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  • Blom, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Optimizing spare-parts management2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the study is to develop a model that will facilitate the choice of maintenance strategy within the Swedish pulp and paper industry. Without compromising system availability, the model aims to reduce inventory holding costs.

    Methodology:

    At first, a literary research was conducted to create a holistic view over the chosen topic, in time it developed into a literature framework. Secondly, a case study was conducted in order to obtain empirical data. The data were obtained through interviews and archival records. The literature framework and the empirical data were then cross-analyzed with each other.

    Findings:

    In this thesis, a model has been developed based on previously applied and accepted methods. The methods have been identified and described in order to provide a strategy in which the inventory levels- and value could be lowered. The findings indicate that the organization must seek to assign ABC-classified and VED-analyzed components different maintenance actions in order to reduce the total cost.

    Theoretical contribution:

    This thesis contributes to a methodology development regarding spare parts management. It aims to add knowledge to the existing gap regarding spare parts order point and batch size. The thesis provides a procedure in which systems including critical and expensive components are evaluated in order to assign them the appropriate maintenance.

    Practical relevance:

    The model has only been exemplified by using a system position from Stora Enso Skutskär, the numerical values are examples. The model must be tested with real values and the risk analysis must be carried out with a group of employees with great insight regarding the selected component and system position.

    Limitations:

    This thesis is delimited to spare parts management and inventory management. The study only involves one Swedish organization, whereas the organization and its spare parts management illustrates the complexity concerning spares. The model will not be verified as the focus is to highlight the research gap and to develop the model.

  • Elenius, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Beslutsanalys av medicinska åldersbedömningar inom asylprocessen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for a decision analysis method that is based on the principle of maximization of the expected utility regarding alternatives of age assessment for unaccompanied asylum seekers is here presented. Using the framework, different methods (dental, knee joint, hand wrist and the method used by The National Board of Forensic Medicine (RMV) that combines the methods for dental och knee joint) for medical age assessment are compared. These methods are further compared with three benchmark alternatives, (i) to trust the age given by the unaccompanied asylum seeker which results that all are considered to be children, (ii) to consider all the unaccompanied asylum seekers as adults and (iii) the absurd alternative to flip a coin to decide who is a child or an adult.

    For the decision analysis, assumptions and/or estimates for the age distribution of the unaccompanied refugees are needed and estimates for the different methods regarding how probably it is to be considered an adult given the actual age. The outcome of a child that is incorrectly classified is assumed to give the lowest utility and a correct classification (both children and adult) is assumed to give the highest utility. The utility of the outcome of an adult that is incorrectly classified as a child needs to be quantified.

    The age distribution of unaccompanied refugee, considered for age assessment is here assumed to be a combination of two continuous uniform distributions, with the interval 15-18 years (child) and 18-21 years (adult). Two utility models are examined, a discrete model that only consider if the individual is a child or an adult and a continuously linear utility model that consider the age difference from 18 years given an incorrect classification.

    The analyzes carried out demonstrates how the framework can be used in practice. Given the assumptions that are made the conclusion is that the alternative that gives the highest expected utility depends on the prevalence (proportion of adults) together with the valuation of the utility for an incorrect classified adult. Regardless of the valuation, when the prevalence is close to 0 all should be considered to be children, when the prevalence increases should be replaced with a method that largely classifies children correct when the prevalence is further increased should be replaced with a method that largely classifies adults correct and finally, when the prevalence is close to 1 all should be considered as adults.

  • Olofsson, Johannes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Beteendeproblem i fritidshem; erfarenheter av och strategier verksamma pedagoger kan använda för att hantera dessa: En kvalitativ undersökning om personal i fritidshems syn på och strategier för att hantera beteendeproblem i fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I fritidshemmet möter pedagoger dagligen elever som i beteendet sticker ut från mängden. Detta beteende kan ses som problematiskt och svårt att hantera. Syftet med studien är att undersöka verksamma pedagoger i fritidshems syn på och erfarenheter av beteendeproblem samt ta reda på vilka strategier de använder för att hantera dessa. Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes genom att intervjua fem pedagoger som är verksamma i fritidshem. Resultatet visar på att respondenterna alla regelbundet behöver förhålla sig till beteendeproblem och att de använder sig av ganska likartade och dessutom medvetna strategier för att hantera dessa.

  • Al-Sabti, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Maycraft Kall, Mathilde
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskornas upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till patienter inom palliativ vård i hemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskorna behövde vara flexibla för att kunna hjälpa patienterna med sitt vardagliga liv. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan är redo att tillhandahålla palliativ vård på ett professionellt sätt och för att uppnå detta krävs det att sjuksköterskan har ett bra bemötande samt att patienten ges bästa möjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskans arbete inom den palliativa vården är krävande och därför efterfrågas kunskap och erfarenhet hos sjuksköterskan. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till vuxna patienter som ges palliativ vård i hemmet, samt att beskriva hur de valda artiklarna beskriver undersökningsgruppen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturanalys. 11 artiklar granskades och sammanfattades.  Huvudresultat: Att handskas med ett arbete nära döden och anhöriga som ofta hellre vill ha sin egen röst hörd istället för patientens röst är svårt för sjuksköterskan. Sjuksköterskor upplevde palliativ vård som emotionellt påfrestande. Sjuksköterskor beskriver att de genom professionella gränser och kollegialt stöd hanterar arbetet. Slutsats: Att upprätthålla de professionella gränserna är viktigt för sjuksköterskan, samt att kunna få kollegialt stöd. Att få läkaren att förstå vikten av situationen är inte alltid lätt, men är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att kunna göra för att ge patienten den bästa vården och minska patientens lidande.  

  • Bergström, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schilke, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers erfarenheter av att leva med bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a bipolar disorder means to live with changes in the level of activity in the form of depression, mania or hypomania. The disease leads to difficulties and challenges for those affected as well as their families. To be able to guide and give good care to a person with bipolar disorder, the nurse has to have a good understanding of their situation. Aim: The aim of this review was to describe peoples experiences of living with bipolar disorder and to describe the methods of data collection in the included studies. Method: This review has a descriptive design. The data bases PubMed and PsycINFO were used to collect the data, which resulted in ten qualitative studies for this review. Main result: People with bipolar disorder describe their experiences of getting the diagnosis as a turbulent time with difficulties to accept the diagnosis. Stigma was experienced. They described an effect on life as feelings of lost autonomy, limitations and a change of identity. A good daily structure, awareness of signs of warning, triggers and the need of support were important to cope with the disease. Interviews were mostly used as a method of collecting data in the included studies. Conclusion: To live with a bipolar disorder means difficulties. It is important for people with bipolar disorder to receive support and to know how to handle the changing course of the disease to avoid a new episode. Nurses need knowledge about people’s experiences of having a bipolar disorder to be able to give the best possible care.

  • Hedtorp, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Frivilliga markåtkomstavtal som ett alternativ till tvångsåtgärder: En studie om förundersökningsmedgivande och förundersökningstillstånd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary investigation consent (PIC, or MFÖ in Swedish) is an agreement established on a voluntary basis between the Swedish power grid authority, Svenska kraftnät, and property owners. If the property owner is not willing to enter into a MFÖ-agreement, Svenska kraftnät instead seeks a preliminary investigation permit from the Swedish County Administrative Board, Länsstyrelsen, in order to obtain forced access to real estate to carry out preliminary investigations for future power grid projects.

