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Carpenter, A., Lozano, R., Sammalisto, K. & Astner, L. (2018). Securing a port's future through Circular Economy: Experiences from the Port of Gävle in contributing to sustainability. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 128, 539-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Securing a port's future through Circular Economy: Experiences from the Port of Gävle in contributing to sustainability
2018 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 128, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ports are an important player in the world, due to their role in global production and distributions systems. Theyare major intermodal transport hubs, linking the sea to the land. For all ports, a key requirement for commercialand economic viability is to retain ships using them and to remain accessible to those ships. Ports need to findapproaches to help them remain open. They must ensure their continued economic viability. At the same time,they face increasing pressure to become more environmentally and socially conscious. This paper examines theapproach taken by the Port of Gävle, Sweden, which used contaminated dredged materials to create new landusing principles of Circular Economy. The paper demonstrates that using Circular Economy principles can be aviable way of securing a port's future and contributing to its sustainability, and that of the city/region where itoperates.

Keywords
sustainability in ports, circular economy, dredging, quay construction, port of Gävle, Sweden
National Category
Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26107 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.065 (DOI)000430645600061 ()29571406 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044680804 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sustainability in Ports
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Lozano, R., Merrill, M. Y., Sammalisto, K., Ceulemans, K. & Lozano, F. J. (2017). Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal. Sustainability, 9(10), Article ID 1889.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal
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2017 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1889Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research into and practice of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) have been increasing during the last two decades. These have focused on providing sustainability education to future generations of professionals. In this context, there has been considerable progress in the incorporation of SD in universities’ curricula. Most of these efforts have focussed on the design and delivery of sustainability-oriented competences. Some peer-reviewed articles have proposed different pedagogical approaches to better deliver SD in these courses; however, there has been limited research on the connection between how courses are delivered (pedagogical approaches) and how they may affect sustainability competences. This paper analyses competences and pedagogical approaches, using hermeneutics to connect these in a framework based on twelve competences and twelve pedagogical approaches found in the literature. The framework connects the course aims to delivery in HESD by highlighting the connections between pedagogical approaches and competences in a matrix structure. The framework is aimed at helping educators in creating and updating their courses to provide a more complete, holistic, and systemic sustainability education to future leaders, decision makers, educators, and change agents. To better develop mind-sets and actions of future generations, we must provide students with a complete set of sustainability competences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2017
Keywords
Higher Education for Sustainable Development, competence, pedagogy, teaching and learning, curriculum planning, educational outcomes
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25449 (URN)10.3390/su9101889 (DOI)000414896200218 ()2-s2.0-85032854131 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O. (2017). Energy and Waste Management. Energies, 10(7), Article ID 1072.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and Waste Management
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 1072Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Waste management and energy systems are often interlinked, either directly by waste-to-energy technologies, or indirectly as processes for recovery of resources-such as materials, oils, manure, or sludge-use energy in their processes or substitute conventional production of the commodities for which the recycling processes provide raw materials. A special issue in Energies on the topic of “ Energy andWaste Management” attained a lot of attention from the scientific community. In particular, papers contributing to improved understanding of the combined management of waste and energy were invited. In all, 9 papers were published out of 24 unique submissions. The papers cover technical topics such as leaching of heavy metals, pyrolysis, and production of synthetic natural gas in addition to different systems assessments of horse manure, incineration, and complex future scenarios at a national level. All papers except one focused on energy recovery from waste. That particular paper focused on waste management of infrastructure in an energy system (wind turbines). Published papers illustrate research in the field of energy and waste management on both a current detailed process level as well as on a future system level. Knowledge gained on both types is necessary to be able to make progress towards a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
energy; waste; incineration; pyrolysis; gasification; anaerobic digestion; district heating; LCA; manure; ash; oil; scenarios; wind power; SNG
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25684 (URN)10.3390/en10071072 (DOI)000406700200243 ()2-s2.0-85037814783 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O. & Finnveden, G. (2017). Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions. Energies, 10(4), Article ID 539.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 539Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies on waste incineration as part of the energy system show that waste management and energy supply are highly dependent on each other, and that the preconditions for the energy system setup affects the avoided emissions and thereby even sometimes the total outcome of an environmental assessment. However, it has not been previously shown explicitly which key parameters are most crucial, how much each parameter affects results and conclusions and how different aspects depend on each other. The interconnection between waste incineration and the energy system is elaborated by testing parameters potentially crucial to the result: design of the incineration plant, avoided energy generation, degree of efficiency, electricity efficiency in combined heat and power plants (CHP), avoided fuel, emission level of the avoided electricity generation and avoided waste management. CO2 emissions have been calculated for incineration of 1 kWh mixed combustible waste. The results indicate that one of the most important factors is the electricity efficiency in CHP plants in combination with the emission level of the avoided electricity generation. A novel aspect of this study is the plant by plant comparison showing how different electricity efficiencies associated with different types of fuels and plants influence results. Since waste incineration typically have lower power to fuel ratios, this has implications for further analyses of waste incineration compared to other waste management practises and heat and power production technologies. New incineration capacity should substitute mixed landfill disposal and recovered energy should replace energy from inefficient high polluting plants. Electricity generation must not be lost, as it has to be compensated for by electricity production affecting the overall results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
waste, incineration, CHP, efficiency, avoided fuel, natural gas, biofuel, CO2
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24250 (URN)10.3390/en10040539 (DOI)000400065000128 ()2-s2.0-85028958106 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y., Bjorklund, A., Eriksson, O., Finnveden, G., Soderman, M. L., Sundqvist, J.-O. & Stenmarck, Å. (2017). Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios. Energies, 10(2), Article ID 247.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios
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2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

