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Jiang, Bin, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2337-2486
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Publications (10 of 142) Show all publications
Ren, Z., Seipel, S. & Jiang, B. (2024). A topology-based approach to identifying urban centers in America using multi-source geospatial big data. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 107, Article ID 102045.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A topology-based approach to identifying urban centers in America using multi-source geospatial big data
2024 (English)In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 107, article id 102045Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban structure can be better comprehended through analyzing its cores. Geospatial big data facilitate the identification of urban centers in terms of high accuracy and accessibility. However, previous studies seldom leverage multi-source geospatial big data to identify urban centers from a topological perspective. This study attempts to identify urban centers through the spatial integration of multi-source geospatial big data, including nighttime light imagery (NTL), building footprints (BFP) and street nodes of OpenStreetMap (OSM). We use a novel topological approach to construct complex networks from intra-urban hotspots based on the theory of centers by Christopher Alexander. We compute the degree of wholeness value for each hotspot as the centric index. The overlapped hotspots with the highest centric indices are regarded as urban centers. The identified urban centers in New York, Los Angeles, and Houston are consistent with their downtown areas, with overall accuracy of 90.23%. In Chicago, a new urban center is identified considering a larger spatial extent. The proposed approach can effectively and objectively prevent counting those hotspots with high intensity values but few neighbors into the result. This study proposes a topological approach for urban center identification and a bottom-up perspective for sustainable urban design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Big data; Complexity; Nighttime light imagery; Topological representation; Urban centers; Wholeness
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43193 (URN)10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2023.102045 (DOI)001098125800001 ()2-s2.0-85174445872 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00824Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2017/0009
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Hu, B., Fu, S., Luo, J., Lin, H., Yin, Q., Tao, V., . . . Meng, Y. (2023). Geographical detector-based assessment of multi-level explanatory powers of determinants on China’s medical-service resumption during the COVID-19 epidemic. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 50(7), 1739-1758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geographical detector-based assessment of multi-level explanatory powers of determinants on China’s medical-service resumption during the COVID-19 epidemic
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2023 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1739-1758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowing the multi-level influences of determinants on medical-service resumptions is of great benefits to the policymaking for medical-service recovery at different levels of study units during the post-COVID-19 pandemic era. This article evaluated the hospital- and city-level resumptions of medical services in mainland China based on the data of location-based service (LBS) requests of mobile devices during the two time periods (December 2019 and from February 21 to March 18, 2020). We selected medical-service capacity, human movement, epidemic severity, and socioeconomic factors as the potential determinants on medical-service resumptions and then explicitly assessed their multi-level explanatory powers and the interactive effects of paired determinants using the geographical detector method. The results indicate that various determinants had different individual explanatory powers and interactive relationships/effects at different levels of medical-service resumptions. The current study provides a novel multi-level insight for assessing work resumption and individual/interactive influences of determinants, and considerable implications for regionalized recovery strategies of medical services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE, 2023
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40622 (URN)10.1177/23998083221143122 (DOI)000893126600001 ()2-s2.0-85143618638 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. & de Rijke, C. (2023). Living Images: A Recursive Approach to Computing the Structural Beauty of Images or the Livingness of Space. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 113(6), 1329-1347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living Images: A Recursive Approach to Computing the Structural Beauty of Images or the Livingness of Space
