hig.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Fregidou-Malama, MariaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9080-2629
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
Fregidou-Malama, M. & Hyder, A. (2024). Constructing organizational culture in an international subsidiary: Elekta healthcare services in Greece. International Business Review, Article ID 102293.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructing organizational culture in an international subsidiary: Elekta healthcare services in Greece
2024 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, article id 102293Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study analyzes the development of organizational culture in an international subsidiary in healthcare through the interaction of the parent company and local culture. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted a single case study on Elekta Greece, a subsidiary of the multinational company Elekta based in Sweden via interviews. Findings: The company creates a unique organizational culture, called the Philotask culture, that takes into consideration the cultural contexts of Sweden and Greece, the value of philotimo, situation in the market, and the type of company and services. Research implications/limitations: The model consists of a context-grounded framework focusing on healthcare. Research in other countries and industries can help to generalize this model. Practical implications: The findings indicate that to develop organizational culture, managers need to consider the local cultural context. Originality/value: This research contributes to organizational culture theory, reporting on the Philotask model that emerged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Context; Dichotomy; Healthcare services; MNCs; MNEs; Organizational culture; Philotask; Philotimo
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-44094 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2024.102293 (DOI)2-s2.0-85190127683 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-22 Created: 2024-04-22 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M., Chowdhury, E. & Hyder, A. S. (2023). International marketing strategy of emerging market firms: the case of Bangladesh. Journal of Asia Business Studies (4), 804-823
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International marketing strategy of emerging market firms: the case of Bangladesh
2023 (English)In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, no 4, p. 804-823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This study aims to increase understanding of factors influencing the international marketing (IM) strategy of products from emerging markets (EMs) to international markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted case studies by collecting qualitative data through semistructured interviews with respondents from four food product companies in Bangladesh.

Findings

This study finds that the firms employ local Bangladeshi people who are knowledgeable in the company culture. They strategically focus on countries where the Bangladeshi diaspora lives and initially target them, approaching natives later. They adapt and customize products to the importers’ requirements to make them visible and increase understanding between product providers and local customers. The findings show that EM firms encounter a mentality that poor countries produce poor quality products; this mindset makes the internationalization of their business difficult.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to international product marketing of EM firms by constructing a model of a modern people-oriented marketing strategy for food products. This study contributes to literature on culture by illustrating that the cultural dimensions of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance enhance the development of networks and trust and impact marketing strategy.

Originality/value

This study theorizes the importance of context and an innovation-driven modern people-oriented IM strategy that adapts to customers’ preferences for food products and emphasizes the contribution of diaspora. This research reveals that Bangladeshi firms face challenges both because customers link the country and the companies to low-quality products and because governmental regulations prevent them from establishing a local presence in other countries. This study analyzes challenges EM firms face in the process of IM and the factors affecting Bangladesh in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald, 2023
Keywords
product marketing, Bangladesh, customization, diaspora, emerging markets
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40289 (URN)10.1108/jabs-12-2021-0504 (DOI)000869745800001 ()2-s2.0-85140302260 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M., Chowdhury, E., Fjellström, D. & Hyder, A. S. (2022). The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?. In: The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?: . Paper presented at 30th Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International (GASI).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?
2022 (English)In: The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study analyzes the Paradox of Globalisation. We investigate if Globalisation leads to empowerment or to exploitations of women. Research show globalization contributes to higher incomes for less developed economies, democratizes institutions, cultivates cultural richness and develops employment for women. Additionally, there are negative effects of globalization if the cultural context of people is not considered and globalization is controversial. We view the paradox of globalization as twofold having consequences on women empowerment and exploitation. It is assumed gender equality can improve women conditions and opportunities, advances their careers and enhances participation in democratic decision-making, by giving freedom of speech to all about problems in factory work. Based on a study from Bangladesh garment industry we analyze the influence of globalization on women empowerment. We conducted a qualitative study and structured interviews with 39 women workers in six factories and use a grounded theory approach to analyse the data. Preliminary results of the study show contextual factors affect the working conditions of women in the factories negatively. Female workers are not satisfied with the salaries they get, they are not allowed to use the money they earn by themselves and they do not have the possibility to participate in decision-making and advance in careers. The paradox is female workers still can support their families and their children and got the possibility to buy more and healthier food. The study suggests if institutional factors are considered, globalization can make a positive contribution by empowering women and improving the quality of decision-making. 

