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Gupta, N., Mathiassen, S. E., Mateu-Figueras, G., Heiden, M., Hallman, D., Birk Jørgensen, M. & Holtermann, A. (2018). A comparison of standard and compositional analysis in studies addressing group differences in sedentary behavior and physical activity. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15, Article ID 53.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of standard and compositional analysis in studies addressing group differences in sedentary behavior and physical activity
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 15, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value, typically 100% time. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other processing and analysis procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.

Methods. Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard approach and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.  

Results. When determining differences between sexes in time used for different activities at work, the effect size using standard analysis (η2=0.045, p<0.001) was 15% smaller than that obtained with CoDA (η2=0.052, p<0.001), although both approaches suggested a statistically significant difference. When determining corresponding differences between age groups, CoDA resulted in a 60% larger, and significant, effect size (η2=0.012, p=0.02) than that obtained with the standard approach (η2=0.008, p=0.07). During leisure, results with standard (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.052, p<0.001) and CoDA (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.051, p<0.001) analyses were similar.

Conclusion. Results and, hence, inferences concerning differences by age and sex in time spent sedentary and in physical activity at work differed between CoDA and standard analysis. We encourage researchers to use CoDA in similar studies, in order to adequately account for the compositional nature of data on physical activity and sedentary behavior

Keyword
CoDA, accelerometry, MANOVA, isometric log-ratio, gender, age groups
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25483 (URN)10.1186/s12966-018-0685-1 (DOI)29903009 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
Mixter, S., Mathiassen, S. E. & Hallman, D. (2018). Alternations between physical and cognitivetasks in repetitive work – Effect of cognitive task difficulty on fatigue development. Ergonomics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternations between physical and cognitivetasks in repetitive work – Effect of cognitive task difficulty on fatigue development
2018 (English)In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In a context of job rotation, the present study determined the extent to which the difficulty of a cognitive task (CT) interspersed between bouts of repetitive, low-force work influence recovery.

Fifteen female participants performed three experimental sessions with 10 repeats of a 7min+3min combination of physical and cognitive tasks (CT). The CT was either easy, moderate or hard. During sessions, muscle activity was recorded using surface electromyography, and participants rated fatigue and pain.

Muscle activity and ratings of perceived fatigue increased during work. Cognitive task difficulty influenced fatigue development marginally, apart from forearm extensor EMG increasing slower with the hard CT.  During the CT periods, EMG and perceived fatigue partly recovered, and to the same extent with all three CT difficulties.

In conclusion, CT difficulty had marginal effects on recovery from fatigue and may, thus, not be a critical issue in job rotation schemes with alternating physical and cognitive tasks.

Keyword
Repetitive work, fatigue, recovery, physical load, mental load, variation
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26536 (URN)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120223
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Locks, F., Gupta, N., Hallman, D., Birk Jørgensen, M. & Holtermann, A. (2018). Association between objectively measured static standing and low back pain - a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers. Ergonomics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between objectively measured static standing and low back pain - a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers
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2018 (English)In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study aims to investigate the cross-sectional association between objectively measured total time and temporal patterns of static standing (short bouts: 0-5 min; moderate bouts: >5-10 min; and long bouts: >10 min) during work and leisure and low back pain (LBP) among 698 blue-collar workers. Workers reported LBP on a 0-10 scale. The association between time spent on static standing and LBP was tested with linear regression. A positive association with LBP intensity was found for long bouts of static standing (β = 0.27) during total day (work + leisure), and total static standing time at leisure (β = 0.12). No significant associations were found for static standing during work and LBP intensity. These findings indicate that particularly long bouts of static standing over the entire day contribute to LBP in blue-collar workers.

Keyword
Accelerometry; Body posture; Occupational health; Physical activity; Standing work
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23135 (URN)10.1080/00140139.2018.1455900 (DOI)29560812 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044766798 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SitNeck
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Coenen, P., Korshøj, M., Hallman, D. M., Huysmans, M. A., van der Beek, A. J., Straker, L. M. & Holtermann, A. (2018). Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers. Physiology and Behavior, 185, 45-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers
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2018 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.

Keyword
Accelerometry, Blue-collar workers, Heart rate reserve, Leisure-time physical activity, Occupational physical activity, Physical activity
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26048 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.01.011 (DOI)000425573200007 ()29341873 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Sato, T., Hallman, D., Kristiansen, J., Skotte, J. & Holtermann, A. (2018). Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 91(3), 293-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers
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2018 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 293-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE:

The differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (sitting, standing and moving) at work and leisure among blue-collar workers.

