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Eliasson, I., Fredholm, S., Knez, I., Gustavsson, E. & Weller, J. (2023). Cultural Values of Landscapes in the Practical Work of Biosphere Reserves. Land, 12(3), Article ID 587.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultural Values of Landscapes in the Practical Work of Biosphere Reserves
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2023 (English)In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the landscape’s cultural values in the practical work of biosphere reserves and to identify what opportunities there are to increase awareness and knowledge about these values. The paper draws upon data collected in a Swedish biosphere reserve, including a survey of residents, interviews with public officials involved in cultural heritage management, and an analysis of documents produced by the Biosphere Reserve Association. Residents showed a broad knowledge about the landscape’s cultural values, and they linked immaterial heritage to material objects. The residents’ strong identity and pride in relation to the landscape were confirmed by the officials, who argued that it is the deep layers of history and the cultural diversity of the landscape that make the biosphere reserve attractive. However, concepts related to the landscape’s cultural values were barely touched upon in the documents analysed; the landscape’s cultural values were presented as a background—as an abstract value. The findings reveal several unexplored opportunities and practical implications to increase awareness and knowledge of the landscape’s cultural values. Suggested actions include definition of goals, articulation and use of concepts, inventories of actors, increased collaboration, and use of residents’ knowledge. Cultural values of landscapes are often neglected in the practical work of biosphere reserves, despite the social and cultural dimensions of sustainable development being an important component of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. This research indicates several ways of bridging this gap between theory and practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
sustainable development; cultural heritage management; landscape; biosphere reserves; spatial planning
National Category
Environmental Sciences Cultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41602 (URN)10.3390/land12030587 (DOI)000960134600001 ()2-s2.0-85151443188 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Heritage Board, 3.2.2-5202-2016
Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Lyskov, E., Grönkvist, M., Kölegård, R., Dahlström, N., Knez, I., . . . Willander, J. (2022). Cognitive performance, fatigue, emotional and physiological strains in simulated long-duration flight missions. Military Psychology, 34(2), 224-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive performance, fatigue, emotional and physiological strains in simulated long-duration flight missions
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2022 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pilots in long-duration flight missions in single-seat aircrafts may be affected by fatigue. This study determined associations between cognitive performance, emotions and physiological activation and deactivation – measured by heart rate variability – in a simulated 11-hours flight mission in the 39 Gripen aircraft. Eleven participants volunteered for the study. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Cognitive performance and objective fatigue were measured by non-executive and executive tasks. Emotions were assessed by the Circumplex Affect Space instrument. Heart rate variability (HRV) was considered in relation to the cognitive battery test in four time points – Hours 3, 5, 7, 9 – and their associations with emotional ratings. Results indicated decrease in performance in the non-executive task after approximately seven hours. This result was correlated with self-reported measures of fatigue. Heart rate variability, assessed by indices of parasympathetic modulation – RMSSD, pNN50 and mean RR Interval – remained unchanged for both non-executive and executive tasks over time. There were associations between increased boredom as well as passiveness and decrease in stimulation as well as activeness, and increased HRV. This suggests that a low self-regulatory effort for maintaining performance in these tasks in these environmental conditions was required. Combined results indicate that pilots may be able to adapt to environmental demands and fatigue in long-duration missions providing that low self-regulatory effort is prevalent. Keywords: fatigue, heart rate variability, cognitive performance, emotions, long-duration military missions 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Fatigue, heart rate variability, cognitive performance, emotions, long-duration missions
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35493 (URN)10.1080/08995605.2021.1989236 (DOI)000742314900001 ()2-s2.0-85122788165 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-25 Created: 2021-03-25 Last updated: 2023-05-11Bibliographically approved
