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Macassa, G., Hiswåls, A.-S., Ahmadi, N. & McGrath, C. (2017). Educating Public Health Professionals for an Unknown Future: Insight from a New Bachelor Programme Linking Health Promotion and Sustainable Development. Research in Health Science, 2(2), 70-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educating Public Health Professionals for an Unknown Future: Insight from a New Bachelor Programme Linking Health Promotion and Sustainable Development
2017 (English)In: Research in Health Science, ISSN 2470-6205, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to provide a description of the new bachelor programme “Health Promotion through Sustainable Development”, which started in autumn 2016 at the University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Working Life. The programme was built integrating public health and biology through a thread of health promotion and sustainable development across the three years of study. In the era of sustainable development and more complex health threats, future public health professionals need to be equipped with the right knowledge and skills that will enable them to promote a sustainable population health.

Keywords
Public health, health promotion, biology, sustainable development, University of Gävle
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24113 (URN)10.22158/rhs.v2n2p70 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Bergström, H., Malstam, E., Hiswåls, A. S., Soares, J., Ahmadi, N. & Marttila, A. (2017). Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in East Central Sweden. Health Science Journal (2), Article ID 491.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in East Central Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, no 2, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the past decade, temporary employment arrangements, including fixed-term and sub-contracted jobs, as well as project work, on-call work and work via temporary-help agencies have increased in developed countries, including Sweden. The objective of this study was to explore precariously employed individuals’ experiences and perceptions of employment strain and its effect on their psychological well-being in Gävleborg County, Sweden. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 respondents residing in Gävleborg County about their experiences of precarious employment and their perceptions of the relationship between their precarious employment and psychological well-being. Thematic analysis was conducted to relate the results to the employment strain framework. Results: The main theme to emerge in the data was managing stress. Respondent’s perceived significant stress related to keeping employment as well as having future work. In addition, they had difficulties in coping with everyday life because of economic strain, lack of work opportunities and isolation. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight how precariously employed individuals are unable to cope with the stress related to uncertainty in maintaining their current work or having control of their working hours. In addition, the results indicate that precariously employed workers experience economic strain related to income uncertainty, which affects their ability to cope with daily life.

Keywords
Precarious employment; Gävleborg county; Sweden; Psychological well-being
National Category
Health Sciences Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24157 (URN)10.21767/1791-809X.1000491 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Grell, P., Ahmadi, N. & Blom, B. (2017). The Balancing Act: Clients with Complex Needs Describe Their Handling of Specialised Personal Social Services in Sweden. British Journal of Social Work, 47(3), 611-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Balancing Act: Clients with Complex Needs Describe Their Handling of Specialised Personal Social Services in Sweden
2017 (English)In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 611-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dealing with specialised social service organisations can be a challenge for clients with complex needs. These organisations may appear confusing and hard to navigate, and there is also a risk of service fragmentation, as such clients often participate simultaneously in an array of interventions. An additional complication to be handled is that these parallel interventions can range from voluntary to more or less involuntary. The aim of the present article is to describe and analyse how clients with complex needs account for their handling of service conditions within specialised personal social services (PSS), using data from a qualitative interview study with PSS clients in Sweden. A conceptual model is presented, covering four ideal typical client approaches to these specialised services: consensus, resignation, fight and escape. One key finding is that the clients combined these approaches in a balancing act intended to promote their own best interests in their parallel contacts with different parts of the specialised PSS organisation. The article concludes that future improvements in social services could be made by paying more attention to the structural arrangements that surround encounters between clients and the social services, as well as clients’ valuable first-hand knowledge of social service organisations.

Keywords
Personal social services, organisational structure, specialization, client perspective
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22319 (URN)10.1093/bjsw/bcw042 (DOI)000404553500002 ()2-s2.0-85022343385 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-08-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, N. & Ahmadi, F. (2017). The Use of Religious Coping Methods in a Secular Society: A Survey Study Among Cancer Patients in Sweden. Illness, crisis and loss, 5(3), 171-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of Religious Coping Methods in a Secular Society: A Survey Study Among Cancer Patients in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 171-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present article, based on results from a survey study in Sweden among 2,355 cancer patients, the role of religion in coping is discussed. The survey study, in turn, was based on earlier findings from a qualitative study of cancer patients in Sweden. The purpose of the present survey study was to determine to what extent results obtained in the qualitative study can be applied to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. The present study shows that use of religious coping methods is infrequent among cancer patients in Sweden. Besides the two methods that are ranked in 12th and 13th place, that is, in the middle (Listening to religious music and Praying to God to make things better), the other religious coping methods receive the lowest rankings, showing how nonsignificant such methods are in coping with cancer in Sweden. However, the question of who turns to God and who is self-reliant in a critical situation is too complicated to be resolved solely in terms of the strength of individuals’ religious commitments. In addition to background and situational factors, the culture in which the individual was socialized is an important factor. Regarding the influence of background variables, the present results show that gender, age, and area of upbringing played an important role in almost all of the religious coping methods our respondents used. In general, people in the oldest age-group, women, and people raised in places with 20,000 or fewer residents had a higher average use of religious coping methods than did younger people, men, and those raised in larger towns.

