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Okenwa Emegwa, L. (2014). Determinants of sick leave duration following occupational injuries among workers in the county of Gävleborg, Sweden. Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs, 2(4), Article ID 176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of sick leave duration following occupational injuries among workers in the county of Gävleborg, Sweden
2014 (English)In: Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs, ISSN 1463-502X, E-ISSN 2329-6879, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Occupational injuries continue to add to the global burden of injuries. Recent global estimates show that up 317 million workers were injured in accidents at work that resulted in absence from work of four days or more. Whereas sick leave is important for rehabilitation and recovery, the duration of sick leave and consequent return to work is of concern in order to prevent negative outcomes. There is therefore a need to examine factors associated with sick leave duration among injured workers for effective rehabilitation. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of leave sick duration following occupational injuries. Method: The Swedish National Working Environment Agency keeps a record of all cases of occupational injuries requiring at least one day sick leave day and reported to Swedish Social Welfare Security Agency. The present study is register based using data from a total of 5291 cases of occupational injuries that occurred in the county of Gävleborg, Sweden between 2007 and 2012. Result: Sick leave longer than two weeks was highest for the self-employed and temporary workers although injury frequency was low for both groups. Fall injuries and injuries involving slip, trip and snapping or breaking of an object were more likely to lead to sick leave longer than two weeks. Shorter sick duration was observed among injured workers in the health and manufacturing sectors. Conclusions: Possible reasons for the observed results and the need for individual based rehabilitation process for effective and more meaningful return to work are discussed.

Keywords
sick leave, absence, duration, return to work, injury, occupational, work related, industry, safety, rehabilitation, inequality, employment, sector
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18719 (URN)10.4172/2329-6879.1000176 (DOI)
Projects
Epidemiology of Work Place Injuries and Related health Outcomes In Gävleborg County (EWIHG)
Available from: 2015-01-10 Created: 2015-01-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Okenwa Emegwa, L. (2014). Trends in Work Place Injury and Consequent Absence from Work in the County of Gävleborg, Sweden. In: Massimo Cecaro (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Third International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health and Safety, Valencia, Spain, June 24-25, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in Work Place Injury and Consequent Absence from Work in the County of Gävleborg, Sweden
2014 (English)In: / [ed] Massimo Cecaro, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Work related injuries continue to contribute to the global burden of disease and injuries. According to recent global estimates, about a million workers are injured and a thousand die per day due to work injuries. In Sweden, trends in reporting work place injuries have varied over time with various peaks and troughs.Differences have been observed between the reporting ofinjuries requiring sick leaves and those requiring no sick leaves, the so called ‘zero’ accidents.There are however few studies exploring the specific trends and patterns of occupational injuries in Sweden. Even problematic is the fact that available studies are very industry specific. Aim: To explore trends in workplace injuries and associated socio-demographic risk factors in the county of Gävleborg, Sweden.The study also aims to look at sick leave patterns in terms of total number of days absent from week and their determinants. Method: The study is based on retrospective longitudinal data comprising of all cases of work place accidents between 1992 and 2012 which were reported to the Swedish social insurance agency. A total of 24129 cases were reported across different industries. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: Preliminary results show that work place injuries vary by social demographic factors (such as age, sex, type of employment status) and industry.Results also show that age and sex are major determinants of total number of sick leave days. Conclusion: The implication for interventions and further research are discussed.

Keywords
occupational injury, work related injury, sick leave, sector, industry
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18720 (URN)
Conference
Third International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health and Safety, Valencia, Spain, June 24-25, 2014
Projects
Epidemiology of Work Place Injuries and Related health Outcomes In Gävleborg County (EWIHG)
Available from: 2015-01-10 Created: 2015-01-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Okenwa Emegwa, L. (2011). Intimate Partner Violence Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria: Magnitude, Nature and Consequences For Reproductive Health. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intimate Partner Violence Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria: Magnitude, Nature and Consequences For Reproductive Health
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against women is now recognised as a problem of global magnitude, owing to its detrimental consequences on the health, social and economic welfare of women and their children. This scenario has prompted increased research to understand its risk factors and data has indicated contextual variation in this regard, warranting an assessment in each unique setting. A major constraint, however, on the detection and potential management of IPV lies in the poor disclosure of abuse by many women and their submission to abuse, particularly in Sub- Saharan Africa.