    In this study, research was carried out on MFÖ-agreements and pre-emption permits to find out how Svenska kraftnät could get more real estate owners to enter into voluntary agreements. This, in order to gain access to real estate on a voluntary basis.

    Four cases from the Swedish Supreme Administrative Court was studied to investigate the grounds on which property owners appealed the County Administrative Board's granted preliminary investigation permit for Svenska kraftnät. Furthermore four interviews were conducted with people at Svenska kraftnät that works with these tasks to answer two questions. The first was what they felt were the reasons why real estate owners did not want to enter into MFÖ agreements with Svenska kraftnät.The second question was what Svenska kraftnät could do to increase the proportion of property owners to enter MFÖ-agreements.

    The result of the study showed that property owners' claims to court are consistent with the reasons that experts at Svenska kraftnät meant that property owners were reluctant to conclude MFÖ-agreements. Property owners focused a great deal on what might happen in the later stages of the power grid projects, including in terms of power line location and technology choice.

    In order to get more property owners to enter into MFÖ-agreements, better communication with property owners was required regarding the meaning of the agreement. However, this could be easier said than done on the basis of how resource-intensive such a measure might be.

  • Jonasson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers erfarenheter av att leva med fibromyalgi: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fibromyalgia is a long term pain condition that is more common among women than among men. The cause of fibromyalgia is unclear but common symptoms are long lasting pain and fatigue. The syndrome is difficult to define and requires time to diagnose and treat. The nurse has a major responsibility for the care of these patients, but believes that they have insufficient knowledge about fibromyalgia.

    Aim: To describe people's experience of living with fibromyalgia and to describe the methods of data collection in the included articles.

    Method: Literature study with a descriptive design that included ten qualitative articles who were acquired through the database Medline via PubMed.

    Results: People with fibromyalgia experienced that the constant pain was the main problem in their daily life since it affected their mood and social life negatively. Not being believed or taken seriously in healthcare caused people to feel frustrated. Insufficient knowledge of fibromyalgia in healthcare professionals was common and people experienced that they were often interpreted to have mental disorders. The articles in this study used interviews as data collection method, where semistructured interviews was most common.

    Conclusion: People’s experience of living with fibromyalgia has shown that it has a major negative impact on their physical, mental and social life. The constant pain and fatigue have negative impact on daily life and at work. People also described how they are rarely believed by healthcare professionals or society. The nurse has an important part in the treatment of people with fibromyalgia which is important for a good nursing.

  • Clewemar Andersson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Högläsning i förskolan: Hur påverkas barns litteracitetsförmåga?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vad tidigare forskning sagt och vad som sägs om litteraturens betydelse och användningsområden i förskolans verksamhet. Frågeställningarna är: Vilken betydelse har litteraturen och högläsningen för barns utveckling av språket?, Hur kan vuxna påverka barnens literacyutveckling? och Hur kan boksamtal utformas i förskolan?

     

    Ett av de återkommande begrepp som beskriver barns lärande och utveckling av skriftspråket är litteracitet, eller engelskans literacy. Begreppet inkluderar både sociala och kulturella aspekter på lärande inom skriftspråkande, men också symboler, tecken, bilder och berättande. Samspelet, interaktionen, med människor i barnets omgivning är viktig i utvecklingen och lärandet och det är något som därför kan koppla litteracitetsutvecklingen till det sociokulturella perspektivet.

     

    Denna systematiska litteraturstudie visar att man på flera håll i världen använder litteraturen för högläsning, men utan att se den som ett verktyg för att öka barnens literacyförmågor. Analysen bygger på fyra studier som på olika sätt beskriver arbetet med barns litteracitet genom intervjuer och observationer. Materialet är hämtat från studier gjorda i Sverige, Australien, Amerika och Storbritannien.

     

    Resultatet visar att det finns stora kunskaper och erfarenheter kring arbetet med barn och literacy, som tyvärr inte framkommer i den dagliga verksamheten. Prioriteringen och planeringen av arbete med litteratur på olika sätt behöver komma fram och vara bland de viktigaste punkterna i förskolans arbete. Man kan ana att resultatet skulle förbättras om arbetet gjordes på en högre kvalitativ nivå än vad som nu är fallet.

  • Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Färdigställande av Sveriges digitala förrättningsarkiv: Effekter av skanning av äldre gällande förrättningsakter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Lantmäteriet, first digitised their archived cadastral procedures into the digital archive Arken, the aim was to create a national digital archive for cadastral procedures. Lantmäteriet now have their cadastral procedures digitised in Arken. Some municipalities still have their older analogue cadastral procedures from 1972 and before archived in the office of their local authority. For the cadastral procedure, this means the land surveyor is bound to contact the local authority to reach all information needed for the procedure.

    A digitisation of the remaining older cadastral procedures may improve their availability and make todays cadastral procedure more effective and manageable for Lantmäteriet. This also applies to other users of these older archived documents. This dissertation aims to answer the following questions: 1) How may cadastral procedures become more effective and 2) become more legally certain through a digitisation of the analogue archives? 3) Which impact may a digitisation of these older archives have on the real property market and the Swedish municipalities? The research questions were answered through inventory of cadastral procedures and personal interviews with local authorities and other actors, experienced of or influenced by these matters. The inventory helped answering the amount of work remaining in digitising these archives. The interviews answered which impact a digitisation of the material would have on different users of the information. Interviews were also used together to investigate both the legal certainty of cadastral procedures and the quality of the Swedish land registry.

    The result of the dissertation shows which impact a digitisation would have on different users of the information. The most common effect of digitisation was effectiveness in different aspects, such as timesaving and cost-effectiveness along with legal certainty. Conclusions from the dissertation are: all interviewed users of the older cadastral procedures are positive to a digitisation of the material. More effort in time and finance from the different Swedish local authorities and Lantmäteriet is needed and strongly recommended.

  • Persson, Lovisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av cancerrelaterad smärta2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nearly 60 000 people in Sweden are affected by cancer every year. Many of them suffer from cancer-related pain. The nurse's role is to be understanding, to support and care for the victim in the best way in order to help the person have a functional daily life despite the illness. 

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explain the experience of cancer-related pain.

    Method: The study is a literary study with a descriptive design. In the result we used eleven articles which were found in Cinahl. The methodological aspect has been reviewed in the eleven articles.

    Main Result: Cancer-related pain can influence the victim in many different ways in their daily life. Breakthrough pain is normal in cancer and can affect the activities in the daily life. Depression and anxiety can occur if you suffer of cancer. The cancer pain can be described  as somatic and neuropathic. The pain can be perceived differently from person to person and a good relation with the medical healthcare is important to make the care and painrelief as good as possible.

    Conclusion: The victim needs support and help from the medical healthcare but also an understanding family, since the pain is not always visible from outside. It's important as a nurse to care for the person with cancer-related pain with empathy, responsiveness and understanding.

  • Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Segerqvist, Carolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Det är vanligt att sjuksköterskor har erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress i sitt dagliga arbete, om stressen blir långvarig kan det leda till komplikationer som sömnstörningar och minnessvårigheter. Arbetsgivaren är skyldig att uppmärksamma och motverka arbetsrelaterad stress. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av arbetsrelaterad stress samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna i utvalda artiklar. Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie där åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats och två artiklar med mixad metod granskades. Huvudresultat: Resultatet visade att flera sjuksköterskor erfor att brist på personal och begränsat med tid var två betydande anledningarna till arbetsrelaterad stress. Även kommunikationen mellan kollegor och arbetsmiljön var anledningar som påverkade den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Personal och tidsbrist ansågs kunna bero på att sjuksköterskorna utförde flera arbetsuppgifter samtidigt. Flera av deltagarna i utvalda studier hade även erfarenheter av att de utförde arbetsuppgifter som inte ingick i deras roll och ansvarsområde som sjuksköterska. För att förebygga uppkomsten av stress framhölls förkortad arbetstid, vilket på ett positivt sätt påverkade erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Bra relationer till kollegor och att hitta egna copingstrategier för att hantera stressen på arbetet och privat framhölls också som positivt för att minska den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Den metodologiska granskningen visade att det var flest kvinnor i åldern 22 – 61 år som deltog i granskade studier. Slutsats: Personal och tidsbrist har stor påverkan på erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Litteraturstudien visar att förkortad arbetstid är en potentiell lösning på problemet och belyser arbetsgivarens ansvar att aktivt arbeta mot och förebygga uppkomsten av arbetsrelaterad stress.

  • Eriksson, Anne-Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med självskadebeteende: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självskadebeteende är en avsiktlig handling av vävnadsskada genom att rispa, skära eller bränna huden utan avsikt till suicid. I Sverige under 2016 vårdades cirka 6900 personer på sjukhus till följd av avsiktlig destruktiv handling, varav 62 % var kvinnor.

    Resultat: Kvinnor med självskadebeteende hade ofta växt upp i en otrygg miljö, varit med om trauma eller saknat vuxenstöd. Självskada hade varit ett sätt för att lindra emotionellt lidande och för att kunna fortsätta att leva. Effekten av självskada avtog och blev som ett beroende innan det eskalerade. Känslor av skam, skuld och ensamhet var vanliga. Stigmatisering hindrade hjälpsökande. Bristande bemötande och vård upplevdes. Främjade för tillfrisknad var att behandla bakomliggande orsak till beteendet, finna alternativa åtgärder till att hantera det emotionella och ha ett holistiskt synsätt.

    Slutsatser: Självskadebeteende har för kvinnor inneburit ett oavbrutet lidande, psykiskt och fysiskt. För sjuksköterskan och övrig vårdpersonal är det viktigt att ha kunskap om orsaker till att kvinnor inte söker hjälp för sitt självskadebeteende för att kunna nå och hjälpa dem. I föreliggande studie framkom att hinder för att söka hjälp hade varit vårdens bristande bemötande och okunskap om självskadebeteendet. Sjuksköterskan behöver ökade kunskaper om självskadebeteendet, sträva efter ett empatiskt bemötande och utföra god holistisk omvårdnad.

  • Christensson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    ‘This is where my inner history teacher appears’: a methodological approach to analysing student teachers’ professional identity in interaction2018In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By testing a model for analysing identity in interaction, the present article explores how a history student teacher produces social identity in relation to his future profession as a teacher, with an important point of departure being the relationship between the academic and professional aspects of teacher education. This is addressed through an empirical analysis of a student teacher’s identity production in a specific academic setting: a bachelor thesis course. The main body of data consists of audio recordings and video recordings from a group of three student teachers giving feedback on each other’s theses. With respect to methodology, the article employs a model from multimodal (inter)action analysis that focuses on the concept of vertical identity – the notion that identity in interaction is produced in three layers of discourse simultaneously. The results show that the main participant produces the identity of history teacher in an academic setting where such identity production is not encouraged, e.g. by resemiotisising curricula: thus, policy documents can work as a tool when producing teacher identity. This production of identity is done by employing strong agency, which consequently points to the need of a more elaborated discussion on agency in the tested model.

  • Karlsson, Samuel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. 1995.
    Le, Tom
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hur påverkas självkänslan av arbetsidentiteten?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how different types of work identity (personal/collective) predict two types of self-esteem (personal/organizational). A digital survey was sent out to different organizations within the public sector. The survey was based on four well established instruments, and were answered by 64 persons (age M = 39.1, SD = 12.5). In line with one of our hypothesis it was shown that collective compared to personal work identity in higher degree predicted organizational based self-esteem. There was also a weak tendency to significant result indicating that personal compared to collective work identity in higher degree predicted personal self-esteem. In sum, results are in line with previous research reporting that the way we see our self-worth is reflected by the way others think of us.

  • Johansson Cristvall, Angelika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskeledd rådgivning vid livsstilsförändring2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: An unhealthy living and lifestyle contributes to 20 percent of the total

    illness in Sweden and previous research has shown that it is difficult to change lifestyle on

    your own. Nurses meet many of these patients in healthcare and it is of value to get an

    understanding of patients experience of nursled counseling.

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to describe patient's experience of nursled

    counseling in lifestyle changes and to describe the study group in the chosen articles.

    Method: The design was a descriptive literature study. The result was based on 13

    scientific articles that were sought in the Medline through Pubmed database.

    Result: The main result was divided into two parts; The meeting between the patient and

    the nurse and Nursled counselings impact on the patient. Patients described the importance

    of interaction and the feeling of being involved in managing a lifestyle change. The

    counseling increased patients motivation to make a lifestyle change, ability to implement it

    as well as maintain it. It also gave them insight that self-care is their own responsibility.

    The total amount of participants was 3863 people between 20-88 years. Cause of

    counseling were patients with diagnosed disease in seven studies and preventive health

    care in five studies.

    Conclusion: A summary of the results of the present study shows that the patients

    experienced that interaction and participation was important. They wanted to be

    individually treated and with respect. Patients experienced that nurses was supportive and

    had a positive impact on patients' motivation and ability to implement a new lifestyle. A

    summary of how patients experienced nurseled counseling can be helpful in nursing

    patients in a lifestyle change.

    Keywords:, counseling, lifestyle, lifestyle changes, nurseled

  • Kierkegaard, Greta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors arbetsrelaterade stress: StressfaktorerKonsekvenser av stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Siripassorn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Daria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser i samband med vård hos patienter som talar minoritetsspråk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Immigrants who cannot speak majority languages have a right to safe and high-quality healthcare, just as all the other patients. According to the Swedish Patient Act (2014:821), every individual has the right of tailored information about their health and treatment. This can be challenging due to poorly functioning communication. Nurses need to have a better understanding of those challenges that minority patients experience when in contact with healthcare.

    Aim: To describe the challenges, experienced by minority language patients, when in contact with nurses and to describe the participant groups of the studies included in the review.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of eleven qualitative studies and one mixed-method study. The searches were made in CINAHL and PubMed databases.

    Main results: The analysis of the included articles resulted in three main themes: 1) experiences of being alienated due to lack of information and participation in one’s own care 2) experiences of worsen quality of care by way of wrong treatment, unsatisfactory attitude from the healthcare professionals and missed opportunities, and 3) feelings of dependence on those who help with interpreting. There was a total of 536 participants in the selected studies, who had been residing in the new country between 0-40 years.

    Conclusions: Language barriers can lead to a range of negative feelings, experienced by minority patients. Nurses might not be aware of them. Knowledge about these challenges and oppressive moments can help nurses to anticipate and prevent language related problems. Herewith, patients negative experiences might be reduced.