2023 (English)In: Annals of the American Association of Geographers, ISSN 2469-4452, E-ISSN 2469-4460, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 1329-1347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to Gestalt theory, any image is perceived subconsciously as a coherent structure (or whole) with two contrast substructures: figure and ground. The figure consists of numerous autogenerated substructures with an inherent hierarchy of far more smalls than larges. Through these substructures, the structural beauty of an image (L), or equivalently the livingness of space, can be computed by the multiplication of the number of substructures (S) and their inherent hierarchy (H). This definition implies that the more substructures something has, the more living or more structurally beautiful it is, and the higher the hierarchy of the substructures, the more living or more structurally beautiful. This is the nonrecursive approach to the structural beauty of images or the livingness of space. In this article we develop a recursive approach, which derives all substructures of an image (instead of its figure) and continues the deriving process for those decomposable substructures until none of them are decomposable. All of the substructures derived at different iterations (or recursive levels) together constitute a living structure; hence the notion of living images. We have applied the recursive approach to a set of images that have been previously studied in the literature and found that (1) the number of substructures of an image is far lower (3 percent on average) than the number of pixels and the centroids of the substructures can effectively capture the skeleton or saliency of the image; (2) all the images have a recursive level more than four, indicating that they are indeed living images; (3) no more than 3 percent of the substructures are decomposable, implying that a vast amount of the substructures are not decomposable; (4) structural beauty can be well measured by the recursively defined substructures, as well as their decomposable subsets. Despite a slightly higher computational cost, the recursive approach is proven to be more robust than the nonrecursive approach. The recursive approach and the nonrecursive approach both provide a powerful means to study the livingness or vitality of space in cities and communities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
head/tail breaks; living structure; livingness of space; structural beauty; substructures; wholeness
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41236 (URN)10.1080/24694452.2023.2178376 (DOI)000954126300001 ()2-s2.0-85150464940 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2023-08-01Bibliographically approved
Levin, T., Sjöberg, S., Jiang, B. & Barthel, S. (2023). Social Sustainability and Alexander’s Living Structure Through a New Kind of City Science. Urban Planning, 8(3), 224-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Sustainability and Alexander’s Living Structure Through a New Kind of City Science
2023 (English)In: Urban Planning, E-ISSN 2183-7635, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 224-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The disputed endorsement of inherited visceral and universal aesthetic preferences justifies the scientific validity of Alexander’s living structure. Apart from implying a resource-efficient way to promote well-being through urban design, the premise favors a collective approach to human self-perception and social justice. To better understand the contributions of Alexander, this article explores current knowledge about visceral and universal aesthetic preferences for living structure and if and how the new kind of city science, a mathematical model describing living structure, can be used for further testing. It also elaborates on the social impact of living structure, including its premise, and the potential of the new kind of city science to support social sustainability. A literature synthesis on living structure, the new kind of city science, and the premise showed a positive link between well-being and exposure to living structure. Limitations in research design nevertheless precluded conclusions about the associated visceral and universal aesthetic preferences. The new kind of city science was found appropriate for further research by holistically representing living structure. Moreover, like the hypothesized biological origin, social learning and sociocultural transmission were found to theoretically support the premise of universality and a collective approach to human identity and social justice, with further societal implications. For the concept of living structure to support social sustainability, it must be coupled with the promotion of empowerment and community mobilization. Hence, the operationalization of the new kind of city science should align with Alexander’s call for bottom-up approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cogitatio, 2023
Keywords
Christopher Alexander; living structure; new kind of city science; social sustainability; urban design; urban planning
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42827 (URN)10.17645/up.v8i3.6841 (DOI)001058353100009 ()2-s2.0-85168938526 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2019-0129
Available from: 2023-08-11 Created: 2023-08-11 Last updated: 2023-09-22Bibliographically approved
Xu, Z. & Jiang, B. (2022). Effects of social vulnerability and spatial accessibility on COVID-19 vaccination coverage: A census-tract level study in Milwaukee County, USA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(19), Article ID 12304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of social vulnerability and spatial accessibility on COVID-19 vaccination coverage: A census-tract level study in Milwaukee County, USA
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 19, article id 12304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