Sang, Å. O., Butler, A. & Knez, I. (2022). Gender and Age Differences for Perceptual Qualities of a Forest Landscape in Relation to Dramatic Landscape Change Processes: Implications for Connections to Place. In: Oana-Ramona Ilovan, Iwona Markuszewska (Ed.), Preserving and Constructing Place Attachment in Europe: (pp. 165-182). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and Age Differences for Perceptual Qualities of a Forest Landscape in Relation to Dramatic Landscape Change Processes: Implications for Connections to Place
2022 (English)In: Preserving and Constructing Place Attachment in Europe / [ed] Oana-Ramona Ilovan, Iwona Markuszewska, Springer , 2022, p. 165-182Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we examine the effect of catastrophic landscape change on individual’s connections to their everyday landscape. The study investigates relationships between perceptual qualities of a forest landscape and connection to place, before and after a large forest fire in Sweden. The findings presented in this chapter are based on results from 656 questionnaire responses from individuals living near the fire area. Using measures of landscape perceptual quality (naturalness, coherence, complexity, stewardship, disturbance, and scale/openness. Accessibility, sound, safety, and overall experience), we reveal the relevance of age and gender on changes in these perceived qualities and relation to attachment to the landscape. We found that women considered the landscape less easy to access, less safe and more disturbed than men. While the elderly experienced less accessibility and openness than did young respondents. We conclude that this everyday landscape has become a non-familiar place for the residents, creating a loss of attachment and a sense of spatial anxiety. Yet this loss and anxiety are not consistent across the population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Series
GeoJournal Library, ISSN 0924-5499, E-ISSN 2215-0072 ; 131
Keywords
Connection to landscape; Forest fire; Loss of attachment; Plurality of landscape connections; Sweden
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40330 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-09775-1_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140248935 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-09774-4 (ISBN)978-3-031-09775-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-10-31 Created: 2022-10-31 Last updated: 2022-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, I., Fredholm, S., Knez, I. & Gustavsson, E. (2022). The Need to Articulate Historic and Cultural Dimensions of Landscapes in Sustainable Environmental Planning - A Swedish Case Study. Land, 11(11), Article ID 915.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Need to Articulate Historic and Cultural Dimensions of Landscapes in Sustainable Environmental Planning - A Swedish Case Study
2022 (English)In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ignoring the historic and cultural dimensions of landscapes makes environmental planning unsustainable, which in the long run, will have a negative impact on both the environment and society. This paper examines the work and perceptions of practitioners with a focus on the role of historic and cultural landscape dimensions and their relation to the recent implementation of the ecosystem service framework in sustainable environmental planning. Semi-structured interviews with officials at local and regional planning levels in a Swedish case study showed that the historical landscape forms the basis for environmental work. Respondents expressed an integrated view of the landscape, and historic and cultural landscape dimensions were considered important in the initial planning process. However, several challenges existed later in the planning process and final decision-making, such as conceptual ambiguities, unclear policy and assignments, limited cross-sectorial coordination and lack of awareness, knowledge, resources and other priorities. The results also show that the respondents worked regularly with intangible landscape dimensions, which can be defined as cultural ecosystem services, but they do not label them as such. Furthermore, established knowledge and expertise of heritage planning was not activated in the implementation of the ecosystem service approach. We conclude that historic and cultural landscape dimensions are not ignored in practice, but there is a need to articulate these aspects more clearly in order to achieve sustainable environmental planning. There is also an unexplored opportunity to connect skills and create new forms of cross-sectorial collaboration between heritage planning and the ES approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
cultural heritage, cultural ecosystem services, historic environment, spatial planning, landscape policy, sustainable development
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40505 (URN)10.3390/land11111915 (DOI)000881174600001 ()2-s2.0-85141850692 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Heritage Board, Dnr 3.2.2-5202-2016
Available from: 2022-11-24 Created: 2022-11-24 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Dahlstrom, N., Knez, I., Ljung, R., Cameron, M. & Willander, J. (2021). Dynamic decision-making of airline pilots in low-fidelity simulation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 22(1), 83-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic decision-making of airline pilots in low-fidelity simulation