Objective: We studied the magnitude and risk factors for IPV exposure among women in a community of Nigeria (paper 1), extent of and factors associated with the disclosure of IPV in the community sample (paper 2), the association between IPV and reproductive health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Nigerian women (paper 3) and women and men‟s attitudes towards IPV in a nationally representative sample (paper 4).

Methods: Structured interviews were conducted in a sample of over 900 women selected systematically from among visitors to a community health facility (papers 1 and 2). Women were probed on exposure to and disclosure of IPV, as well as demographic, social and empowerment measures. Secondary data was retrieved from the demographic and health surveys of Nigeria 2008, which utilised multi-stage sampling to gather demographic and health data on over 45,000 men and women, which was used to study the reproductive health outcomes in relation to IPV (paper 3) as well as model attitudes towards IPV using demographic, social and empowerment indicators (paper 4). Statistical analyses used included Chi-square tests and Logistic regressions.

Results: The 1 year prevalence of IPV was 29%, with significant proportions reporting psychological (23%), physical (9%) and sexual (8%) abuse. Independent predictors of IPV included in-access to information, women‟s autonomy in decision making and contribution to household expenses (paper 1). Fifty four percent of the participating women would not disclose IPV on the hypothetical situation of exposure. Among those willing to disclose, 37% (n=103) would disclose to some form of institutions (i.e. religious leaders, law enforcement officers (only 1% would actually disclose to the police). This institutional disclosure is in contrast to 68% who opted to disclose to close family and relatives. Ethnicity, woman‟s own use of alcohol and autonomy in household decision (e.g. having a say on household purchases), increased the likelihood of disclose IPV (paper 2). Exposure to IPV was associated with using modern forms of contraception; have a history of miscarriages, induced abortions, stillbirths, or infant mortality; and having many children. These associations remained even after adjustment for potential confounders including demographic and socioeconomic factors (paper 3). Although justification of IPV was common among men and women, a higher proportion of women justified IPV compared to men. For both men and women, justification of wife beating was associated with low education, rural residency and ethnicity. Access to information was associated with justification of abuse, sometimes in the unexpected manner. While in-access to newspaper was associated with an increased likelihood of justifying abuse among women, in-access to radio/tv decreased the likelihood of endorsing wife abuse among the women. The direct opposite was observed among men. Finally, having a shared autonomy in household decisions was associated with a reduced likelihood of justifying wife abuse among both women and men (paper 4).

Conclusion: IPV is rampant and is associated with detrimental reproductive health outcomes and contraception use among Nigerian women. Nigerian women justify IPV to a higher degree than men, with variations in gender regarding the determinants of such justification. Though many of the predictors of IPV exposure, disclosure and attitudes tend to corroborate previous work and theories, the association between empowerment indicator and these outcomes are sometimes contradictory to previous work, suggesting possible contextual differences. The thesis has important implications for prevention of IPV in Nigeria and further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet, 2011. p. 75
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18718 (URN)978-91-7457-175-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-27, 13:00
Available from: 2015-01-10 Created: 2015-01-10 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Okenwa Emegwa, L., Lawoko, S. & Jansson, B. (2009). Exposure to intimate partner violence amongst women of reproductive age in lagos,nigeria : Prevalence and predictors.. Journal of family Violence, 24(7), 517-530
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to intimate partner violence amongst women of reproductive age in lagos,nigeria : Prevalence and predictors.
2009 (English)In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 517-530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on predictors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Sub-Saharan Africa is contradictory, necessitating further investigation. This study sought the prevalence and predictors of IPV among women in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaire data from 934 women visiting an obstetrics and gynecology clinic in Lagos were analyzed using multivariable methods. The 1 year prevalence of IPV was 29%, with significant proportions reporting psychological (23%), physical (9%) and sexual (8%) abuse. In-access to information, women's autonomy and contribution to household expenses independently predicted IPV. The findings provide new incites for IPV prevention in Lagos with implications for further research.

Keywords
intimate partner violence, gender, empowerment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18717 (URN)10.1007/s10896-009-9250-7 (DOI)000267824900009 ()2-s2.0-70350004857 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-10 Created: 2015-01-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0459-1496

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