Keywords
Empowerment, exploitation, paradox, female workers, garment industry, globalization
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40531 (URN)
Conference
30th Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International (GASI)
Available from: 2022-11-29 Created: 2022-11-29 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M. & Hyder, A. S. (2021). Multilevel trust in international marketing of healthcare services: A five-country comparative study. International Business Review, 30(6), Article ID 101895.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multilevel trust in international marketing of healthcare services: A five-country comparative study
2021 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 30, no 6, article id 101895Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This research aims to increase understanding on how multilevel trust is developed as well as how trust levels are interconnected and influence international marketing strategy for healthcare services. Design/Methodology/Approach: A comparative case study approach was applied with Elekta, a Swedish firm, operating in Brazil, the Philippines, China, Russia, and Hong Kong. Findings: The research culminated in a multilevel trust (MLT) model comprised of three levels relating to individuals, company performance, and context. Research implications/limitations: This study offers a context-based multilevel trust model from a process perspective focusing on healthcare. This model can be tested in other service sectors. Practical implications: Managers should consider multilevel trust to boost relationships and achieve local acceptance. Originality/Value: This research contributes to trust theory by constructing a context-based multilevel trust model for international healthcare marketing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Brazil, China, COO, Hong Kong, Marketing strategy, Multilevel trust, Philippines, Russia, Sweden
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36910 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2021.101895 (DOI)000702868900004 ()2-s2.0-85109434405 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-19 Created: 2021-08-19 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M., Chowdhury, E. & Hyder, A. S. (2019). Innovative product marketing strategy: multinational companies in Bangladesh. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 13(4), 656-671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovative product marketing strategy: multinational companies in Bangladesh
2019 (English)In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 656-671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This paper aims to deal with international marketing of products, analyzing how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach: By applying a qualitative method, the study was conducted at four multinationals, British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak and Reckitt Benckiser, operating in Bangladesh. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, direct observation and official documents. The analysis was conducted through construction of themes that were identified from the data set.

Findings: The study demonstrates that business relationships related to a local market should be adapted to customer preferences. The research suggests that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new, innovative products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks. Cultural and market context were found to influence multinational companies (MNCs)s to standardize the quality of the products and adapt marketing mix components to the needs of consumers.

Research limitations/implications: The paper contributes to international marketing literature with a model of product marketing based on context, trust, networks and adaptation/standardization. The model introduces the cultural dimension of femininity/ masculinity and the innovation of products and market structure. The study is limited to one emerging market. Further studies should explore other emerging market economies and MNCs.

Practical implications: The results suggest that to meet the challenges of emerging market economies and achieve success, managers should take people and market needs into consideration.

Originality/value: This paper extends product marketing literature by presenting a context-based model for MNCs’ product marketing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
networks, context, adaption, multinational companies, emerging market economies, product marketing, standardization, trust
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31235 (URN)10.1108/JABS-07-2018-0193 (DOI)000500438000009 ()2-s2.0-85076205716 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-10 Created: 2019-12-10 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M., Hyder, A. S. & Chowdhury, E. (2019). Why Microfinance in Rich Developed Countries?. In: ICBM 2019 2nd International Conference on Business and Management: . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Business and Management (ICBM 2019) 'Industry Focused Global Research Trends in Business and Management', 25-27 April 2019, Dhaka, Bangladesh (pp. 795). Dhaka: BRAC University, Article ID ICBM-19-0316.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Microfinance in Rich Developed Countries?
2019 (English)In: ICBM 2019 2nd International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2019, p. 795-, article id ICBM-19-0316Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research deals with the influence of microfinance/microcredits on business development analyzing how micro finances affect establishment of small enterprises in Sweden. For the analysis, the following research questions were addressed: How do small enterprises get access to microfinances and what kind of businesses are established through microfinances? Microcredit means giving entrepreneurs access to financial resources to borrow a small amount of money to invest in income generating business activities context related. A model of microcredit was developed to lend money to the poor for business entrepreneurship. Access to microfinance can facilitate poverty reduction and incorporate economic and social development. Relationship based lending is affected by cultural and social context. Multiple case studies were applied for data collection from two small enterprises in Gothenburg, Sweden and a microfinance institution in Sweden. Qualitative data was collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation and documents were also used as data source. The study shows that microfinance contributes to development of sustainable enterprises and generates employment for people. The research shows that microfinance leads to sharing risks and financing projects in social enterprises, cooperative business and associations. It provides people with social networks, enhances their independence, empowers them and improves the quality of their life by generating incomes. It is important for the microfinance institutions to get recognition as important actors in the financial sector to succeed. The research contributes to the literature and theories of microfinances by developing a model about microfinances in developed countries. The limitation of the study is that we had studied only two small enterprises in a developed country. We suggest comparative studies on the influence of microfinance on business development and women empowerment between emerging economies and developed countries or between developed countries.