  • Askefjord, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklind, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Humor i omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans verktyg och patientens upplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor har en multipel inverkan på människan både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt. Över 80 procent av observerade möten i sjukhusmiljö visades innehålla någon form av humor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva humor som ett verktyg i omvårdnaden, ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv. Syftet var också att utforska hur patienter upplever humor. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den metodologisk aspekten, undersökningsgruppen.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor använde humor som ett verktyg att bygga relationer, skapa band och framkalla en känsla av gemenskap. Enkel vardaglig humor användes mest inom omvårdnad. Mottaglighet för humor hos patienter var individuellt och sjuksköterskan bör tillämpa, baserat på intuition och erfarenhet, rätt humor till rätt patient. Oerfarna sjuksköterskor kunde bära på en rädsla att framstå som oprofessionella vid användning av humor i vårdsituationer. Sjuksköterskor ansåg att stress hade en god inverkan på kvantiteten av humoranvändningen, dock blev de mindre mottagliga för humor från andra. Patienters upplevelse av humor var välvillig och de önskade humor i vårdrelationer.

    Slutsatser: Humor är en viktig del av omvårdnad. Humor kan bidra till ett bättre samspel, skapa lugn och ge ljus åt de mörkaste situationer. Missförstånd kan uppstå i användandet av humor mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter. Sjuksköterskor måste därför vara lyhörda i sin roll och kunna identifiera när och hur humor bör tillämpas. Sjuksköterskor, både nyutexaminerade och mer erfarna bör få mer kunskap om humorfenomenets för- och nackdelar. Detta för att sjuksköterskor ska lita på sin intuition och använda mer humor.

  • Kermanshahani, Leroy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Entydig faktorisering och Fermats stora sats i fallet n = 32018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna text presenteras, via begreppet entydig faktorisering, Aritmetikens fundamentalsats. Först originalversionen för de ”vanliga” heltalen och senare en anpassad version för så kallade imaginära kvadratiska talringar, där elementen utgör en mer generell form av heltal. Däremellan redogörs för viktiga begrepp som behövs vid studiet av kvadratiska talringar, egenskaper för några olika typer av ringar, speciellt euklidiska, samt sambanden dem emellan. Ett huvudresultat är att entydig faktorisering, vilken gäller för alla ”vanliga” heltal större än 1, snarare är undantag än regel för imaginära kvadratiska talringar. Avslutningsvis ges en tillämpning av Aritmetikens fundamentalsats i form av ett bevis för Fermats stora sats i fallet n = 3.

  • Viirman, Olov
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics. MatRIC, University of Agder.
    Nardi, Elena
    School of Education, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Negotiating different disciplinary discourses: Biology students’ ritualized and exploratory participation in Mathematical Modelling activities2018In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-mathematics specialists’ competence and confidence in mathematics in their disciplines have been highlighted as in need of improvement. We report from a collaborative, developmental research project which explores the conjecture that greater integration of mathematics and biology in biology study programs, for example through engaging students with Mathematical Modeling (MM) activities, is one way to achieve this improvement. We examine the evolution of 12 first-semester biology students’ mathematical discourse as they engage with such activities in four sessions which ran concurrently with their mandatory mathematics course and were taught by a mathematician with extensive experience with MM. The sessions involved brief introductions to different aspects of MM, followed by small-group work on tasks set in biological contexts. Our analyses use the theory of commognition to investigate the tensions between ritualized and exploratory participation in the students’ MM activity. We focus particularly on a quintessential routine in MM, assumption building: we trace attempts which start from ritualized engagement in the shape of “guesswork” and evolve into more productively exploratory formulations. We also identify signs of persistent commognitive conflict in the students’ activity, both intra-mathematical (concerning what is meant by a “math task”) and extra-mathematical (concerning what constitutes a plausible solution to the tasks in a biological sense). Our analyses show evidence of the fluid interplay between ritualized and exploratory engagement in the students’ discursive activity and contribute towards what we see as a much needed distancing from operationalization of the commognitive constructs of ritual and exploration as an unhelpfully dichotomous binary.

  • Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tunc, Evin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnor som har blivit utsatta för sexuella övergrepp – upplevelser av vården2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexual assault is a major public health problem and the rate of sexual assault on women continues to increase. Sexual assault can lead to unhealthy consequences and suffering for those involved. Aim: To describe how women experience the healthcare after sexual assault and to describe the study groups in the included studies.

    Method: The study´s design is a descriptive design and 10 scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach have been used.

    Main Results: Women who have survived sexual assault, experience both positive and negative experiences of healthcare. Several women perceived that healthcare staff were present, respectful and explained in detail all the procedures of the medical forensic examination. Some women thought that the examination was very hurtful and traumatizing. Lack of information from staff members lead to confusion and feelings of having no control over the situation, and well-informed and clear explanations of the examination lead to feelings of safety. Many women described the importance of the nurse’s attendance during care and how significant it was for their recovery. In the study groups the ages of the participants are demonstrated as average age and age range. The women had been exposed to different types of sexual assault, like rape and violence.

    Conclusion: Sexual assault often leads to feelings of fear, anxiety and isolation and other unhealthy consequences. The presence of the nurse and their support are of great importance to the women and their well-being. It's important that the nurse meets these women with respect and empathy. In care of these women who have been sexually assaulted, the nurse should work with a professional approach and adapt the care of each individual. 

  • Kopylov, Nikolay
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wisting, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av vårdpersonalens bemötande i akutsjukvården.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patientbemötande är ett brett begrepp som består av olika komponenter, dessa komponenter är information, kommunikation,respekt och förståelse. Forskning visar att det fortfarande förekommer patientupplevelser av dåligt bemötande inom akutsjukvården. Detta har ett samband med en rad olika faktorer. Dåligt bemötande kan ha en stor inverkan på patientens syn på vården.

  • Morén, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Spets, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vårda patienter med suicidproblematik – Vårdpersonalens upplevelser och attityder: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The most common external cause of death in Sweden is suicide. Approximately 1100 people in Sweden and 800 000 worldwide annually commits suicide. The main risk factors for suicide is cancer diagnosis, previous suicide attempts, traumatic head injury, epilepsy, chronic disease or pain, as well as certain mental illnesses and conditions. Patients with suicidal problems describe that the relationship with healthcare professionals is important and that there is a sense of shame in front of them.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe experiences and attitudes of health care personnel towards working with suicidal patients in a hospital setting as well as examine the data-collection methods used in the included articles.

    Method: Literature review with descriptive design based on ten scientific articles with qualitative approach. The databases PubMed and Cinahl has been used to gather the articles included in this study. The articles has been read in their entirety by both authors with focus on the result and method to determine the eligibility för this study.

    Main Result: The literature study shows that the emotional experiences of healthcare professionals were similar. Healthcare professionals who do not have education in psychiatry may have lesser attitudes towards patients than healthcare professionals with psychiatric education. Some differences in attitudes can be found in staff with different beliefs. Healthcare staff need to talk about and understand the situation when a patient has committed a suicide act. Documentation is seen as a load since it takes a lot of time from nursing work with the patient.