Keywords
religious coping, spiritual-oriented coping, cancer, culture
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21075 (URN)10.1177/1054137315614513 (DOI)28690385 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85024498587 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Efverström, A., Ahmadi, N., Hoff, D. & Bäckström, Å. (2016). Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions. International Journal of Sport Policy, 8(3), 491-514
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 491-514Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes’ everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes’ perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes’ involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work’s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

Keywords
anti-doping policy, anti-doping practice, doping in sports, performance-enhancing drugs, legitimacy
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21529 (URN)10.1080/19406940.2016.1170716 (DOI)000390991800009 ()2-s2.0-84969235547 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Efverström, A., Bäckström, Å., Ahmadi, N. & Hoff, D. (2016). Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice. Performance Enhancement & Health, 5(2), 77-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice
2016 (English)In: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation of global anti-doping regulations was intended to provide a level playing field for all athletes entering sports competitions. However, studies have shown that the worldwide harmonization of rules has not been entirely efficacious. For instance, great variation has been found in how anti-doping organizations implement anti-doping regulations, and it has also been shown that athletes distrust the equivalence of the worldwide rules as regards their effects. The purpose of the present article is to examine how elite athletes from different contexts experience anti-doping procedures and to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping practice. In order to capture a variety of voices and perspectives, 13 elite athletes from five different continents and three international sports federations were interviewed. The analysis shows that when global anti-doping policy is implemented in different contexts and under different conditions, inequities and structural injustices emerge concerning infrastructure, knowledge and support at the individual athlete level. These consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of anti-doping work, because the existence of procedural justice may be called into question. We therefore suggest that anti-doping policy-making should be based on taking into account these different conditions and being aware of the perspectives that underpin regulations intended to be applied global.

Keywords
Legitimacy, Anti-doping, Harmonization, Doping in sports, Sports policy
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22489 (URN)10.1016/j.peh.2016.08.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-84994234525 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-21 Created: 2016-09-21 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, N., Ljungqvist, A. & Svedsäter, G. (Eds.). (2016). Doping and public health (1ed.). Abingdon: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doping and public health
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Doping – the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods – has long been a high-profile issue in sport but in recent years it has also become an issue in wider society. This important new book examines doping as a public health issue, drawing on a multi-disciplinary set of perspectives to explore the prevalence, significance and consequences of doping in wider society. It introduces the epidemiology of doping, examines the historical context, and explores the social, behavioural, legal, ethical and political aspects of doping. The book also discusses possible interventions for addressing the problem on organisational and societal levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2016. p. 151 Edition: 1
Keywords
doping, public health, sports, performance enhancing substances, society, epidemiology, history, ethics, legal issues, prevention
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21538 (URN)978-1-138-91855-9 (ISBN)978-1-315-68842-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, F., Park, J., Kyung Mee, K. & Ahmadi, N. (2016). Exploring Existential Coping Resources: The Perspective of Koreans with Cancer. Journal of religion and health, 55(6), 2053-2068
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Existential Coping Resources: The Perspective of Koreans with Cancer
2016 (English)In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 2053-2068Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study aimed to explore the use of meaning-making coping (existential, spiritual, and religious coping) among cancer patients in Korea and to investigate the impact of culture on their choice of coping methods. Thirty-three participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Four different kinds of coping resources emerged from analyses of the interview transcripts: (1) belief in the healing power of nature; (2) mind–body connection; (3) relying on transcendent power; and (4) finding oneself in relationships with others. The findings of this study suggest the importance of investigating cultural context when exploring the use of the meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
Coping resources, Meaning-making coping, Koreans with cancer
National Category
Sociology Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21342 (URN)10.1007/s10943-016-0219-6 (DOI)000384532800018 ()26984613 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84961202321 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-22 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, N., Ljungqvist, A. & Svedsäter, G. (2016). Introduction: Doping and Public Health (1ed.). In: Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter (Ed.), Doping and Public Health: (pp. 1-10). Abingdon: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Doping and Public Health
2016 (English)In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , p. 151p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of “doping” is usually associated with sport, particularly elite sport. In fact, doping means the use of substances or methods that are banned in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) because of their potentially performance-enhancing effects. Their use is, therefore, considered to be against the fair play spirit of sport and can also include significant health risks for the user. However, the use of many doping substances is no longer limited to the world of sport. Doping substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are nowadays used also by people who are not competitive athletes but who want to make use of the effects of AAS in making their bodies more muscular, stronger and impressive in conformity with the current masculine body ideal. The use of AAS and similar substances appears to be growing and has been found in a range of countries previously not researched. At least, recent data obtained from customs seizures, court cases and some surveys suggest that the extent of AAS use outside sport has been underestimated, some reasons probably being an underground circulation of such drugs in the gym and fitness culture and the easy availability of them on the internet. One particular concern is the increasing use of nutritional supplements by growing segments of society. A significant percentage of these products have been shown to contain prohibited substances such as steroids that are not listed on the label. This shows that the nutritional supplement industry needs to be more strictly regulated. Until that happens, supplements of dubious value, content and quality will continue to be easily available around the world. What, then, are the possible reasons that active and health-conscious individuals are willing to take the risk to use preparations such as AAS? A review of the research shows that the most important motive behind the use of AAS outside the elite sports environment, i.e., in a fitness context, is to improve physical appearance. Although most users are boys and young and middle-aged men, also women of various ages use doping substances. Different types of slimming pills are popular among women (including hormone preparations), but possibly even more interesting are the new female fitness and appearance ideals that are connected to muscles and strength. The body has become increasingly important for saying something about who we are. The hunt for the perfect appearance creates a situation where denial instead of acceptance of one’s own body influences the individual’s self-image.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2016. p. 151 Edition: 1
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21540 (URN)000386891400001 ()978-1-138-91855-9 (ISBN)9781317421108 (ISBN)9781315688428 (ISBN)
Note