REFERENCES [1] C. Fouillet, M. Hudon, B. Harris-White and J. Copestake, “Micorfinance studies: Introduction and overview,” Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-16. [2] K. Burzynska and O. Berggren,“ The impact of social beliefs on microfinance performance,” Journal of International Development, Vol. 27, No. 7, 2014, pp.1074-1097. [3] M. Yunus, “Building social business: The new kind of capitalism that serves humanity’s most pressing needs,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 2010. [4] M. Yunus, “banker to the poor: The autography of Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 1998.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dhaka: BRAC University, 2019
Keywords
Social enterprises, microfinances, microcredits, empowerment, Micro Fund, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29557 (URN)9789843443540 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Business and Management (ICBM 2019) 'Industry Focused Global Research Trends in Business and Management', 25-27 April 2019, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M. & Hyder, A. S. (2018). Does national culture influence organizational culture across contexts?: Elekta in Greece. In: Peter J. Batt (Ed.), IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia: . Paper presented at Networks in Context, The 8th meeting of the IMP Group in Asia and 34th meeting of IMP Group, Jetwing Blue, Negombo Beach, Sri Lanka, 2nd-5th December 2018. Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does national culture influence organizational culture across contexts?: Elekta in Greece
2018 (English)In: IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research deals with the influence of National Culture on Organizational Culture in Healthcare Services. We analyse how the national culture of a firm´s home and host country and the cultural context affect the organizational culture in international marketing of healthcare services. We conducted a case study on Elekta a Swedish invention for radio surgery with a subsidiary, Elekta-Greece EPE, in its real life context. We collected qualitative data in form of semi-structured interviews by interviewing fourteen people during the years 2015-2016 in the host country of the subsidiary. We also used direct observation of the working environment and company documents as data sources. The study shows that the organisational culture of the Business Unit in Greece is flat and managers apply open doors culture trusting employees. Inequality between employees does not exist and the managers empower employees by involving them in the decision making process. Employees work as a team and share responsibilities and experience helping each other. They feel happy to work and perceive the challenges the company meets as their own challenges identifying themselves with the company. The study indicates that the context of the collectivistic and uncertainty avoiding culture of Greece influences managers to empower and motivate employees to work as a team developing good personal relationships in the company trusting each other. The results suggest that a balanced combination of national cultures makes the structure of the organisation flat, employees work as a team applying the Greek Philotimo helping and supporting each other to avoid ambiguity, reduce stress and unite in uncertain situations. We argue that a combination of the small power distance and femininity of the Swedish national culture combined with the cultural context of collectivism and strong uncertainty avoidance in Greece influence the organisational culture of the Business Unit. The local dynamic cultural context and the behaviour of the market, the customers, patients, service providers and the employees transform the organisational culture of Elekta-EPE Greece to a mixture of Swedish culture and Greek culture applying new organisational practices and models adapting to the values of the local context. The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of healthcare services based on national cultural dimensions, organizational culture and contextualization. Managers who aim to establish businesses across borders need to balance the national culture of the head quarter and the one applied in units abroad with the unique context environment they operate to develop new organizational culture and be effective. A further study can include more companies and sectors to focus on the effect of national cultural context on organizational culture across countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group, 2018
Keywords
national culture, organizational culture, context, healthcare services, Philotimo
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29534 (URN)
Conference
Networks in Context, The 8th meeting of the IMP Group in Asia and 34th meeting of IMP Group, Jetwing Blue, Negombo Beach, Sri Lanka, 2nd-5th December 2018
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Hyder, A. S. & Fregidou-Malama, M. (2018). Is context important in healthcare marketing?: A comparison between developed and emerging markets. In: Peter J. Batt (Ed.), IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia: . Paper presented at The 8th meeting of the IMP Group in Asia and 34th meeting of IMP Group 'Networks in Context', 2nd-5th December 2018, Negombo, Sri Lanka,.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is context important in healthcare marketing?: A comparison between developed and emerging markets
2018 (English)In: IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia / [ed] Peter J. Batt, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context has been discussed in international business relating to marketing. We argue that understanding context is important in healthcare marketing as it deals with a complex issue of human health and comfort. This paper explores how service providers confront with contextual complexity and deal with marketing of healthcare services in developed and emerging markets. Four case studies have been conducted on a Swedish multinational firm operating in two developed and two emerging markets. By applying a qualitative method, data was collected through interviews, observations and secondary materials like annual reports and firm documents. A theoretical framework based on context, trust and network has been used to conduct the study. Operations in both developed and emerging markets emphasized individual and organizational trust but country level trust was only recognized in the emerging markets. In the developed market, the local customers emphasized on the written agreements. In contrast, emerging market customers put emphasis on informal relationship and considered agreements more as guidelines. Network development was highlighted in both developed and emerging markets to get competence and access to right partners.