METHODS:

One hundred thirty-eight workers from the NOMAD cohort were included. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for 3-4 days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and a heart rate monitor (Actiheart). HRV indices were determined during sitting, standing and moving both at work and leisure. Linear mixed-models with two fixed factors (activities and domains) were applied to investigate differences in HRV indices adjusting for individual and occupational factors.

RESULTS:

The results showed significant effects of domain (p < 0.01), physical activity type (p < 0.01) and interaction between domain and activity type (p < 0.01) on HRV indices. Mean heart rate (IBI) and parasympathetic measures of HRV (RMSSD and HF) were lower for sitting (p < 0.01) and higher for moving (p < 0.01) during work compared with leisure, while no difference between domains was found for standing (p > 0.05). Sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was higher during work for sitting and moving (p < 0.01), but showed no difference for standing (p = 0.62).

CONCLUSIONS:

Differences in cardiac autonomic modulation between work and leisure were found, indicating sympathetic predominance during work and parasympathetic predominance during leisure for sitting. Autonomic responses can be part of the mechanism that explains the differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on health.

Keyword
Cardiovascular disease; Heart rate variability; Objective measurements; Occupational health
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25565 (URN)10.1007/s00420-017-1279-y (DOI)000427151700005 ()29177943 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85035141241 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency

- Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany 

- National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen

- Denmark   Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil : Grant no: 2015/18310-1 

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Korshøj, M., Hallman, D., Mathiassen, S. E., Aadahl, M., Holtermann, A. & Birk Jørgensen, M. (2018). Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?: a cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 44(1), 96-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?: a cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives. Low back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge, due to the risk for long term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity, and whether selected modifiers influence these associations.

Methods. This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with objective measurements of physical activities in the cleaning, transport and manufacturing sectors. Peak intensity of LBP was collected by questionnaire on a 0-10 scale and sitting was expressed in terms of total duration and temporal pattern, i.e. time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate periods (>5 – ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods of sitting (>20 minutes); both during work and whole day (waking hours only). Associations were determined using linear regression in models accounting for moderation and confounding. Factors evaluated as moderators or confounders were assessed by questionnaire.

Results. The population consisted of 704 participants. No significant associations were found between total duration or temporal patterns of sitting and LBP intensity, neither during work nor for the whole day. Body Mass Index significantly moderated the association between sitting and LBP; participants with a high and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively.

Conclusion. Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures to be more powerful risk factors for LBP.

Keyword
Sedentary; accelerometer; occupational health; occupational sitting; physical activity; inactivity; temporal patterns; time pattern; musculoskeletal disorders; musculoskeletal pain
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24188 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3680 (DOI)000418916600011 ()29076213 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040066639 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency: Danish Work Environment Fund

Grant Number:  04-2014-09/20140072606

Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Korshøj, M., Birk Jørgensen, M., Hallman, D., Lagersted-Olsen, J., Holtermann, A. & Gupta, N. (2018). Prolonged sitting at work is associated with a favorable time course of low-back pain among blue-collar workers: a prospective study in the DPhacto cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prolonged sitting at work is associated with a favorable time course of low-back pain among blue-collar workers: a prospective study in the DPhacto cohort
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sitting at work is suggested to increase risk for low-back pain (LBP). Thus, an association between temporal patterns of sitting and time course of LBP, across 12 months, among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort was conducted. We found that longer durations of total and temporal sitting periods at work were significantly associated with a favorable time course of LBP.

Keyword
accelerometry; actigraph; blue-collar worker; DPhacto cohort; longitudinal study; low-back pain; musculoskeletal disorder; pain; physical work demand; prolonged sitting; prospective study; repeated measurement; sedentary; text message; trajectory of pain
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26372 (URN)29542805 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Hulsegge, G., Gupta, N., Proper, K., von Lobenstein, N., IJzelenberg, W., Hallman, D., . . . van der Beek, A. (2018). Shift work is associated with reduced heart rate variability among men but not women. International Journal of Cardiology, 258, 109-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift work is associated with reduced heart rate variability among men but not women
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 258, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system due to a disrupted circadian rhythm may be a cause of shift work-related cardiovascular diseases.

Objective

We aimed to determine the association between shift work and cardiac autonomic activity in blue-collar workers.

Methods

The study included 665 blue-collar workers aged 18–68 years in different occupations from two Danish cohort studies. Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during sleep using the Actiheart monitor, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic function. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate differences in HRV between day and shift workers.

