hig.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Ragulis, P., Ängskog, P., Simniškis, R., Vallhagen, B., Bäckström, M. & Kancleris, Ž. (2017). Shielding Effectiveness of Modern Energy-Saving Glasses and Windows. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 65(8), 4250-4258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shielding Effectiveness of Modern Energy-Saving Glasses and Windows
Show others...
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 4250-4258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thin metal coatings on glass are widely used in modern windows to improve their thermal properties. However, while there are some available papers on the properties of microwave propagation through commercial metallized windows glass below 6 GHz there seems to be a lack of papers regarding metallized multi-glazed windows at higher frequencies. Such data are of the great importance when designing modern microwave communication systems working in urban environments. In this paper, the shielding effectiveness of modern energy-saving glasses and windows were investigated at microwave frequencies from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. Wide measurement range together with proposed fast calculation procedure based on the matrix multiplication method, allowed us to elucidate the reasons responsible for the extremes in dependencies of shielding effectiveness on frequency. It was also shown that by comparing measured and calculated results, the conductivity of the thin metallic layer used in modern energy-saving windows can be determined. During the study, we found that attenuation of microwave radiation passing through modern windows can be as high as 60 dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keyword
anechoic chamber, Conductivity, Dielectrics, energy-saving glass, Fabry-Perot resonance, Glass, Metals, Microwave communication, shielding effectiveness, Windows, Anechoic chambers, Dielectric materials, Electric conductivity, Energy conservation, Magnetic shielding, Metallizing, Microwave devices, Microwaves, Shielding, Fabry-Perot resonances, MAtrix multiplication, Microwave communication systems, Microwave communications, Microwave propagation, Thin metallic layer
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24875 (URN)10.1109/TAP.2017.2718223 (DOI)000407397600044 ()2-s2.0-85021798963 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: EU 284802 

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Backstrom, M., Vallhagen, B. & Samuelsson, C. (2016). Shielding effectiveness of energy saving windows and HPM effects on coated window panes: Measurements conducted 2014-2016 - Results and lessons learned. In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: . Paper presented at 2016 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC EUROPE, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (WUST), Wroclaw, 5-9 September 2016, Poland (pp. 461-466). , Article ID 7739288.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shielding effectiveness of energy saving windows and HPM effects on coated window panes: Measurements conducted 2014-2016 - Results and lessons learned
2016 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2016, p. 461-466, article id 7739288Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The past few decades have shown a veritable explosion of new versions of energy-saving windows and coated window panes. In the wake of this, problems with radio communications into and from within buildings has arisen. However, this unexpected attenuation of radio signals may also be used to shield a facility from incoming intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). With the intention to investigate the shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern windows and window panes a two-year measurement campaign was launched mid-2014. Another, little investigated area is what happens to coated glass when irradiated by a high-power microwave (HPM) source. Shielding effectiveness has been measured for different types of energy saving windows and coated window panes both in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a reverberation chamber over the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The effects of HPM irradiation were studied by comparing SE measured before and after the pulsed 28 kV/m L-band irradiation. The main conclusion is that with the right choice of window the shielding effectiveness of a building can reach up 40-50 dB. In this paper we summarize these measurements and lessons learned from the measurement campaign.

Keyword
Anechoic chambers; Electromagnetic compatibility; Electromagnetic pulse; Energy conservation; Glass; Irradiation; Magnetic shielding; Microwaves; Radio communication; Reverberation; Shielding; Signal interference; Windows, High power microwave sources; IEMI; Intentional electromagnetic interferences; Measurement campaign; pane; Reverberation chambers; Semi-anechoic chambers; Shielding effectiveness, Electromagnetic shielding
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23291 (URN)10.1109/EMCEurope.2016.7739288 (DOI)000392194100079 ()2-s2.0-85001033091 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2016 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC EUROPE, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (WUST), Wroclaw, 5-9 September 2016, Poland
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies AgencyThe Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Note

Forskningsfinansiärer: Fortifikationsverket (FortV) och Livsmedelsverket (SLV).

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M., Samuelsson, C. & Vallhagen, B. (2016). Shielding Effectiveness Studies of Energy Saving Windows and Coated Window Panes - a Summary. In: Proceedings of the European Electromagnetics Symposium (EUROEM) 2016: . Paper presented at The European Electromagnetics Symposium (EUROEM) 2016. London: Institution of Engineering and Technology, Article ID 7.a.2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shielding Effectiveness Studies of Energy Saving Windows and Coated Window Panes - a Summary
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Electromagnetics Symposium (EUROEM) 2016, London: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016, article id 7.a.2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent decades, window panes and windows have undergone a virtual revolution with respect to energy saving. Along with this revolution a strong reduction of radio transmission capability through windows has followed. It has been observed that radio communication (e.g. mobile telephony) in newly built or renovated buildings has become increasingly difficult to accomplish due to the higher attenuation in these energy-saving windows. On the upside though, the increased attenuation can help in the protection against intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) and compromising emanations from activities inside the building.