    Conclusion: The majority of the population experienced an emotional endeavor while caring for suicidal patients. Healthcare professionals who lacks education in psychiatry shows disparities in attitudes towards patients compared to healthcare professionals who have an education in psychiatry.

  • Holzner, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Utbudet av föreningsidrott för vuxna i Gästrikland: En enkätundersökning i samarbete med Gästriklands Idrottsförbund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen ämnade undersöka hur möjligheterna för vuxna i åldern 30+, att delta i föreningsbaserad breddidrott ser ut i Gästrikland. Motsatsen är elitidrott eller tävlingsidrott där fokua ligger på förberedande träning inför tävling och bra resultat. Mycket fokus hos föreningsidrotterna ligger idag på barn och ungdom med bidrag, tävlingar etc, och just detta finns väldigt bra kartlagt hur det ser ut i länet. Desto mindre information och kartlagd forskning finns det kring vuxna och föreningsidrott.

  • Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wiklund, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser efter mastektomi vid bröstcancer2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women wereabout 8000 women in Sweden are diagnosed every year. Mastectomy is a surgicaltreatment of breast cancer where the entire breast is removed. Previous research showsthat women's breasts are associated with femininity, sexuality, maternity andattractiveness, and breast cancer and its treatment causes suffering to the patient.Nursing's work is focused on promoting health, preventing ill health and relievingsuffering. Aim: To describe women’s experiences after mastectomy due to breastcancer. Method: A descriptive literature study based on eleven articles with aqualitative approach. Results: The result showed that women experienced a violation ofthe bodily integrity and anxiety about confronting a changed body. The loss of breastswas for some women associated with a negative self-image and a changed identity. For others, the breasts were associated with disease and these women experienced a reliefthat the breasts were gone. The women's changed relationship with their bodies alsoaffected their femininity, sex drive and intimate relationships with others. Conclusion:Many women who underwent mastectomy experienced anxiety over a changed bodywhile some felt it was positive that the sickness was gone. The women experienced aloss of their self-image, but also a changed identity and relation to their bodies,affecting their femininity, sex drive and intimate relationships with others. It isimportant to have knowledge of these women's experiences in order to providepersonalized care, the right support and help for these women in the clinical care.

  • Johansson, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kuntong, Thawng Thian Neam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med IBD - personers upplevelser: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:Inflammatory Bowel Disease, IBD is a collective name for chronic inflammatory bowel disease consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The disease is in episode and has symptoms such as frequent diarrhea, fever, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to describe people's experiences of living with IBD and to present which research group described in the included articles.

    Method: The study was a literature study with descriptive design based on 10 articles with qualitative approach. Articles were searched from databases CINAHL and PubMed. 

    Main Results: People with IBD experience that both themselves and the environment lack knowledge about the disease. They feel anxiety and insecurity about drug effects, disease development and relapse. People who had been living with IBD for many years have developed strategies to cope with different situations. Participants in the included studies are adult men and women of different ages from different countries.

    Conclusions: People with IBD describe several experiences of living with the disease. It appears that a large part of the people's problems arise due to lack of knowledge about the disease. This means that the affected people are having difficulty managing their daily life and are worried about the future. Patients need to get good information and personalized support to raise KASAM, to develop their own strategies and manage the disease in a better way.

  • Furlani Green, Debbie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Peace-building for promoting well-being of communities in Nepal: Exploring the role of Social Workers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nepal’s history is full of civil turbulence and the socio-economic development has been slow, however the last decade the social changes have been rapid. Some of the social changes include the profession of social work and peace initiative through inter-faith. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of social workers in peace-building in order to promote wellbeing and work-life in Nepal. This paper gives an insight into the life and relationship among the community members in Nepal, and an insight of how culture, religion, and history may impact people’s everyday-life. The data collection of this study was carried out through a field visit, with semi-structured interviews with twenty-five different key informants, during the period of February to May of 2018. The interviewees include grass-root to national level faith-leaders as well as social work academics. The result of this study indicates that there is a lack of trust among the community members, between government and its people, and government and its external influences, which effect community’s socio-economical standard. The findings also conclude that Nepali society lacks adequate and effective information-sharing, which seems to impact the community’s health and work-life. his study gives social workers an insight on how social bonds and trust among groups could be established, which could increase the well-being of the people in rural area of Nepal.

  • Nordin, Elvira
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östgård, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ambulanspersonalens upplevelser av traumatiska händelser: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There are high demands on ambulance staff in relation to emergency assessments and treatment measures. In addition to this, staff are constantly exposed to potentially traumatic events. The experience of traumatic events is varied and depends on individual conditions.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study is to describe the ambulance staff's experiences of traumatic events in their profession. The purpose is also to review how the included articles have been selected.

    Method: A compilation has been made of ten scientific articles with qualitative, quantitative and mixed method. Systematic searches for articles were made in two different databases as well as manual searches.

    Result: Ambulance personnel’s experiences of traumatic events are based on mental and practical preparations. Feelings are described depending on the patient's condition, there are emotional differences in caring for children and adults regardless of whether the actions succeed or fail. The relatives' presence can be experienced both as suitable and unsuitable. Internal and external factors affect the experience of caring for the patient depending on circumstances. The need for processing occurs after traumatic events and is practiced in different ways. Care and guilt after an emergency situation is described in terms of different reactions. The need for necessary support is found to manifest itself after a traumatic event.

    Conclusion: The result shows that there is uncertainty regarding copingstrategies before, during and after traumatic events. Therefore, there is a need to improve working conditions for ambulance staff through future research.

  • Fernqvist, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rundberg, Lovisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av att överleva hjärtstopp: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increased application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of defibrillators has contributed to increased cardiovascular survival rates. The nurse thus meets these persons to an increasing extent than before in their occupational profession and the attitude may have meaning to the victim.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to describe the patient's experience of surviving heart arrest and to review the data collection method in the included scientific articles.

     

    Method: A summary of previous research has been made and six qualitative and four quantitative scientific articles are the results of this descriptive literature study.

     

    Results: Surviving a heart arrest was experienced as a life-changing event in life. Recurring challenges in everyday life were fear, anxiety and insecurity. Support from healthcare professionals, family and friends was experienced as important components for experiencing a sense of security and coherence in existence. Another major problem was the impact of the cardiac arrest on memory. Important reporters of the traumatic event were healthcare professionals and other persons present at the heart arrest. In those who survived the heart arrest, there was a need to share their experiences with people with similar experiences.

     

    Conclusions: The majority of those who survived a heart arrest experienced it as a traumatic event. An event that resulted in feelings like insecurity, fear and anxiety but also a gratitude to life. A nurse who identifies the patient's individual needs can help the patient experience an increased sense of manageability, meaningfulness and comprehension in the current life-changing situation.

  • Imisides, Dinos
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Noland, Isabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda personer med demens i sjukhusmiljö: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is an umbrella term for several diseases that affect the brain. The number of people with dementia is estimated to increase as human life expectancy increases, which means that nurses will meet more and more patients with dementia in hospital care. The symptoms differ between the different dementia diseases, new environments can exacerbate symptoms such as confusion and anxiety. Person-centered care is the form of care advocated for people with dementia and aims at enhancing a person's quality of life.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for people with dementia in hospital environments. Also, to describe the included articles' data collection methods.

    Method: The present study is a literature study with descriptive design where twelve qualitative articles have been analyzed. The collected articles' data collection method was compiled.