Keywords
waste management; life cycle assessment (LCA); environmental assessment; scenario assessment; waste policy assessment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24324 (URN)10.3390/en10020247 (DOI)000395469200101 ()2-s2.0-85030786958 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O. (2017). Nuclear power and resource efficiency-A proposal for a revised primary energy factor. Sustainability, 9(6), Article ID 1063.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nuclear power and resource efficiency-A proposal for a revised primary energy factor
2017 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32-88); for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power) PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU) would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

Keywords
Breeder reactor, Burn-up, Cumulative energy demand, Energy intensity, Fission, Nuclear power, PEF, Primary energy, Resource, Uranium
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24866 (URN)10.3390/su9061063 (DOI)000404133200185 ()2-s2.0-85021130870 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Fjärrsyn
Note

Funding agency:

University of Gavle

Energiforsk (Fjärrsyn)

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Wallhagen, M., Malmqvist, T. & Eriksson, O. (2017). Professionals' knowledge and use of environmental assessment in an architectural competition. Building Research & Information, 45(4), 426-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professionals' knowledge and use of environmental assessment in an architectural competition
2017 (English)In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 426-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In early design phases, architects, landscape architects and urban planners are key actors whose decisions determine the environmental impact of planning and building projects. Environmental and sustainability assessment tools for buildings and neighbourhoods have been developed to promote sustainable building, but their usage has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study investigated self-reported knowledge and usage of such tools among competitors and jury group from 10 European countries involved in the international architectural competition '€˜A New City Centre for Kiruna'€™ in Sweden. The questionnaire revealed that 13% used environmental assessment tools or management systems in the competition, although 47% had used them previously. Tool users reported greater knowledge of how to handle environmental impacts than non-users. However, the self-rated experience of handling various environmental impacts, in the competition and in general, was low for both groups. Nevertheless, the self-rated importance of environmental impacts was high among all participants. Based on this study, it is concluded that environmental assessment tools, issues and goals can be better integrated into the processes of early design in planning and building projects, and in architectural competitions. Furthermore, to limit environmental impacts in building and planning projects, professionals need to be educated about environmental strategies and solutions.