In this paper we summarize shielding effectiveness (SE) measurements conducted on window panes and window modules during 2014 and 2015 and give some conclusions drawn regarding do’s and don’ts when installing windows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016
Keyword
glass, IEMI, HPM, attenuation, RF, reverberation chamber, semi-anechoic chamber, mode stirred chamber, transmission, propagation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23308 (URN)
Conference
The European Electromagnetics Symposium (EUROEM) 2016
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Note

Proceedings publicerad på USB-minne.

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M., Vallhagen, B. & Samuelsson, C. (2016). Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas. In: : . Paper presented at Electronic Environment 2016 (EEC16), 20-21 april 2016, Stockholm.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas
2016 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Ett allt vanligare fenomen är att mobil telekommunikation inte fungerar i moderna/nybyggda hus. Detta kan härledas till de moderna energisparfönster som monteras in. Denna skärmverkan är inte bara ett problem utan kan också vändas till en fördel i de fall man vill skydda verksamhet från yttre elektromagnetiska störningar, till exempel avsiktlig elektromagnetisk störning (IEMI), samt i de fall då man vill undvika att röjande strålning (RÖS) från elektronisk utrustning läcker ut och kan avlyssnas.

Här kommer vi presentera resultaten från mätningar av skärmverkan hos dels fönster av olika generation och dels enskilda fönsterglas med olika funktion som används för att bygga upp dessa fönster. Dessutom presenteras resultat från mätningar av hur skärmverkan påverkas vid bestrålning med högeffekts mikrovågsstrålning (HPM).

Keyword
IEMI, RÖS, skärmverkan, dämpning, glas, fönster, HPM
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21534 (URN)
Conference
Electronic Environment 2016 (EEC16), 20-21 april 2016, Stockholm
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M., Vallhagen, B. & Samuelsson, C. (2016). Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas. Electronic Environment (3), 26-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skärmverkan och mikrovågseffekter på fönster och fönsterglas
2016 (Swedish)In: Electronic Environment, no 3, p. 26-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ett allt vanligare fenomen är att mobil telekommunikation inte fungerar i moderna/nybyggda hus. Detta kan härledas till de moderna energisparfönster som monteras in. Denna skärmverkan är inte bara ett problem utan kan också vändas till en fördel i de fall man vill skydda verksamhet från yttre elektromagnetiska störningar, till exempel avsiktlig elektromagnetisk störning (IEMI), samt i de fall då man vill undvika att röjande strålning (RÖS) från elektronisk utrustning läcker ut och kan avlyssnas.

Här kommer vi presentera resultaten från mätningar av skärmverkan hos dels fönster av olika generation och dels enskilda fönsterglas med olika funktion som används för att bygga upp dessa fönster. Dessutom presenteras resultat från mätningar av hur skärmverkan påverkas vid bestrålning med högeffekts mikrovågsstrålning (HPM).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Just Rivista AB, 2016
Keyword
transmission, dämpning, isolerglas, radiostrålning, avsiktliga störningar, HPM, hög effekt, mikrovågsstrålning, modväxlad kammare, skärmrum, RÖS, röjande strålning
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23309 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M. & Vallhagen, B. (2015). High Power Microwave Effects on Coated Window Panes. In: Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015: . Paper presented at Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015, 2 - 7 August 2015, Jeju, Republic of Korea.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Power Microwave Effects on Coated Window Panes
2015 (English)In: Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today window panes are usually coated with at least one metal or metal oxide layer to prevent heat energy of the light spectrum from propagating to the other side. This has given problems regarding radio propagation through windows, which might be utilized as a part of a buildings IEMI protection. This paper reports the results from measurements of the shielding effectiveness of a selection of modern window panes before and after irradiation with high power electromagnetic waves. The shielding effectiveness measurements are made in a nested reverberation chamber covering the range 1 – 18 GHz; both before and after high power irradiation at 1.3 GHz. The results show that the shielding effectiveness of window panes may be severely impaired due to thermal stress effects on the coatings during the irradiation, depending of the type of coating.

