a nature conservation project. Discrepancies between the qualitative and quantitative results reveal an assessment gap with theoretical roots, which impedes the assessment of nature experiences in practical time-frames. To close this gap, the review paper surveys the literature and shows that attributes of the mind, qualities of nature experiences, and attachment to places are all aspects of HNC. The embody paper conceptualizes an embodied approach to HNC to overcome the barriers identified previously, and the toolbox paper operationalises it to develop a toolbox to assess children’s HNC and nature-connecting habitats. Answering RQ1, results show that children’s HNC is a complex set of embodied abilities. Human-nature relationships that could enable, promote, or assist sustainable development are a set of abilities that children can learn. These abilities are relationships between mind, body, culture, and environment, and progress following non-linear dynamics. This thesis identifies 10 of these abilities of HNC and finds that children learn them in three consecutive phases. Phase one – being in nature – includes feeling comfortable in natural spaces, and being curious about nature. Phase two – being with nature – includes reading natural spaces, acting in natural spaces, feeling attached to natural spaces, knowing about nature, and recalling memories with nature. Phase three – being for nature – includes taking care of nature, caring about nature, and being one with nature. Answering RQ2, two requirements of nature-connecting habitats are found: significant nature situations and various nature routines. Nature situations that can connect children to nature are characterised by configurations of 16 qualities – qualities of significant nature situations. These qualities are: entertainment, thought-provocation, awe, surprise, intimacy, mindfulness, self-restoration, creative expression, physical activity, challenge, engagement of senses, child-driven, involvement of mentors, structure/instructions, social/cultural endorsement, and involvement of animals. This set of qualities delineates the kinds of nature situations that nature-connecting habitats have to provide. These qualities should be various and recurring to allow children’s HNC to progress – hence, various nature routines. These lists of abilities and qualities form a toolbox capable of assessing where and how children connect to nature, named ACHUNAS. This thesis sets the stage to develop nature-connecting habitats. Children’s HNC and nature-connecting habitats are not the only intervention to promote sustainable futures, but they might be necessary conditions to meet the ever-shifting target of sustainable civilizations.

  • Engfeldt, Andreas
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Olsson, Per-Anders
    Lantmäteriet.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lidberg, Martin
    Lantmäteriet.
    Ågren, Jonas
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sekowski, Marcin
    Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland.
    Krynski, Jan
    Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland.
    Bryskhe, Henrik
    Lantmäteriet.
    Nielsen, Jens Emil
    Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Strykowski, Gabriel
    Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    RG 2000 – the New Gravity Reference Frame of Sweden2019In: Geophysica, ISSN 0367-4231, E-ISSN 2324-0741, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 69-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased need for improved geoid models for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) height determination calls for additional gravity observations and quality assurance of existing data. In this perspective, a modern gravity system and the renovation of an already existing high order gravity network is considered as a moderate strategic investment which provides a firm foundation for further activities. Here the new gravity reference frame RG 2000 for Sweden is presented. RG 2000 is realized by absolute gravity observations at 109 stations. The absolute points are connected via old and new relative gravity observations, including another 216 points. Points and observations have been chosen so that good overlap with the older Swedish reference frames, RG 62 and RG 82, is achieved, allowing to evaluate the older frames and transformations between them. RG 2000 is based on a zero permanent tide system with epoch 2000.