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Andersson, L., Sandberg, P., Olofsson, J. K. & Nordin, S. (2018). Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses. Chemical Senses, 43(2), 129-134, Article ID bjx082.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses
2018 (English)In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134, article id bjx082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

Keywords
attention, audition, electrophysiology, late positive complex, olfaction, vision
National Category
Applied Psychology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26047 (URN)10.1093/chemse/bjx082 (DOI)000424225200007 ()29325013 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M14-0375:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014:0178
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Lind, N., Söderholm, A., Palmquist, E., Andersson, L., Millqvist, E. & Nordin, S. (2017). Comorbidity and Multimorbidity of Asthma and Allergy and Intolerance to Chemicals and Certain Buildings. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(1), 80-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comorbidity and Multimorbidity of Asthma and Allergy and Intolerance to Chemicals and Certain Buildings
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We tested the hypothesis of high comorbidity between asthma/allergy and chemical intolerance (CI) and between asthma/allergy and building intolerance (BI), and high multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI.

Methods: Population-based questionnaire data were used from 530 participants with asthma/allergy (allergic asthma, nonallergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis), 414 with self-reported and 112 with physician-diagnosed CI, and 165 with self-reported and 47 with physician-diagnosed BI. Separate reference groups were formed for each of the five case groups.

Results: Adjusted odds ratios varied from 4.6 to 13.1 for comorbidity, and from 6.6 to 46.4 for multimorbidity.

Conclusion: The large comorbidity and multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI evokes the question as to whether there are similarities in underlying mechanisms between these conditions.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23280 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000000930 (DOI)000391123100015 ()28045802 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015423741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Nordin, S., Aldrin, L., Claeson, A.-S. & Andersson, L. (2017). Effects of negative affectivity and odor valence on chemosensory and symptom perception and perceived ability to focus on a cognitive task. Perception, 46(3-4), 431-446
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of negative affectivity and odor valence on chemosensory and symptom perception and perceived ability to focus on a cognitive task
2017 (English)In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 431-446Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valanceon perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were eitherrelatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized forexposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposurechamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which theyrated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity ofsymptoms. The results showed higher ratings of negative impact on ability to focus duringexposure to the unpleasant odor compared with the pleasant odor, and an association betweenNA and symptom intensity, with 18% of the variance in symptom intensity explainedby somatization. The association between NA and symptom intensity was found to be drivenby the factor sex. These results imply (a) that prior findings of odorous exposure that interferenegatively with work performance may be due to impact of an unpleasant odor on ability to focuson cognitive tasks and (b) that there are associations between NA, sex, and symptoms that maypartly be referred to attentiveness to and interpretation of bodily sensations.

Keywords
anxiety, depression, human exposure, olfaction, pleasantness, somatization
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23611 (URN)10.1177/0301006616686990 (DOI)000397168400015 ()28094658 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85018253576 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0396
Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Dantoft, T., Skovbjerg, S., Andersson, L., Claeson, A.-S., Engkilde, K., Lind, N., . . . Hellgren, L. I. (2017). Gene expression profiling in MCS before and upon a controlled symptom eliciting n-butanol exposure: a pilot study. BMJ Open, 7(2), Article ID e01387.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression profiling in MCS before and upon a controlled symptom eliciting n-butanol exposure: a pilot study
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2017 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e01387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.

The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure.

Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure

Keywords
Chemical exposure; Exposure chamber; Gene expression; Multiple Chemical Sensitivity; qPCR
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23610 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2016-0138 (DOI)2-s2.0-85014036992 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Dantoft, T. M., Skovbjerg, S., Andersson, L., Claeson, A.-S., Engkilde, K., Lind, N., . . . Hellgren, L. I. (2017). Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session. BMJ Open, 7(2), Article ID e013879.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session
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2017 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e013879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure.