COVID-19 vaccination coverage was studied by race/ethnicity, up-to-date doses, and by how it was affected by social vulnerability and spatial accessibility at the census-tract level in Milwaukee County, WI, USA. Social vulnerability was quantified at the census-tract level by an aggregate index and its sub-components calculated using the principal components analysis method. The spatial accessibility was assessed by clinic-to-population ratio and travel impedance. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial regression models were employed to examine how social vulnerability and spatial accessibility relate to the vaccination rates of different doses. We found great disparities in vaccination rates by race and between areas of low and high social vulnerability. Comparing to non-Hispanic Blacks, the vaccination rate of non-Hispanic Whites in the county is 23% higher (60% vs. 37%) in overall rate (one or more doses), and 20% higher (29% vs. 9%) in booster rate (three or more doses). We also found that the overall social-vulnerability index does not show a statistically significant relationship with the overall vaccination rate when it is defined as the rate of people who have received one or more doses of vaccines. However, after the vaccination rate is stratified by up-to-date doses, social vulnerability has positive effects on one-dose and two-dose rates, but negative effects on booster rate, and the effects of social vulnerability become increasingly stronger and turn to negative for multi-dose vaccination rates, indicating the increasing challenges of high social vulnerability areas to multi-dose vaccination. The large negative effects of socio-economic status on the booster rate suggests the importance of improving general socio-economic conditions to promote multi-dose vaccination rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
COVID-19; vaccination; social vulnerability; disparity; Milwaukee
National Category
Health Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40271 (URN)10.3390/ijerph191912304 (DOI)000868038500001 ()36231608 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139939563 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-17 Created: 2022-10-17 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. (2022). Geography as a science of the earth’s surface founded on the third view of space. Annals of GIS, 28(1), 31-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geography as a science of the earth’s surface founded on the third view of space
2022 (English)In: Annals of GIS, ISSN 1947-5683, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 31-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The third or organismic view of space states that space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, thus different fundamentally from the first two mechanistic views of space: Newtonian absolute space and Leibnizian relational space. The living structure is defined as a physical and mathematical structure or simply characterized by the recurring notion (or inherent hierarchy) of far more small substructures than large ones. This paper seeks to lay out a new geography as a science of the Earth's surface founded on the third view of space. The new geography aims not only to better understand geographic forms and processes but also - maybe more importantly - to make geographic space or the Earth?s surface to be living or more living. After introducing two fundamental laws of geography: Tobler's law on spatial dependence (or homogeneity) and scaling law on spatial heterogeneity, we argue that these two laws are fundamental laws of living structure that favour statistics over exactitude, because the former (or statistics) tends to make a structure more living than the latter  (or exactitude). We present the concept of living structure through some working examples and make it clear how a living structure differs from a non-living structure, under the organismic worldview that was first conceived by the British philosopher Alfred Whitehead (1861-1947). In order to make a structure or space living or more living, we illustrate two design principles - differentiation and adaptation - using two paintings and two city plans. The new geography is a science of living structure, dealing with a wide range of scales, from the smallest scale of ornaments on walls to the scale of the entire Earth's surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
adaptation; differentiation; head/tail breaks; natural streets; Scaling law; the third view of space; Tobler’s law
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36971 (URN)10.1080/19475683.2021.1966502 (DOI)000904556200004 ()2-s2.0-85113209918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-30 Created: 2021-08-30 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. & de Rijke, C. (2022). Representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 92, Article ID 101750.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order