    Main results: Nurses experienced that relatives of people with dementia were an important health care resource which should be welcomed. Furthermore, the patient's communication difficulties experienced complicating the times when pain should be treated. Finally, the context of the hospital environment was not adapted to provide good care to people with dementia and lack of time prevented the execution of good care. The compilation of the articles' data collection method showed that interviews and focus groups were used.

    Conclusion: It turned out to be complicated for nurses to care for people with dementia in a hospital environment. Lack of time and a non-suitable environment for people with dementia made the healthcare more disease-oriented and did not allow nurses to care for ethical values and a person-centered approach. Relatives' resources promoted nursing care. Since nurses experienced difficulties in communicating with people with dementia, more skills and education in caring for people with dementia are needed to increase nurses' job satisfaction and create better conditions for people with dementia in hospitals.

  • Otterhäll, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Phillipsson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av förändring av kostvanor som en del av behandlingen hos personer med diabetes typ två: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syfte Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva upplevelsen av förändring av kostvanor som en del av behandlingen hos personer med diabetes typ två. Syftet var också att granska vilka personer som ingår i undersökningsgruppen.  

    Metod Beskrivande litteraturstudie. 18 vetenskapliga artiklar står till grund för resultatet i denna litteraturstudie.

    Huvudresultat Det som framkom i resultatet var att personer med diabetes typ två hade både positiva och negativa upplevelser och känslor till kostomställningen. De svåraste situationerna var vid sociala sammanhang. Begränsningar var den upplevelse som nämndes flest gånger och att stöd från familj behövdes för att en framgångsrik kostförändring skulle kunna genomföras. Information var viktigt för hur väl deltagarna skulle lyckas med att förändra kosten, en del hade bra upplevelser av informationen från vården och andra hade sämre upplevelser.

    Slutsats Det finns inre och yttre faktorer som påverkar och har betydelse för hur personer med diabetes typ två upplever förändring i kosten.

    För att personer med diabetes typ två ska lyckas förändra kosten krävs stöd från familj, hälso- och sjukvård. Hälso- och sjukvården bör vara lyhörd på hur personen upplever förändring i kosten samt se till deras individuella behov.

  • Krans, Lindha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters skattning av postoperativ smärta efter artroskopisk axelkirurgi: En prospektiv jämförande studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Yang, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Sandström, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Björklin, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Etablering och utformning av en effektiv uthyrningsverksamhet av byggnadsmaskiner2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Weber, Sophia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vad i NTA leder till kunskapsutveckling?: Pedagogers åsikter om NTA-konceptet som kompetensutveckling för lärare och kunskapsutveckling för elever.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Siripassorn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Daria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser i samband med vård hos patienter som talar minoritetsspråk: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Immigrants who cannot speak majority languages have a right to safe and high-quality healthcare, just as all the other patients. According to the Swedish Patient Act (2014:821), every individual has the right of tailored information about their health and treatment. This can be challenging due to poorly functioning communication. Nurses need to have a better understanding of those challenges that minority patients experience when in contact with healthcare.

    Aim: To describe the challenges, experienced by minority language patients, when in contact with nurses and to describe the participant groups of the studies included in the review.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of eleven qualitative studies and one mixed-method study. The searches were made in CINAHL and PubMed databases.

    Main results: The analysis of the included articles resulted in three main themes: 1) experiences of being alienated due to lack of information and participation in one’s own care 2) experiences of worsen quality of care by way of wrong treatment, unsatisfactory attitude from the healthcare professionals and missed opportunities, and 3) feelings of dependence on those who help with interpreting. There was a total of 536 participants in the selected studies, who had been residing in the new country between 0-40 years.

    Conclusions: Language barriers can lead to a range of negative feelings, experienced by minority patients. Nurses might not be aware of them. Knowledge about these challenges and oppressive moments can help nurses to anticipate and prevent language related problems. Herewith, patients negative experiences might be reduced.

  • Nijim, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Påverkan och förändringar i det dagliga livet hos personer med MS: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Multipel skleros (MS) är en kronisk och försvagande autoimmunmedierad inflammatorisk och neurodegenerativ sjukdom i centrala nervsystemet (CNS).De vanligaste tre MS-typerna är Primär skovvis MS, Primär progressiv MS och Sekundär progressiv MS. Årligen drabbas uppskattningsvis 1 000 individer av MS och är dubbelt så vanligt bland kvinnor än män.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur det dagliga livet påverkas och förändras för personer med MS samt att beskriva urvalsgrupperna i de inkluderade studierna.

    Metod: Denna studie hade en deskriptiv litteraturstudie som design, och baserades på 18 studier med både kvalitativa och kvantitativa ansatser. Cinahl, PubMed och PsycInfo var de tre databaserna som inkluderade studier hämtats från.

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet visade att både fysiska och sociala faktorer påverkades mer eller mindre i förhållande till sjukdomstypen. Trots att motoriken, rörelseförmågan, och kontroll över olika kroppsfunktioner hade påverkats hos majoriteten av personerna, var den allvarligast bland personer med primär- och sekundär progressiv MS. Urvalsgruppernas könsfördelning visade ett överväldigande överskott av kvinnliga deltagare och att den vanligaste MS-typen var primär skovvis MS.

    Slutsats: Personer med MS upplever en mängd fysiska förändringar som ett resultat av deras sjukdom. Dessa förändringar, även om de kan vara milda, har en signifikant inverkan på hur personer med MS fungerar i sitt dagliga liv. Professionella, t.ex sjuksköterskor, som arbetar med personer med MS behöver regelbundet ta itu med de symtomatiska förändringarna hos MS-patienter, samarbeta med dem och erbjuda hjälp och vård för att minska svårigheter och förändringar i deras dagliga liv.

  • Short, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Short, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser efter att ha drabbats av en stroke: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, about 26,500 people suffered from a stroke in 2016 of whom 6,900 died. Stroke means that parts of the brain have been exposed to oxygen deficiency causing necrosis in the brain tissue. It is common that stroke have negative impact on physical and mental abilities. The nurse has a major responsibility to meet the demands of care and patient´s nursing needs after a stroke.

    Aim: To describe people's experience after having a stroke and to describe the method used in the scientific articles used in this study.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design including 15 scientific articles with a qualitative approach that were found at the database Medline PubMed.

    Results: After suffering a stroke people experience a loss of loss of identity, a reduced autonomy and a social isolation caused by stroke related complications. Physical disabilities that occurred were, for example paresis and dysphagia while mental disabilities were, for example fatique and depression. Despite the complications several participants experienced joy, hope and motivation in the progress made. The most common data collection method, used in eight of the studies, was semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: All participants expressed a loss of identity, a reduced autonomy and a social isolation caused by stroke related complications. Despite these circumstances, several participants experienced joy, hope and motivation. For nurses, it is important to have knowledge and to inform the patient about remaining symptoms in order to help the patient to better understand and manage the situation.