National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29535 (URN)
Conference
The 8th meeting of the IMP Group in Asia and 34th meeting of IMP Group 'Networks in Context', 2nd-5th December 2018, Negombo, Sri Lanka,
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M. (2018). Why Microfinance in RICH Developed Countries?. In: XIX ISA World Congress of Sociology: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at Power, Violence and Justice: Reflections, Responses and Responsibilities, XIX ISA World Congress of Sociology, International Sociological Association (ISA), July 15-21, 2018, Toronto, Canada (pp. 329-329).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Microfinance in RICH Developed Countries?
2018 (English)In: XIX ISA World Congress of Sociology: Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 329-329Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research deals with microfinance. Microcredit means giving people access to financial resources to borrow a small amount of money to invest in income generating context related to business activities. The study analyzes how microfinance is structured and its influence on business development in Sweden. A multiple case study is applied for data collection. Qualitative data have been collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation and documents have also been used as data source. The study shows that microfinancecontributes to development of sustainable enterprises and innovative product and services development. It is argued that microfinance leads to sharing risk and financing projects in social enterprises, cooperative businesses and associations. It provides people with social networks, enhances their independence, empowers them and improves the quality of their life by generating economic resources. We suggest future comparative studies on the influence of microfinance on business development and women empowerment in emerging economies and developed countries.

National Category
Business Administration Sociology
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29335 (URN)
Conference
Power, Violence and Justice: Reflections, Responses and Responsibilities, XIX ISA World Congress of Sociology, International Sociological Association (ISA), July 15-21, 2018, Toronto, Canada
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2021-03-30Bibliographically approved
Fregidou-Malama, M., Chowdhury, E. & Hyder, A. S. (2017). Innovative Marketing Strategy: Multinational Companies in Bangladesh. In: ICBM 2017: International Conference on Business and Management. Paper presented at Global Contemporary Practices in Business & Management – 1st International Conference on Business and Management (ICBM 2017), BRAC Business School, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 21-22 September 2017 (pp. 659-659). Dhaka: BRAC University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovative Marketing Strategy: Multinational Companies in Bangladesh
2017 (English)In: ICBM 2017: International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2017, p. 659-659Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research deals with Marketing of products. We analyzed how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh as an emerging market. We conducted case studies for data collection in British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak, and Reckitt Benckiser. Qualitative data have been collected as semi-structured interviews, direct observation and documents. It is argued that renowned global brands with global reputation are seen positively by the customers and the consumers. The study demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ preferences to develop emotional attachments and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new diversity of products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks giving the possibility of success for product providers and the acceptance of products by the local customers. The research contributes to international marketing literature by developing a model of products’ marketing based on trust, network and adaptation/standardization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dhaka: BRAC University, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29556 (URN)978-984-34-2360-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Global Contemporary Practices in Business & Management – 1st International Conference on Business and Management (ICBM 2017), BRAC Business School, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 21-22 September 2017
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9080-2629

Search in DiVA

Show all publications