2022 (English)In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 92, article id 101750Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As Christopher Alexander discovered, all space or matter – either organic or inorganic – has some degree of order in it according to its structure and arrangement. The order refers to a kind of structural character, called living structure, which is defined as a mathematical structure that consists of numerous substructures with an inherent hierarchy. Across the hierarchy, there are far more small substructures than large ones, while on each level of the hierarchy the substructures are more or less similar in size. In this paper we develop a new approach to representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order. A geographic space is first represented as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces, and all the subspaces are then topologically represented as a network for computing the degree of order of the geographic space, as well as that of its subspaces. Unlike conventional geographic representations, which are mechanical in nature, this new geographic representation is organic, conceived, and developed under the third view of space; that is, space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. Thus, the order can also be referred to as life, beauty, coherence, or harmony. We applied the new representation to three urban environments, 253 patterns, and 35 black-white strips to verify it and to demonstrate advantages of the new approach and the new kind of order. We further discuss the implications of the approach and the order on geographic information science and sustainable urban planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Coherence; Life; Living structure; Pattern language; Structural beauty; Wholeness
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37586 (URN)10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2021.101750 (DOI)000754171100003 ()2-s2.0-85121963860 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00824
Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2023-02-07Bibliographically approved
Xie, Y., Liu, C., Chang, S. & Jiang, B. (2022). Urban Sustainability: Integrating Socioeconomic and Environmental Data for Multi-Objective Assessment. Sustainability, 14(15), Article ID 9142.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Sustainability: Integrating Socioeconomic and Environmental Data for Multi-Objective Assessment
2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 9142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The large concentration of the world’s population in cities, along with rapid urbanization, have brought numerous environmental and socioeconomic challenges to sustainable urban systems (SUS). However, current SUS studies focus heavily on ecological aspects, rely on SUS indicators that are not supported by available data, lack comprehensive analytical frameworks, and neglect SUS regional differences. This paper develops a novel approach to assessing urban sustainability from regional perspectives using commonly enumerated socioeconomic statistics. It integrates land use and land cover change data and ecosystem service values, applies data mining analytics to derive SUS indicators, and evaluates SUS states as trade-offs among relevant SUS indicators. This synthetic approach is called the integrated socioeconomic and land-use data mining–based multi-objective assessment (ISL-DM-MOA). The paper presents a case study of urban sustainability development in cities and counties in Inner Mongolia, China, which face many environmental and sustainable development problems. The case study identifies two SUS types: (1) several large cities that boast well-developed economies, diversified industrial sectors, vital transportation locations, good living conditions, and cleaner environments; and (2) a few small counties that have a small population, small urban construction areas, extensive natural grasslands, and primary grazing economies. The ISL-DM-MOA framework innovatively synthesizes currently available socioeconomic statistics and environmental data as a unified dataset to assess urban sustainability as a total socio-environmental system. ISL-DM-MOA deviates from the current indicator approach and advocates the notion of a data-mining-driven approach to derive urban sustainability dimensions. Furthermore, ISL-DM-MOA diverges from the concept of a composite score for determining urban sustainability. Instead, it promotes the concept of Pareto Front as a choice set of sustainability candidates, because sustainability varies among nations, regions, and locations and differs between political, economic, environmental, and cultural systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
sustainable urban system; urban sustainability indicators; ecosystem service values; land use and land cover changes; multi-objective optimization problems; total socio-environmental system
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-39803 (URN)10.3390/su14159142 (DOI)000840138600001 ()2-s2.0-85137248569 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-25 Created: 2022-08-25 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. & Huang, J.-T. (2021). A new approach to detecting and designing living structure of urban environments. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 88, Article ID 101646.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new approach to detecting and designing living structure of urban environments
2021 (English)In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 88, article id 101646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable urban design or planning is not a LEGO-like assembly of prefabricated elements, but an embryo-like growth with persistent differentiation and adaptation towards a coherent whole. The coherent whole has a striking character – called living structure – that consists of far more small substructures than large ones. To detect the living structure, natural streets or axial lines have been previously adopted to be topologically represent an urban environment as a coherent whole. This paper develops a new approach to detecting the underlying living structure of urban environments. The approach takes an urban environment as a whole and recursively decomposes it into meaningful subwholes at different levels of hierarchy (or scale) ranging from the largest to the smallest. We compared the new approach to natural street and axial line approaches and demonstrated, through four case studies, that the new approach is better and more powerful. Based on the study, we further discuss how the new approach can be used not only for understanding but also – probably more importanly – for effectively designing or planning an urban environment to be living or more living.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Life, Natural streets, Space syntax, Structural beauty, Urban design or planning, Wholeness
