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Alizadeh, M., Händel, P. & Rönnow, D. (2019). Behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3 × 3 MIMO system. International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, 11(10), 989-999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3 × 3 MIMO system
2019 (English)In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 989-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern telecommunications are moving towards (massive) multi-input multi-output systems in 5th generation (5G) technology, increasing the dimensionality of the system dramatically. In this paper, the impairments of radio frequency (RF)power amplifiers (PAs) in a 3x3 MIMO system are compensated in both time and frequency domains. A three-dimensional(3D) time-domain memory polynomial-type model is proposed as an extension of conventional 2D models. Furthermore, a 3D frequency-domain technique is formulated based on the proposed time-domain model to reduce the dimensionality of the model, while preserving the performance in terms of model errors. In the 3D frequency-domain technique, the bandwidth of a system is split into several narrow sub-bands, and the parameters of the system are estimated for each subband. This approach requires less computational complexity, and also the procedure of the parameters estimation for each sub-band can be implemented independently. The device-under-test (DUT) consists of three RF PAs including input and output cross-talk channels. The proposed techniques are evaluated in both behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion(DPD) perspectives. The results show that the proposed DPD technique can compensate the errors of non-linearity and memory effects by about 23.5 dB and 7 dB in terms of the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel leakage ratio, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2019
Keywords
Radio frequency power amplifier, non-linearity, memory effects, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), digital pre-distortion.
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29304 (URN)10.1017/S1759078719000862 (DOI)000500870900001 ()2-s2.0-85067662944 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2020-11-23Bibliographically approved
Händel, P. & Rönnow, D. (2019). Modeling Mixer and Power Amplifier Impairments. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 29(7), 441-443, Article ID 8733818.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Mixer and Power Amplifier Impairments
2019 (English)In: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, ISSN 1531-1309, E-ISSN 1558-1764, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 441-443, article id 8733818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combating the effects of mixer and power amplifier (PA) imperfections on transmitter performance is crucial for the design of wireless systems. PA compression and in-phase/quadrature imbalance are analyzed for a single-input-single-output transmitter model. The influence of the imperfection on the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) of the transmitter is studied using an analytical framework that relies on the classic Bussgang theory. The study concludes with a closed-form expression for the NMSE that provides insights into the behavior of the transmitter. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Dirty radio, input backoff, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), power amplifier (PA), Mean square error, Mixers (machinery), Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Radio frequency amplifiers, Transmitters, Closed-form expression, In-phase/quadrature, Normalized mean squared errors, Single input single output, Transmitter model, Wireless systems, Power amplifiers
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30545 (URN)10.1109/LMWC.2019.2915647 (DOI)000474589400001 ()2-s2.0-85068688857 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Note

Funding: The work of D. Ronnow was supported in part by the European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund through the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth and in part by Region Gavleborg.

Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Rönnow, D. & Händel, P. (2019). Nonlinear distortion noise and linear attenuation in MIMO systems - theory and application to multiband transmitters. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 67(20), 5203-5212, Article ID 8805179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonlinear distortion noise and linear attenuation in MIMO systems - theory and application to multiband transmitters
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 67, no 20, p. 5203-5212, article id 8805179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nonlinear static multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are analyzed. The matrix formulation of Bussgang's theorem for complex Gaussian signals is rederived and put in the context of the multivariate cumulant series expansion. The attenuation matrix is a function of the input signals' covariance and the covariance of the input and output signals. The covariance of the distortion noise is in addition a function of the output signal's covariance. The effect of the observation bandwidth is discussed. Models of concurrent multiband transmitters are analyzed. For a transmitter with dual non-contiguous bands expressions for the normalized mean square error (NMSE) vs input signal power are derived for uncorrelated, partially correlated, and correlated input signals. A transmitter with arbitrary number of non-contiguous bands is analysed for correlated and uncorrelated signals. In an example, the NMSE is higher when the input signals are correlated than when they are uncorrelated for the same input signal power and it increases with the number of frequency bands. A concurrent dual band amplifier with contiguous bands is analyzed; in this case the NMSE depends on the bandwidth of the aggregated signal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Bussgang theory, carrier aggregation, concurrent dual band, MIMO, multiband transmitter, nonlinear distortion
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30580 (URN)10.1109/TSP.2019.2935896 (DOI)000485741500001 ()2-s2.0-85077734457 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund;   Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth; Region Gavleborg

Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Alizadeh, M., Händel, P. & Rönnow, D. (2018). Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers. In: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018: . Paper presented at 26th Telecommunications Forum TELFOR 2018, 20-21 November 2018, Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade: Telecommunications society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers
2018 (English)In: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade: Telecommunications society , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a new approach is proposed to decompose the basis functions in a piece-wise modeling technique for nonlinear radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. The proposed technique treats the discontinuity problem of the model output at the joint points between different operating points, whereas preserves the linear and nonlinear properties of the original model within each region. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional piece-wise model in terms of model errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belgrade: Telecommunications society, 2018
Keywords
Nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, behavioral modeling, piece-wise models, digital predistortion.
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29303 (URN)10.1109/TELFOR.2018.8611865 (DOI)000459714200035 ()2-s2.0-85062060510 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-7171-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7172-6 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7170-2 (ISBN)
Conference
26th Telecommunications Forum TELFOR 2018, 20-21 November 2018, Belgrade, Serbia
Note

Proceedings distributed on CD.

Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2020-11-23Bibliographically approved
Alizadeh, M., Rönnow, D. & Händel, P. (2018). Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal. In: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 International Conference on Communications (COMM), 14-16 June 2018, Bucharest, Romania (pp. 351-356). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal
2018 (English)In: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 1, p. 351-356Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 3rd-order Volterra kernels of a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) are characterized using a large-signal and a two-tone probing-signal. In this technique, the magnitude and phase asymmetries of the kernels of the PA excited by the probing-signal are analyzed in different amplitude regions of the large-signal. The device under test is a class-AB PA operating at 2.14 GHz. The maximum sweeping frequency space of the probing-signal is 20 MHz. The results indicate that the Volterra kernels of the PA show different behaviors (frequency dependency and asymmetry) in different regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Kernel, Radio frequency, Baseband, Nonlinear systems, Frequency dependence, Frequency-domain analysis, Discrete Fourier transforms, nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, volterra kernels, asymmetry, two-tone test
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27867 (URN)10.1109/ICComm.2018.8430119 (DOI)000449526000066 ()2-s2.0-85052507435 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2351-0 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2350-3 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2349-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 International Conference on Communications (COMM), 14-16 June 2018, Bucharest, Romania
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Händel, P. & Rönnow, D. (2018). Dirty MIMO Transmitters: Does It Matter?. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 17(8), 5425-5436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dirty MIMO Transmitters: Does It Matter?
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 5425-5436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The radio frequency transmitter is a key component in contemporary MIMO OFDM systems. A detailed study of a 2×2 MIMO transmitter subjected to correlated input data streams, nonlinear distortion, thermal noise, and crosstalk is provided by stochastic modeling. The effects of correlated input streams, crosstalk and nonlinearities are studied in detail, and exemplified both by approximate expressions and numerical simulations. Key results include exact and approximate expressions for the normalized mean-squared error (NMSE) for systems with or without digital predistortion, the relationship between NMSE and the signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio, the properties of the distortion noise, and a novel design for power amplifier back-off for MIMO-transmitters subject to crosstalk. The theoretical derivations are illustrated by numerical examples and simulation results, and their relationship to state-of-the-art research are discussed. OAPA