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2021 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dynamic decision-making in aviation involves complex problem solving in a dynamic environment characterized by goal conflicts and time constrains. Training mostly focuses on testing domain-specific knowledge and skills that may result in context-specific rather than general problem-solving skills. A low-fidelity decision-making simulation may favour the understanding of the decision process rather than the decision outcome alone. We investigated airline pilots’ decision-making strategies and task performance through the use of the low-fidelity computer simulation (microworld) COLDSTORE, a non-linear, opaque, time-delayed task. Almost thirty percent of pilots adapted (Adaptors) to the task’s demands, reaching the desired objective. About thirty five percent of pilots approached the task using a cautious strategy (Cautious). However, the success rates in reaching the task’s objective revealed that performance was compromised for the cautious group. A changing (Changers) and oscillating (Oscillators) approach was also observed. More experienced pilots differed from least experienced pilots in strategy and performance adopted. We suggest that low-fidelity dynamic decision-making simulations offer an environment for practicing and understanding the decision-making process. That may contribute to pilots’ ability to coordinate monitoring, recognition, planning, judgement and choice when acting under flight environment time constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Dynamic decision-making, airline pilots, low-fidelity simulations, microworlds, instance-based learning theory
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32394 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2020.1758830 (DOI)000535432300001 ()2-s2.0-85085489936 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-04 Created: 2020-06-04 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Nordhall, O., Knez, I. & Willander, J. (2021). Emotion and cognition in personal and collective work-identity formation: variable- and person-oriented analyses. Heliyon, 7(6), Article ID e07210.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotion and cognition in personal and collective work-identity formation: variable- and person-oriented analyses
2021 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 7, no 6, article id e07210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate emotional and cognitive processes involved in the formation of personal and collective work-identity by variable- and person-oriented analyses. A digitized questionnaire was answered by 768 participants. In line with an autobiographical (personal) memory view, we showed that: (1) emotional processes positively predicted cognitive processes (variable-oriented analyses), and (2) emotional profile had an effect on cognitive processes (person-oriented analyses), with regard to personal work-identity formation. Regarding collective work-identity formation, and in line with a social-identity and self-categorization perspective, we showed that: (1) cognitive processes positively predicted emotional processes (variable-oriented analyses), and (2) cognitive profile had an effect on emotional processes (person-oriented analyses). Our results indicate that emotion and cognition play different roles in personal- and collective work-identity formation; additionally, suggesting that the theoretical views of both personal and social psychology as well as analyses at different levels should be involved in order to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of people-work bonding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CellPress, 2021
Keywords
Personal work-identity formation, Collective work-identity formation, Emotion, Cognition, Variable- and person-oriented analyses
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35267 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07210 (DOI)000672577800013 ()34169165 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85108692875 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-11 Created: 2021-02-11 Last updated: 2022-09-16Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Grönkvist, M., Kölegård, R., Dahlström, N., Knez, I., Ljung, R. & Willander, J. (2021). Fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in simulated long-duration single-piloted flight missions. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, 92(9), 710-719
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in simulated long-duration single-piloted flight missions
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2021 (English)In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 92, no 9, p. 710-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatigue of air force pilots has become an increasing concern due to changes in mission characteristics. In the current study we investigated fatigue, emotions and cognitive performance in a simulated 11-hours mission in the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft.