Keyword
HPM, window panes, glass, transmission, propagation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20861 (URN)
Conference
Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015, 2 - 7 August 2015, Jeju, Republic of Korea
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Savic, V., Ferrer-Coll, J., Ängskog, P., Chilo, J., Stenumgaard, P. & Larsson, E. G. (2015). Measurement analysis and channel modeling for TOA-based ranging in tunnels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(1), 456-467
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement analysis and channel modeling for TOA-based ranging in tunnels
Show others...
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 456-467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A robust and accurate positioning solution is required to increase the safety in GPS-denied environments. Although there is a lot of available research in this area, little has been done for confined environments such as tunnels. Therefore, we organized a measurement campaign in a basement tunnel of Linköping university, in which we obtained ultra-wideband (UWB) complex impulse responses for line-of-sight (LOS), and three non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. This paper is focused on time-of-arrival (TOA) ranging since this technique can provide the most accurate range estimates, which are required for range-based positioning. We describe the measurement setup and procedure, select the threshold for TOA estimation, analyze the channel propagation parameters obtained from the power delay profile (PDP), and provide statistical model for ranging. According to our results, the rise-time should be used for NLOS identification, and the maximum excess delay should be used for NLOS error mitigation. However, the NLOS condition cannot be perfectly determined, so the distance likelihood has to be represented in a Gaussian mixture form. We also compared these results with measurements from a mine tunnel, and found a similar behavior.

Keyword
channel modeling, impulse response, positioning, ranging, time of arrival, Tunnels, ultrawideband, Channel capacity, Maximum likelihood estimation, Range finding, Ultra-wideband (UWB), Channel model, Measurement campaign, NLOS error mitigations, Nlos identifications, Power delay profiles, Statistical modeling, Time of arrival (TOA)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18917 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2014.2350493 (DOI)000349675400037 ()2-s2.0-84921333804 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2015-02-04 Created: 2015-02-04 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M. & Vallhagen, B. (2015). Measurement of Radio Signal Propagation through Window Panes and Energy Saving Windows. In: 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): . Paper presented at Joint IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and EMC Europe, 16-22 August 2015, Dresden, Germany (pp. 74-79). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of Radio Signal Propagation through Window Panes and Energy Saving Windows
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 74-79Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Glass windows have undergone an energy saving evolution over the past three, four decades, from single panes till today’s ultralow-emission windows. While the earliest energy saving windows were constructed as a sandwich of clear glass panes using the vacuum-flask principle, modern low-emission windows includes panes with coatings of metal and/or metal oxides. This coating has caused radio propagation problems for communication systems; something that may be utilized to protect a building from intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) attacks and to help protecting against information leakage. In this paper measurements of the shielding performance of different generations of windows and qualities of window panes are presented. The intention is to include the results in a guide-line for IEMI protection of critical infrastructures. Measurements are made using two complementary methods; in a nested reverberation chamber and in a semi-anechoic chamber, both over the range 1 – 18 GHz. The results show a clear generation dependency where the energy saving windows largely do not attenuate RF signals at all and low-emission windows offer shielding effectiveness values between 10 and 45 dB with potentially as much as around 60 dB in the upper half of the spectrum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, ISSN 2158-110X
Keyword
Intentional EMI, signal propagation, shielding, transmission, glass, energy saving window, low-e window, reverberation chamber
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20862 (URN)10.1109/ISEMC.2015.7256135 (DOI)000370282300014 ()2-s2.0-84953852979 (Scopus ID)978-147996615-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and EMC Europe, 16-22 August 2015, Dresden, Germany
Note

Article number: 7256135

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Ödman, T., Bäckström, M. & Vallhagen, B. (2015). Shielding Effectiveness Study of Two Fabrics with Microwave Properties Before and After High Power Irradiation. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 2015. Paper presented at 17th International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA),7-11 Sept. 2015 , Turin, Italy (pp. 930-933). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shielding Effectiveness Study of Two Fabrics with Microwave Properties Before and After High Power Irradiation
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 930-933Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Over the past decade several applications forfabrics with electromagnetic properties have emerged, most ofthem relating to garments, including jackets with built-inantennas and workwear with increased radar visibility. Besidethese have surfaced two protective applications, namely toprotect transports of confidential equipment from discoveryand identification; and to protect sensitive apparatus fromdamage by high power electromagnetic irradiation e.g. in fieldoperations. In this paper results are presented frommeasurement of shielding effectiveness before and after highpower radiation for two types of fabrics under considerationfor the latter applications. Shielding effectivenessmeasurements have been conducted between 1 and 18 GHzwhile the high power irradiation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Keyword
HPM, fabric, shielding, SE, high power microwave, irradiation, reverberation chamber
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20863 (URN)10.1109/ICEAA.2015.7297252 (DOI)000378428800178 ()2-s2.0-84955474910 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-7806-9 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA),7-11 Sept. 2015 , Turin, Italy
Note

Article number: 7297252

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P. (2014). Avsiktliga elektromagnetiska störningar: Det osynliga hotet. Electronic Environment (1), 16-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avsiktliga elektromagnetiska störningar: Det osynliga hotet
2014 (Swedish)In: Electronic Environment, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Just Rivista AB, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18545 (URN)
Projects
IEMI - Skydd mot avsiktliga elektromagnetiska störningar
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5562-3182

Search in DiVA

Show all publications