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Bussgang theory, Crosstalk, input back-off, MIMO communication, Nonlinear distortion, OFDM, optimization, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), power amplifier, Radio transmitters, Mean square error, Nonlinear optics, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Power amplifiers, Radio frequency amplifiers, Radio transmission, Signal to noise ratio, Stochastic systems, Thermal noise, Transmitters, Approximate expressions, Input-back offs, Normalized mean squared errors, Radio frequency transmitters, Signal to noise and distortion ratio, Theoretical derivations, MIMO systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27518 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2018.2843764 (DOI)000441933900034 ()2-s2.0-85048562714 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Khan, Z. A., Zenteno, E., Händel, P. & Isaksson, M. (2018). Extraction of the Third-Order 3x3 MIMO Volterra Kernel Outputs Using Multitone Signals. IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, 66(11), 4985-4999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extraction of the Third-Order 3x3 MIMO Volterra Kernel Outputs Using Multitone Signals
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 4985-4999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper uses multitone signals to simplify the analysis of 3×3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Volterra systems by isolating the third-order kernel outputs from each other. Multitone signals fed to an MIMO Volterra system yield a spectrum that is a permutation of the sums of the input signal tones. This a priori knowledge is used to design multitone signals such that the third-order kernel outputs are isolated in the frequency domain. The signals are designed by deriving the conditions for the offset and spacing of the input frequency grids. The proposed technique is then validated for the six possible configurations of a 3x3 RF MIMO transmitter impaired by crosstalk effects. The proposed multitone signal design is used to extract the third-order kernel outputs, and their relative contributions are analyzed to determine the dominant crosstalk effects for each configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Crosstalk; hardware impairments; multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO); multitone signals; Volterra kernels
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27812 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2018.2854186 (DOI)000449354500028 ()2-s2.0-85052719621 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-01 Created: 2018-09-01 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Amin, S., Landin, P. N., Händel, P. & Rönnow, D. (2017). 2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters. International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, 9(8), 1619-1627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters
2017 (English)In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1619-1627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

Keywords
Behavioral modeling and digital predistortion of multi-band amplifiers, Power Amplifiers, RF Front-ends
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23455 (URN)10.1017/S1759078717000277 (DOI)000418998100010 ()2-s2.0-85018373558 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-12Bibliographically approved
Khan, Z. A., Händel, P. & Isaksson, M. (2017). A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in the Mitigation of RF MIMO Transmitter Impairments. In: 2017 89th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference (ARFTG): . Paper presented at 89th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Symposium, Advanced Technologies for Communications, 9 June 2017, Honolulu, Hawaii. IEEE, Article ID 8000827.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in the Mitigation of RF MIMO Transmitter Impairments
2017 (English)In: 2017 89th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference (ARFTG), IEEE, 2017, article id 8000827Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the complexity accuracy tradeoff in state-of-the-art RF MIMO transmitter mitigation models. The complexity and accuracy of the candidate models depends on the basis functions considered in these models. Therefore, a brief description of the mitigation models is presented accompanied by derivations of the model complexities in terms of the number of FLOPs. Consequently, the complexity accuracy tradeoff in the candidate models is evaluated for a 2 × 2 RF MIMO transmitter. Furthermore, the model complexities are analyzed for increasing nonlinear orders and number of antennas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24580 (URN)10.1109/ARFTG.2017.8000827 (DOI)000426454300011 ()2-s2.0-85030244336 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2747-1 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2748-8 (ISBN)
Conference
89th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Symposium, Advanced Technologies for Communications, 9 June 2017, Honolulu, Hawaii
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2020-11-23Bibliographically approved
Alizadeh, M., Rönnow, D., Händel, P. & Isaksson, M. (2017). A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System. In: Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z. (Ed.), 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS): . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS), Nis, Serbia, 18-20 October 2017 (pp. 224-227). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System
2017 (English)In: 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS) / [ed] Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z., IEEE , 2017, p. 224-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A new block-structure behavioral model is proposed for radio frequency power amplifiers in a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system including input cross-talk. The proposed model forms kernels of blocks of different nonlinear order that correspond to the significant frequency response of measured frequency domain Volterra kernels. The model can therefore well describe the input-output relationships of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of PAs. The proposed model outperforms conventional models in terms of model errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, Volterra kernels, MIMO system, block-structural model
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Intelligent Industry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26235 (URN)10.1109/TELSKS.2017.8246268 (DOI)000425463200046 ()2-s2.0-85045971319 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1800-4 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS), Nis, Serbia, 18-20 October 2017
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2718-0262

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