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Richter, H., Forsman, M., Elcadi, G. H., Brautaset, R., Marsh, J. E. & Zetterberg, C. (2018). Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article ID 298.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
Visual fatigue, Accommodation, Compensatory effort, Convergence, Disparity, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Time series analysis, Visual ergonomics
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25766 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2018.00298 (DOI)000440216100002 ()30104967 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054772976 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Note

Corrigendum: Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation Evoked by Convergence Load Under Conflicting Stimulus-to-Accommodation and Stimulus-to-Vergence Eye-Movements Measured by NIRS DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00384

ScopusId: 2-s2.0-85054817559ISI-id: 000445088000001 PubMedID: 30271336

Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Hämphälä, H., Zetterberg, C., Lindberg, P., Heiden, M. & Nylén, P. (2017). A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM. In: : . Paper presented at Arbetslivskonferens 2017, 'Arbetslivets utmaningar i staden och på landsbygden', FALF, 13-15 juni 2017, Alnarp.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A valid, reliable, practical and easy-to-use risk assessment method for visual ergonomics named VERAM (Visual Ergonomics Risk Analysis Method) has been developed. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers can be evaluated.

The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.  Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. As human beings, we need daylight to get a normal circadian rhythm. The visual environment needs to be designed to allow daylight entering, but have a possibility to prevent disturbing daylight.

No method for evaluating the visual environment together with the individual’s subjective strain has previously existed. Personnel from occupational health departments (75 individuals) have used the developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method at several work places. Before using the method they were given a course in visual ergonomics and taught how to use the method.

VERAM consists of two main parts. The first part is a subjective questionnaire with questions regarding the individual’s problem such as eyestrain and headache, but also their rating of the visual environment.

The second objective part is performed by the assessors and consists of:

  • measuring the illuminance and luminance
  • rating of the visual environment and different risks (risk for glare, flicker, work task, daylight, work posture etc.)
  • Feedback from the subjective part, the light measurements and the ratings
  • Recommendations

To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave, the visual environment needs to be good. This includes sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows, no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have. The main purposes of this study is to develop a visual environment risk analysis method and to increase the awareness and knowledge visual ergonomics.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24782 (URN)
Conference
Arbetslivskonferens 2017, 'Arbetslivets utmaningar i staden och på landsbygden', FALF, 13-15 juni 2017, Alnarp
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2017-08-02 Created: 2017-08-02 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Centrala funktioner. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Centrala funktioner
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25178 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Investering. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Investering
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25179 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde IT. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde IT
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25180 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Planering. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Planering
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25181 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Resultatenheterna Färjerederiet, Trafikverksskolan, Fordonsresurser och Förarprov. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Resultatenheterna Färjerederiet, Trafikverksskolan, Fordonsresurser och Förarprov
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25185 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Stora projekt. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Stora projekt
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25182 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Trafikledning. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Trafikledning
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25183 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Edvinsson, J., Bjärntoft, S., Bergsten, E., Hallman, D., Kjellberg, A., . . . Zetterberg, C. (2017). Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Underhåll. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Underhåll
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2017
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25184 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2919-3921

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