DESIGN: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

SETTINGS: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

PARTICIPANTS: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

OUTCOME MEASURES: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

RESULTS: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

CONCLUSIONS: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

Keywords
Chemical exposure, Exposure chamber, Gene expression, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, qPCR
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23720 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013879 (DOI)000397872400106 ()28232466 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85014036992 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0396Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M14-0375:1
Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L., Claeson, A.-S. & Sandberg, P. (2017). Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time. Paper presented at 26th Annual Meeting of the European-Chemoreception-Research-Organization (ECRO), 7-10 September 2016, Athens, Greece. Chemical Senses, 42(2), E26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time
2017 (English)In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E26-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24320 (URN)000397065700061 ()
Conference
26th Annual Meeting of the European-Chemoreception-Research-Organization (ECRO), 7-10 September 2016, Athens, Greece
Available from: 2017-06-16 Created: 2017-06-16 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. & Claeson, A.-S. (2017). Not getting used to the smell – Chemical intolerance as lack of habituation. Biological Psychology, 129(Suppl. C), 377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Not getting used to the smell – Chemical intolerance as lack of habituation
2017 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 129, no Suppl. C, p. 377-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Chemical intolerance is a prevalent, medically unexplained symptom characterized by diverse symptoms following weak chemical exposure. The symptom-eliciting exposures are often odorous, and include perfume, fabric softeners and fragrant flowers. Several explanatory mechanisms have been proposed, but empirical data is scarce. By reanalyzing data from previous studies, we aimed to find a criterion for chemical intolerance based on reactions to actual chemical exposure.

Method:

We grouped participants from six previous studies based on their pattern of habituation to weak olfactory (amylacetate and n-butanol) and trigeminal (CO2 and acrolein) compounds. In two studies utilizing event-related potentials, and one functional magnetic resonance imaging study, stimuli were presented intranasally using a dynamic olfactometer. An exposure chamber that allowed full body exposure was used in the remaining three studies.

Results:

Individuals who did not habituate to weak chemical exposure, compared with those who did, reported (1) increasing symptoms during the course of the exposure, (2) greater problems with odors in everyday life, and (3) greater levels of everyday distress. They (4) performed worse on cognitively demanding tasks during exposure, and differed in measures of (5) the autonomic nervoussystem(respiratoryrateandpulseratevariability),(6)low-level inflammation and oxidative stress, and (7) the so called pain matrix of the brain.

Discussion:

Lack of habituation to weak chemical exposure may be a fruitful method of defining a sub-group of chemical intolerance.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25598 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2017.08.025 (DOI)000416436800055 ()
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L., Claeson, A.-S., Nyberg, L. & Nordin, S. (2017). Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance. International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), 220(2), 503-509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance
2017 (English)In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, no 2, p. 503-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. Moreover, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing – in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered “intermediate” (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

Keywords
Chemical intolerance; FMRI; Olfactory; Sensitization; Smell; Trigeminal
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23609 (URN)10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.002 (DOI)000401215300022 ()28254164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013106506 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M14-0375:1
Note

Funding agencies:

Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association's Research Fund  No: 2007064-K 

European territorial cooperation program Botnia-Atlantica  No: 162621 

Region Vasterbotten  No: 201126 

Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Claeson, A.-S. & Andersson, L. (2017). Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance. Neurotoxicology, 60, 92-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance
2017 (English)In: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

Keywords
Human exposure; Acrolein; Chemical intolerance; TRPA1; Trigeminal reactivity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24073 (URN)10.1016/j.neuro.2017.03.007 (DOI)000403133600010 ()28359837 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85016584006 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-1401
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Paulin, J., Andersson, L. & Nordin, S. (2016). Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population. Noise & Health, 18(83), 178-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population
2016 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, no 83, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

Keywords
Functional somatic syndrome, hyperacusis, noise sensitivity, prevalence, psychiatric disorder, sound intolerance
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22377 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.189244 (DOI)000383904300002 ()27569405 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84984796539 (Scopus ID)
Note

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Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4088-0025

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