Keywords
architects, architectural competition, assessment tool, environmental assessment, knowledge, neighbourhood, sustainable design, urban design
National Category
Civil Engineering Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21332 (URN)10.1080/09613218.2015.1118264 (DOI)000399461700006 ()2-s2.0-84961214754 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hadin, Å., Hillman, K. & Eriksson, O. (2017). Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure: A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs. Energies, 10(12), Article ID 1935.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure: A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A transition to renewable energy sources and a circular economy has increased interest in renewable resources not usually considered as energy sources or plant nutrient resources. Horse manure exemplifies this, as it is sometimes recycled but not often used for energy purposes. The purpose of this study was to explore horse manure management in a Swedish municipality and prospects for energy recovery. The case study includes a survey of horse manure practices, environmental assessment of horse manure treatment in a biogas plant, including associated transport, compared to on-site unmanaged composting, and finally a simplified economic analysis. It was found that horse manure management was characterized by indoor collection of manure most of the year and storage on concrete slabs or in containers, followed by direct application on arable land. Softwood was predominantly used as bedding, and bedding accounted for a relatively small proportion (13%) of the total mix. Anaerobic digestion was indicated to reduce potential environmental impact in comparison to unmanaged composting, mainly due to biogas substituting use of fossil fuels. The relative environmental impact from transport of manure from horse facilities to anaerobic digestion plant was small. Results also indicate a relatively high cost for horse keepers to change from composting on site to anaerobic digestion in a centralized plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2017
Keywords
horse manure, horse keeping, bioenergy, anaerobic digestion, nutrient recycling, systems perspective, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ORWARE, global warming potential (GWP), cumulative energy demand (CED), costs, bedding
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25604 (URN)10.3390/en10121935 (DOI)000423156900006 ()2-s2.0-85044482336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Sammalisto, K. (2017). Sustainability in the University of Gävle for a sustainable future (1ed.). In: Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M. (Ed.), A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better (pp. 3-8). Mjölby: Atremi AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability in the University of Gävle for a sustainable future
2017 (English)In: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 3-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It has been interesting to follow the journey of the University of Gävle on its way towards sustainability during the pas quarter foa decade. The University has led the way as an example for other universities in Sweden and internationally in many ways. It is good to see the change that has taken place and that it continues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mjölby: Atremi AB, 2017 Edition: 1
Keywords
sustainability, University of Gävle
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23086 (URN)978-91-7527-174-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hadin, Å., Eriksson, O. & Hillman, K. (2016). A review of potential critical factors in horse keeping for anaerobic digestion of horse manure. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 65, 432-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of potential critical factors in horse keeping for anaerobic digestion of horse manure
2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 432-442Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Keeping horses causes environmental impacts through the whole chain from feed production to manure. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is currently 360,000 and is continuing to increase. This result in increasing amounts of horse manure that has to be managed and treated, which is currently done using practices that cause local, regional, and global environmental impacts. However, horse manure and its content of nutrients and organic material could be a useful fertiliser for arable land and a substrate for renewable energy production as biogas. The aim of the paper is to identify and describe potentially critical factors in horse keeping determining the amount (total mass) and characteristics (nutrient content and biodegradability) of horse manure, and thus the potential for anaerobic digestion. A systematic combining approach is used as a structural framework for reviewed relevant literature. All factors identified are expressed as discrete choices available to the horse keeper. In all, 12 different factors were identified: type and amount of feed, type and amount of bedding, mucking out regime, residence time outdoors, storage type and residence time of manure in storage, spreading and soil conditions, and transport distance and type of vehicle fuel used. Managing horses in terms of these factors is of vital importance in reducing the direct environmental impacts from horse keeping and in making horse manure attractive as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. The results are also relevant to environmental systems analysis, where numerical calculations are employed and different biogas system set-ups are compared to current and other treatments. In such assessments, the relevance and importance of the critical factors identified here and corresponding conditions can be examined and the most promising system set-up can be devised.

Keywords
Biodegradability, Biogas, Crashworthiness, Environmental impact, Fertilizers, Fuel storage, Fuels, Manures, Nutrients, Substrates, Systems analysis, Environmental systems analysis, Global environmental impacts, Horse keeping, Horse manure, Numerical calculation, Nutrient recycling, Structural frameworks, Transport distances, Anaerobic digestion
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22236 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.058 (DOI)000383293800031 ()2-s2.0-84978732237 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5661-2917

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