Results

Shift workers had no significantly different HRV parameters than day workers, except for a lower VLF (B: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.36–0.05). The lower VLF was only present among non-night shift workers (p < 0.05) and not among night shift workers (p > 0.05). Results differed significantly by gender (p for interaction < 0.10): among men, shift work was negatively associated with RMSSD (B: −7.83; 95% CI: −14.28–1.38), SDNN (B: −7.0; 95% CI: −12.27–1.78), VLF (B: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–0.09) and Total Power (B: −0.61; 95% CI: −1.20–0.03), while among women, shift work was only associated with the LF/HF ratio (B: −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54–0.03).

Conclusion

Shift work was particularly associated with lower HRV during sleep among men. This indicates that shift work causes imbalance in the autonomic nervous system among men, which might increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Keyword
Shift work, Night shift, Heart rate variability, Cardiovascular diseases, Autonomic nervous system
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26050 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.01.089 (DOI)000427605700023 ()29433969 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041530029 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Hallman, D., Mathiassen, S. E. & Jahncke, H. (2018). Sitting patterns after relocation to activity-based offices: A controlled study of a natural intervention. Preventive Medicine, 111, 384-390
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sitting patterns after relocation to activity-based offices: A controlled study of a natural intervention
2018 (English)In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 111, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study determined the effect of relocating workers from traditional to activity-based offices on objectively measured sitting patterns. Office workers (n=493) from five office-sites within a large Swedish government agency were included in a controlled study of a natural intervention (2015-2017). At four sites, traditional offices were replaced by activity-based offices, while workers at one site with no relocation acted as controls. Sitting, standing and walking were measured objectively for 5-8days in a sub-sample (n=110) using accelerometry (Actigraph). Total sitting time (% of working time) and time spent in short (<5min), moderate (5-30min) and prolonged (>30min) uninterrupted periods in sitting were determined. Intervention effects were determined at 3- and 12-month follow-ups using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline age, gender and office type, and stratified by office-site (referencing controls). The relocation to activity-based offices did not result in an overall effect (across sites) on occupational sitting time (all p>0.05), while walking time had increased significantly by 1.4% of the working time at 12months compared with controls. Heterogeneous results were found across offices after 12months on total sitting time compared with controls (estimated change -18.3% time-1.4% time), prolonged sitting (change -18.3% to -3.8%), walking (change 0.5%-3.5%) and standing (change -1.4%-13.9%). In conclusion, relocation to activity-based offices had a limited overall effect on occupational sitting patterns in the studied organization, but differed considerably between office sites. Site-specific determinants of sitting behavior in activity-based offices need be identified.

Keyword
accelerometer; flexible office; longitudinal study; physical activity; sedentary
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24608 (URN)10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.11.031 (DOI)29199119 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044768024 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ABkontor
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Hallman, D. M., Nørregaard Rasmussen, C. D., Jørgensen, M. B. & Holtermann, A. (2018). Time course of neck-shoulder pain among workers: A longitudinal latent class growth analysis.. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 44(1), 47-57, Article ID 3690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time course of neck-shoulder pain among workers: A longitudinal latent class growth analysis.
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 47-57, article id 3690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

The aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over one year in an occupational population and (ii) determine whether these trajectories are predicted by NSP characteristics as well as personal and occupational factors at baseline.

Methods

This longitudinal study was conducted among Danish workers (N=748) from 2012-2014. Text messages were used to collect frequent data on NSP over one year (14 waves in total). Peak NSP intensity in the past month was rated on a 0-10 numeric scale. A baseline questionnaire covered NSP characteristics (pain intensity, duration, comorbidity, pain medication, and pain interference) as well as personal (age, gender, body mass index) and occupational (seniority, work type, physical strain at work) factors. Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish trajectories of NSP. Multivariate regression models with odds ratios (OR) were constructed to predict trajectories of NSP.

Results

Six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified (asymptomatic 11%, very low NSP 10%, low recovering NSP 18%, moderate recovering NSP 28%, strong fluctuating NSP 24% and severe persistent NSP 9% of the workers). Female gender, age, physical strain at work, NSP intensity and duration, pain medication, and pain interference in daily work at baseline were positively associated with severe persistent NSP and strong fluctuating NSP (all P<0.05). Altogether, personal and occupational factors accounted for 14% of the variance, while NSP characteristics accounted for 54%.

Conclusions

In an occupational sample, six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified. Physical strain at work appears to be a pertinent occupational factor predicting strong fluctuating and severe persistent NSP.

Keyword
blue-collar work; DPhacto; LCGA; neck pain; pain trajectory; prognosis; prospective study
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25597 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3690 (DOI)000418916600006 ()29120478 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040081474 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761
Note

Funding agency: Danish Government (Satspulje)

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2741-1868

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