  • Ärlemar, Simone
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att belysa patienters erfarenheter av att vistas under tvång inom den psykiatrisk heldygnsvården: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykisk ohälsa är ett stort problem i samhället som många är drabbade av. Det är en livssituation som kan leda till att man tappar kontrollen över sitt liv och få förödande konsekvenser. Om individen nekar till vård så ger lagen om psykiatrisk tvångsvård rätten till ett omhändertagande. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka patienters erfarenheter av att ha varit inlagd på tvång inom den psykiatriska heldygnsvården, samt att beskriva urvalsgrupper inom de valda artiklarna. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie. Med hjälp av databasen Cinahl har 15 stycken kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar granskats objektivt och analyserats av författarna för att uppnå studiens syfte. Huvudresultat: Resultatet innehåller information om patienternas negativa och positiva erfarenheter som presenteras i följande kategorier: Hopp och återhämtning, relationer till vårdpersonal och stigmatisering, relationer till andra patienter, sjukdomsinsikt och information, isolering och livskvalitet, rutiner och regler, miljö.Slutsats: Att vara inlagd mot sin vilja kan upplevas på olika sätt. Sjuksköterskans arbete är viktigt för patientens tillfrisknande och hantering av vardagslivet. Information om kommande behandling samt ett gott bemötande och engagerad personal är betydelsefullt för att stärka patientens autonomi och livslust.

  • AL Hareere, Rafeh Ibraheem Taleb
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Bekic, Kenan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The relationship between leadership and organizational culture: Handelsbanken in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The Relationship between Leadership and Organizational Culture

    Level: Master Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Al Hareere, Rafeh and Bekic, Kenan

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou- Malama 

    Examiner: Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Date: 2018-10-10

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between leadership and organizational culture in a financial organization. The study has been conducted in Handelsbanken, Sweden.

    Method: The study is based on ten qualitative interviews with managers and employees in Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices. We used inductive approach by comparing findings with existing theory.

    Result & Conclusions: Leadership depends mostly on corporate values and individuals´ personalities within SHB.  We noticed predominantly notion of transformational leadership, consisting of democratic, empowering and participative leadership. SHB´s corporate culture is strong and cohesive, resembling mostly guided missile type of culture. We argue that leadership and corporate culture affect each other, in case of Swedish Handelsbanken through employee motivation and empowerment and internal recruitment and development of future managers.

    Suggestions for future research: We suggest a study where the possible existence of transactional and laissez faire leadership could be proven within a financial organization as well as studies on other types of corporate culture and conducting similar studies within financial organizations to make comparisons between the organizations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to theoretical knowledge development about leadership and corporate culture and the interconnection between them within a financial organization, as presented in case of Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices.

    Key words: Leadership, corporate culture, transformational leadership; democratic, empowering, participative leadership; guided missile corporate culture, financial organization

  • Luna Saavedra, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Edmark, Hillevi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av ofrivillig barnlöshet i parrelationer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background

    Infertility signifies that an individual cannot achieve pregnancy after at least twelve months of unprotected intercourse. Despite the investigation, about 10-15% receive the answer that they are inexplicably childless.

    Aim

    The purpose of the literature study was to describe the perception of involuntary childlessness from a couple perspective and describe the sample groups in chosen articles.

    Method

    The study was a descriptive literature study. Data was collected from databases CINAHL and Medline via PubMed, the result was based on thirteen scientific articles with qualitative and quantitative approach.

    Results

    The data analysis of the 13 included articles resulted in six themes. ” Life expectations”, ”The longing for children”, ”To not have control”, ”Stigmatization and exclusion”, ”How the relationship is affected” and ”Support and experience of support”. The selection groups of the articles were analyzed based on gender, age, kind of partnership and the country of the study.

    Conclusion  

    The longing for a child resulted in feelings of anger, injustice and regret over the priorities earlier in life. Several couples questioned the meaning of life and experienced a loss of control. Those who suffer from involuntary childlessness need to be seen as individuals and get adapted care to their own needs, in order to increase their confidence and contribute to a better support.

  • Jonsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Lokal möbelproduktion: Profilerad lokal möbelproduktion i Hälsingland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hellgren, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av samt förutsättningar till preventivt arbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till studien var att i takt med en ökad kunskap om att en stor andel sjukdomar går att påverka med förändrad livsstil ökar kraven på hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen att kunna motivera patienter att förändra levnadsvanor. Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av samt vilka förutsättningar de har till att arbeta preventivt inom det dagliga arbetet i primärvården. Metoden för studien var kvalitativ studie med deskriptiv design. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med öppna frågor och tio distriktssköterskor inom primärvården deltog. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Huvudresultatet som framkom i studien var att deltagarna försökte arbeta preventivt i allt de gjorde, att det var något som fanns inom dem och att det var primärvårdens huvudsyfte. Det preventiva arbetet försvårades med att deltagarna inte hade tid eller resurser för utförandet. Något mer deltagarna beskrev försvårade det preventiva arbetet var när patienten inte var motiverad till livsstilsförändringar eller att deltagarna blev begränsade i att de upplevde att ämnet var känsligt att ta upp. För att underlätta det preventiva arbetet önskade deltagarna i studien mer utbildning för att öka kompetensen och höll dem uppdaterade. En osäkerhet framkom gällande arbetsrutiner för preventivt arbete då deltagarna inte alltid visste vilka arbetsrutiner som gällde, vart de kunde hitta dessa samt att de inte följdes. Slutsatsen är att deltagarna i studien beskrev hur de arbetade preventivt i allt de gjorde men det hanns inte med p.g.a. tids- och resursbrist. Till följd av otydliga arbetsrutiner arbetade inte deltagarna på samma sätt

  • Al hamdany, Yarub
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Simulering och energieffektivisering för en kontorsbyggnad iForsmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The society changes rapidly and is heavily dependent on energy. The Energy usage in buildings account for about 40% of total Sweden's energy usage, where energy is used by buildings for electricity, cooling and heating. Therefore, energy is an important issue in today's society from an energy use approach to stop the global warming. In this work, a survey was carried out by an office building in Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB to find out about energy use and create a basis for energy-saving measures. The IDA ICE 4.7.1 program was used to simulate the building's energy use by creating a base model of the building. After that, the base model has been compared with different energy efficiency measures to check where the biggest and least energy saving potentials occur. The result shows that the total energy use in the office building is 198 125 kWh / year. The simulations show that energy efficiency measures could reduce energy use in the building by 81 962 kWh / year, which corresponds to 41.4% of the total energy use. Time control of ventilation systems gives the largest energy savings of 51, 2 kWh / m2, year.

  • Färdigs, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under 2016 rapporterades 7938 fall i Sverige där personer drabbats av hjärtstopp, varav 1317 personer överlevde. Syrebristen som uppstår vid ett hjärtstopp kan orsaka skador på kroppen efter endast några minuter, därför är det av vikt att se hur dessa personer upplever livskvaliteten och det dagliga livet.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp, samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som använts i artiklarna.

    Metod: Designen var en beskrivande litteraturstudie som byggde på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar varav fem av kvalitativ ansats och nio av kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna söktes fram i databasen Medline via PubMed.

    Huvudesultat: Resultatet baseras på 1566 stycken deltagare. Fysiska och psykiska begränsningar förekom och kunde påverkade deltagarnas dagliga liv. Gällande livskvalitén kunde den upplevas olika, även om de flesta upplevde bra livskvalité efter hjärtstoppet. Även deltagarnas sociala liv påverkades och den förändrade livssituationen kunde bli en utmaning. Detta gjorde att stödgrupper kunde vara bra för att hantera det dagliga livet.