Methods: A total of twelve subjects were evaluated in a high-fidelity dynamic flight simulator for 12 consecutive hours. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Emotions were assessed with the Circumplex Affect Space. Cognitive performance was assessed by five cognitive tasks.

Results: Significant increase in self-reported fatigue, general decrease in two positive emotional states, as well increase of one negative emotional state occurred after approximately seven hours into the mission. Self-reported fatigue negatively correlated with enthusiasm and cheerfulness (r’= -0.75; -0.49, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and gloominess (r’ = -0.61; r’ = -0.30, respectively). Response time in the low-order task negatively correlated with enthusiasm, cheerfulness and calmness (r’= - 0.44; r’= - 0.41; r’= - 0.37, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and anxiousness (r’ = 0.37; r’ = 0.28, respectively). Mission duration had an adverse impact on emotions in these environmental conditions, particularly after seven hours.

Discussion: These results contribute to the understanding of fatigue development in general and of emotion-cognition relationships. These findings emphasize that both emotional states and the type of cognitive tasks to be performed should be considered for planning long-duration missions in single-piloted fighter aircrafts as to increase the probability of missions’ success.

Keywords: military missions, fighter aircraft, objective and subjective pilot performance

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aerospace Medical Association, 2021
Keywords
military missions, fighter aircraft, objective and subjective pilot performance
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35491 (URN)10.3357/AMHP.5798.2021 (DOI)000708037700004 ()34645551 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118525157 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-25 Created: 2021-03-25 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Knez, I., Willander, J., Butler, A., Ode Sang, Å., Sarlöv-Herlin, I. & Åkerskog, A. (2021). I can still see, hear and smell the fire: Cognitive, emotional and personal consequences of a natural disaster, and the impact of evacuation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 74, Article ID 101554.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I can still see, hear and smell the fire: Cognitive, emotional and personal consequences of a natural disaster, and the impact of evacuation
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 74, article id 101554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the effects of evacuation experience on autobiographical memory, sensory-perceptual re-experiencing, emotions, and personal consequentiality of a natural disaster one year after. A total of 601 individuals participated, living nearby the area of the largest fire in modern times in Sweden. It was shown that evacuated (first-hand experience) compared to not-evacuated (second-hand experience) participants thought and talked more about the fire. Evacuated residents also mentally traveled back and re-lived the disaster more; as well as saw the fire, heard its sound, smelled it more, and felt more anxious, enraged, and emotionally strong. Moreover, evacuated compared to not-evacuated participants estimated that their life and view of the world had changed due to the natural disaster. All this suggests that the psychology of dramatically charged events, such as natural disasters, differs notably between individuals “being there” and those “hearing the news”, indicating a factual flashbulb memory as a result of the first-hand experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Natural disaster, Autobiographical memory, Flashbulb memory, Sensory-perceptual re-experiencing, Emotions, Personal consequentiality, Evacuation
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35731 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101554 (DOI)000643637300010 ()2-s2.0-85101497402 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-28 Created: 2021-04-28 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Butler, A., Ångman, E., Ode Sang, Å., Sarlöv-Herlin, I., Åkerskog, A. & Knez, I. (2021). “There will be mushrooms again” – Foraging, landscape and forest fire. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, 33, Article ID 100358.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“There will be mushrooms again” – Foraging, landscape and forest fire
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 33, article id 100358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we address the relevance of recreational foraging, picking berries and mushrooms, for developing connection to nature and what happens when that practice is interrupted by drastic landscape change. We use the site of the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history as a case to examining the relevance of foraging. In previous studies, positive associations have been observed between the activity of picking berries and mushrooms with landscape-identity prior to forest fires. The results suggest that the more participants enjoyed foraging, the stronger their attachment to the landscape as well as memories and reasoning about the landscape. These relationships remainedafter the area has been drastically altered by fire, implying a significant role of foraging for keeping “alive” the positive feelings and memories of the forest landscape. Through questionnaires and semistructured interviews, we examine why individuals forage, what foraging meant for them before the event and how they relate to the landscape and foraging after the fire. Our findings suggest that these connections are built on an interplay between place, practice and intimate knowledge. We conclude that foraging play an essential role in defining and developing connections to landscape which can act as the basis for stewardship of the landscape. Management implications: • In order to facilitate reconnection to the landscape after a forest fire there is a need to understand how individuals and communities related to the landscape before the fire. • Foraging will always be reliant on issues of access, and specific management regimes. • Cultural values and small-scale activities play an essential role in defining and developing connections to landscape. Connections which can ultimately inform a sense of responsibility and stewardship. • Activities such as foraging are reliant on more than just the affordance provided by the physical and visual character of a landscape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Foraging, Forest fire, Landscape, Landscape fire, Landscape identity, Landscape practices
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35012 (URN)10.1016/j.jort.2020.100358 (DOI)000632549900006 ()2-s2.0-85099186168 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-27 Created: 2021-01-27 Last updated: 2021-04-23Bibliographically approved
Ode Sang, Å., Sang, N., Hedblom, M., Sevelin, G., Knez, I. & Gunnarsson, B. (2020). Are path choices of people moving through urban green spaces explained by gender and age?: Implications for planning and management. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 49, Article ID 126628.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are path choices of people moving through urban green spaces explained by gender and age?: Implications for planning and management
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2020 (English)In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 49, article id 126628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neighbourhood green space is an important asset for the urban population, providing valuable ecosystem services such as supporting human health. Distance or access to urban green areas is well established as being important for the potential use of the area but how different demographic groups move within greenspace is still somewhat unknown. Previous studies have shown that there are gender as well as age differences in visual perception, audio experience and recreational activities as well as estimated well-being experienced from use of urban green space. Here we explored people´s movement within their local green space in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. The results showed that movement took place over large parts of the green spaces studied, not only along paths. The data further showed that the movement pattern differed significantly between men and women as well as between young adults and old adults. Movement patterns of demographic groups could provide support to planning for sustainable urban green areas, help avoid conflict, identify areas for solitude and ensure equal access for people of different gender and age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Urban green space, Movement, Park use, PPGIS, Hot spot analysis
National Category
Health Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31725 (URN)10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126628 (DOI)000524972100004 ()2-s2.0-85079210984 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was supported by FORMAS (code 2012-3411-22602-60), Mistra Urban Futures and the Swedish Transport Administration within the project "Valuation of ecosystem services provided by urban greenery".

Available from: 2020-02-18 Created: 2020-02-18 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1386-5260

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