Editorial

Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, F., Palm, I. & Ahmadi, N. (2016). Mångfaldsbarometern 2016. Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mångfaldsbarometern 2016
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]
  1. Erfarenheterna från människor med utländsk bakgrund fortfarande goda Erfarenheterna från att ha kollegor med utländsk bakgrund i skolan eller på jobbet är goda hos 70 procent av befolkningen och stabila över tiden. En av tio har dåliga erfarenheter. Ju högre utbildning man har desto bättre erfarenheter. Respondenter med låg utbildning och pensionärer saknar relativt ofta helt erfarenhet från människor med utländsk bakgrund.
  2. Försämrade attityder till att ge utlandsfödda sociala och kulturella rättigheter En majoritet tycker att nyanlända skall ha samma sociala rättigheter som personer födda i Sverige – men de positiva attityderna har minskat från 77 procent år 2014 till 55 procent i årets mätning. Knappt hälften av respondenterna vill skapa förutsättningar för människor att bevara sina kulturella traditioner, och även här kan en tydlig minskning skönjas jämfört med 2014. Dessa försämrade attityder återfinns bland såväl kvinnor och män, som unga och gamla.
  3. Allmänt mångfaldsindex sjunker och tangerar lägsta nivå Fortfarande är 64 procent av befolkningen positiva till mångfald men andelen minskar med 10 procentenheter. Försämrade attityder till mångfald märks bland kvinnor och de i medelåldern.
  4. Positiva attityder till mångfald i ett arbetsperspektiv – men något försämrade Fortfarande är de positiva till mångfald en betydligt större grupp än de negativa i ett arbetsperspektiv. Men de negativa attityderna ökar något sedan 2014, bl.a. bland kvinnorna.
  5. Attityderna till mångfald i ett religionsperspektiv har försämrats Kvinnorna har i ett religionsperspektiv nästan blivit lika negativa som män. Försämrade attityder har också skett bland akademiker som annars är de mest positiva. Nästan hälften av de boende i Sverige hävdar att alla religioner inte har samma värderingar och särskiljer då framförallt Islam.
  6. Negativa attityder till människor från Afrika och Mellanöstern i ett boendeperspektiv Var tredje boende i Sverige föredrar personer födda i Sverige som grannar. Men det beror mycket på varifrån grannen kommer. Attityderna är betydligt sämre mot eventuella grannar från Afrika eller Mellanöstern då dessa grupper enligt många är förenat med problem.
  7. Majoritet för att etnisk mångfald utvecklar den svenska kulturen – men attityderna försämras Hälften av de tillfrågade uppfattar stora olikheter mellan den inhemska kulturen och kulturer från Afrika och Mellanöstern. Människor från dessa länder anses vara svårintegrerade i samhället.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2016. p. 50
Series
RD-report, ISSN 1403-8749 ; 44
Keywords
mångfaldsbarometern
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23821 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2885-0635

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