    Slutsats: Efter ett hjärtstopp upplevdes livskvalitén hos deltagarna olika. Fysiska, psykiska och sociala begränsningar kunde förekomma vilket kunde ha negativ betydelse för livskvalitén och upplevas som en utmaning i det dagliga livet. Det kan därför vara av vikt för sjuksköterskan att redan vid omvårdnaden av patienten på sjukhus informera och stödja patienten i de förändringar som efter utskrivning kan förekomma, samt att efter utskrivning ge fortsatt stöd till patienterna för att underlätta återhämtningen i det dagliga livet.

  • Carlsson, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Göransson, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med och möta barn som far illa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Alla barn har rätt till ett liv med utveckling samt att skyddas mot alla typer av våld, försummelse, övergrepp och utnyttjande av vårdnadshavare. Utsatthet i barn och ungdomsåren har visat sig påverka individens utveckling negativt. Barnets vårdnadshavare har det primära ansvaret att tillgodose barnets behov, brister detta är det samhällets ansvar att se till att barnet får den trygghet och omvårdnad som denne behöver. Där har hälso- och sjukvården samt socialtjänsten en viktig uppgift.  Syftet: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med och möta barn som far illa.  Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie baserat på tio vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats.  Resultat: Arbetslivserfarenhet och kunskap stärkte sjuksköterskorna i arbetet med barn som for illa. God relation och kommunikation ansågs viktigt i mötet med barnen och deras familjer. Majoriteten av sjuksköterskorna vittnade om brister i utbildning, riktlinjer, stöd från ledning och samarbete med socialtjänsten. Dessa aspekter i kombination med hög arbetsbelastning ledde till att sjuksköterskorna kände osäkerhet i arbetet med barn som for illa. Sjuksköterskorna berördes emotionellt i mötet med barn som for illa.   Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver stöd från ledning och utbildningsansvariga genom att erbjudas adekvat utbildning och tydliga riktlinjer i arbetet och mötet med barn som far illa, för att stärka och öka tryggheten i yrkesrollen.

  • Kalinnikova, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Ontologiya neprotivorechivosti sotsialnoi konstruksii spotsialnogo i inklusivnogo obrasovaniya [Ontology of self-consistency of social construction of special and inclusive learning]2018In: «ИНВАЛИДЫ – ИНВАЛИДНОСТЬ – ИНВАЛИДИЗАЦИЯ» / [ed] Saralieva Z. M., Nizhnii Novgorod: NISOTS , 2018, p. 387-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is focussing on and discussing several central issues about relations between special and inclusive education, such as: what is known about inclusive education for children with disabilities?; cultural-historical experience of some countries and filiation of inclusive education ideas; millennium sustainable developmental goals and special education. Themes of ’ontological consistency’ of the nature of special and inclusive education and special education as a ‘cultural mediator’ between children with disabilities and society are presented.

  • Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hellberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is a chronic disease affecting about 176 million fertile women worldwide. Severe menstrual pain and pain during intercourse are the primary symptoms that characterizes the disease. It often takes a long time to get the diagnosis, the nurse should be responsive and identify the patient's needs.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe women's experiences of living with endometriosis and the included articles data collection methods.

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design. Data were collected through the databases PubMed and Cinahl, the result is built on eleven scholarly articles with qualitative and mixed designs.

    Main Results: The woman who lives with endometriosis experiences severe pain at different time at the menstrual cycle. The diagnosis could take up to several years for some women to receive, where a common occurrence for most of them were mistrust and normalization of the symptoms from the healthcare. Endometriosis has a major impact on women's everyday life where they are both mentally and socially affected by the disease. Most of the women used their own self-strategies as dietary changes to prevent the symptoms. The eleven scholarly articles in this study used different interview methods to collect the data.

    Conclusion: Endometriosis has a major negative impact on women's everyday life and relationships, the disease causes infertility and social constraints. Increased knowledge in society and in health care can contribute to reduced suffering in these women.

  • Jens, Sjögren
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Studie av positionerings- och kommunikationsteknologier i ett IoT-samhälle under utveckling: LPWAN och Wi-Fi som komplement till GSM och GPS2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's information society, concepts like smart cities and IoT (Internet of Things) are hot topics. All imaginable devices should be connected to the internet and "things" should communicate with each other. For smart city visions to be realized, new demands are put on several existing technologies, and new technologies are being developed to replace or supplement the old ones.

    This report focuses on comparing older technologies with new ones within the areas of positioning and wireless communication. Traditional GPS (Global Positioning System) is compared to Wi-Fi based services and GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is set against the Sigfox network that is specially developed for IoT applications.

    A measuring device is constructed by electronics modules and a smartphone to collect data in different geographic areas and environments. From the collected data, results can show how positioning services relate to each other and how coverage can be expected by communication technologies. An indication is also given of how the energy consumption can be expected when using the different technologies.

    Finally, conclusions are given on how combinations of technologies can be used and what pros and cons arise with the selected combinations. This facilitates component selection in a product development phase.

  • Gustafsson, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy efficiency measures in the built environment - some aspects to consider in Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional energy system as we know it today will change in the future. There is a worldwide concern about the global warming situation and there are different actions implemented to limit the consequences from, mainly, the use of fossil fuels.

    In this thesis, multi-unit apartment buildings have been simulated according to how the global CO2 emissions change when different energy efficiency measures are implemented. The simulated buildings have also been used to investigate how the calculated energy efficiency of a building according to Swedish building regulations varies depending on which technology for heating is used in the building and if the building has a solar PV installation or solar thermal system. When the energy efficiency of a building is calculated accord-ing to Swedish building regulations, this thesis shows that heat pumps are a favored technology compared to district heating. Another result is that electric-ity use/production within the investigated district heating system is the most important factor to consider when minimizing global CO2 emissions.

    This thesis also investigates how the configuration of electric meters owned by the distribution system operator affects the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity. Finally, four local low-voltage distri-bution networks were simulated when a future charging scenario of electric vehicles was implemented.

    If a single-family house installs a solar PV installation, this thesis reveals that the configuration of the electric meter is important for the monitored amount of self-consumed electricity. This thesis also shows that the investigated low-voltage distribution networks can handle future power demand from electric vehicles and a high share of solar PV installations, but rural low-volt-age distribution networks will need to be reinforced or rebuilt to manage the investigated future scenarios.

  • Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kalander, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av sjukdom och egenvård hos personer med Diabetes mellitus typ 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is a disease that is increasing strongly worldwide, 80-90 percent have type 2 diabetes mellitus which is the most common type. Self-care is an important part of treatment that can prevent and delay the occurrence of sequelae and complications.

    Aim: To describe experiences of the disease and self-care in people with diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as describe how the data collection method was used in the reviewed articles.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design.

    Results: People often found it difficult to live with new routines, but with strategies it became easier to maintain compliance with self-care. The individuals experienced fear and anxiety over the risk to develop complications and sequelae. With support and information, the motivation for lifestyle changes could increase. Some felt great support from family and friends, while others felt it was difficult with pointers or felt disappointing when the help was not available. The health care had a major impact on self-care. The majority of the collected articles' data collection method used individual interviews.

    Conclusion: With good knowledge of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the importance of self-care in healthcare professionals, it can help to provide information to people with the disease. Individualized care is crucial for individuals to be able to influence their self-care, which reduces the risk for complications and sequelae.