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35717 (URN)10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2021.101646 (DOI)000661278600015 ()2-s2.0-85104335409 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017/00824
Note

This article has previously been published as preprint on ResearchGate.net

Available from: 2021-04-26 Created: 2021-04-26 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. & Huang, J.-T. (2021). A new approach to detecting and designing living structure of urban environments. Computational Urban Science, 1, Article ID 12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new approach to detecting and designing living structure of urban environments
2021 (English)In: Computational Urban Science, E-ISSN 2730-6852, Vol. 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable urban design or planning is not a LEGO-like assembly of prefabricated elements, but an embryo-like growth with persistent differentiation and adaptation towards a coherent whole. The coherent whole has a striking character – called living structure – that consists of far more small substructures than large ones. To detect the living structure, this paper develops a new approach for uncovering the underlying living structure of urban environments. The approach takes an urban environment as a whole and recursively decomposes it into meaningful subwholes at different levels of hierarchy (or scale) ranging from the largest to the smallest. This approach helps us not only better understand an urban environment as a living structure, but also better plan or transform the urban environment to be living or more living, or equivalently to be beautiful or more beautiful.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42989 (URN)10.1007/s43762-021-00013-y (DOI)001086926300001 ()2-s2.0-85150952122 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
ALEXANDER: Automated generation of living structure for biophilic urban design [2017-00824_Formas]; University of Gävle; Publications
Jiang, B. & Huang, J.-T. (2021). A new approach to detecting and designing living structure of urban environments. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 88, Article ID 101646. Jiang, B. & de Rijke, C. (2021). A power-law-based approach to mapping COVID-19 cases in the United States. Geo-Spatial Information Science, 24(3), 333-339Jiang, B. & de Rijke, C. (2021). Structural Beauty: A Structure-Based Computational Approach to Quantifying the Beauty of an Image. Journal of imaging, 7(5), Article ID 78. Jiang, B. & Slocum, T. (2020). A map is a living structure with the recurring notion of far more smalls than larges. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(6), Article ID 388. Jiang, B. (2020). Is living structure beauty's temperature?. Urban Design, 5, 32-37de Rijke, C., Macassa, G., Sandberg, M. & Jiang, B. (2020). Living Structure as an Empirical Measurement of City Morphology. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(11), Article ID 677. Karydas, C. & Jiang, B. (2020). Scale optimization in topographic and hydrographic feature mapping using fractal analysis. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(11), Article ID 631. Jiang, B. (2020). Spatial Healing: Bridging Space and Place through the Concept of Wholeness. In: : . Paper presented at The 2020 Seoul Big Data Forum, December 4, 2020 (online). Jiang, B. (2019). A recursive definition of goodness of space for bridging the concepts of space and place for sustainability. Sustainability, 11(15), Article ID 4091. Jiang, B. (2019). Alexander’s wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning. New Design Ideas, 3(2), 81-98
Stadsventilation [2018-00238_Formas]; University of Gävle; Publications
Cehlin, M., Lin, Y., Sandberg, M., Claesson, L. & Wallhagen, M. (2023). Towards benchmarking of urban air quality based on homogenous surface emission. Results in Engineering (RINENG), 20, Article ID 101617. Lin, Y., Sandberg, M., Cehlin, M., Claesson, L. & Wigö, H. (2022). Evaluation of the Equivalent Purging Flow Rate for Single-side Ventilated Model with Tracer Gas Measurements. In: 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2022): . Paper presented at COBEE 2022, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 25-29 July 2022. Springer, Article ID 1419. Buccolieri, R., Lin, Y., Wigö, H. & Sandberg, M. (2021). Drag force rose representing the interaction between urban geometries and wind. In: 15th ROOMVENT (Roomvent 2020) virtual conference: Energy efficient ventilation for healthy future buildings. Paper presented at 15th Roomvent virtual conference, 15-17 February 2021, Turin, Italy (pp. 85-88). Cehlin, M., Ameen, A., Sandberg, M., Claesson, L., Wigö, H. & Lin, Y. (2020). Urban Morphology and City Ventilation. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Future Environment and Energy (ICFEE 2020).
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2337-2486

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