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Olofsson, A. D., Fransson, G. & Lindberg, O. J. (2019). A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what ‘adequate digital competence’ may mean in a national policy initiative. Educational Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what ‘adequate digital competence’ may mean in a national policy initiative
2019 (English)In: Educational Studies, ISSN 0013-1946, E-ISSN 1532-6993Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, adequate digital competence has been put in the spotlight due to the Swedish 2017 national strategy for the digitalisation of the K-12 school system. Based on both policy and practice, the aim is to explore teachers’ enacted digital competence in three upper secondary schools in Sweden and thereby provide an empirical account of what the notion ‘adequate’ means in practice. The data consists of interviews with teachers and classroom observations. At an aggregated analytical level, the results are presented as four  narrative sub-case descriptions. It is concluded that teachers’ adequate digital competence is flexible in meaning, determined by local contextual conditions and enacted in activities and decisions that are based on the teachers’ own value frameworks. The understanding of ‘adequate’ in this study does not appear to be clarified in the formulations used in the national strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Digital competence, teacher, national policy strategy, upper secondary school
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30497 (URN)10.1080/03055698.2019.1651694 (DOI)000481124500001 ()2-s2.0-85070925578 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-01762
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
Hrastinski, S., Olofsson, A. D., Arkenback, C., Ekström, S., Ericsson, E., Fransson, G., . . . Utterberg, M. (2019). Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education. Postdigital Science and Education, 1(2), 427-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education
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2019 (English)In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-4868, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they operates, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

Keywords
Artificial intelligence, Educational robots, Postdigital education, K-12 education, Automation, Symposium
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29605 (URN)10.1007/s42438-019-00046-x (DOI)
Projects
IT i lärande
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Holmberg, J., Lindberg, J. O. & Olofsson, A. D. (2019). Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts. Oxford Review of Education, 45(1), 102-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts
2019 (English)In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the prac- tice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capi- talise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Agency; capitalisation; digital technologies; enactment; self- understanding; teacher
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27781 (URN)10.1080/03054985.2018.1500357 (DOI)000454618100006 ()2-s2.0-85052304072 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1762
Available from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-23 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G. (2019). Mentoring in Sweden: A Narrative of Agreements and Fading Aways. In: Abstract book, NERA 2019: . Paper presented at NERA 2019, 6–8 Mars 2019, Uppsala, Sweden. (pp. 963-964).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mentoring in Sweden: A Narrative of Agreements and Fading Aways
2019 (English)In: Abstract book, NERA 2019, 2019, p. 963-964Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the Swedish society, mentoring is an issue which involves many stakeholders,including (a) the two teachers unions, as defenders of teachers rights, (b) school owners andmunicipals, as locally responsible for the schools and teachers and thus for mentoring, (c) TheSwedish National Agency for Education as a supporting authority and as responsible for theimplementation of standards the newly qualified teachers are evaluated against. Universities andteacher education institutions are not generally regarded as stakeholders even though they havedelivered some education for mentors. However, like in the other Nordic countries, teacherinduction is a complex ecosystem with different intentions and interests.In Sweden there have been some important milestones when comes to the formal implementation ofmentoring. In 1995, a national agreement was reached between the Swedish Association of LocalAuthorities and the two teachers’ unions (the Nation-al Union of Teachers in Sweden and theSwed-ish Teachers’ Union) emphasising school development. One component in this agreement wasthat it gave new teach-ers the right to be supported by a mentor and to participate in an inductionprogramme. However, it took some years until the issue of mentoring became more widespreadaround the millennium-shift, partly due to a feared lack of teachers, but after some years the issue ofmentoring started to lose momentum (Fransson, 2012). A second milestone was the 2008government proposal of a national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary yearand the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52, Government bill, 2010). Inthe system, newly qualified teachers were expected to have a mentor and at the same time beingevaluated by the principal who decided whether or not the teacher was suitable enough to berecommended to earn the Teacher Registration. The reform, implemented in 2010 -2012 putmentoring in the foreground through legislation and boosted mentoring for NQTs. However, in mid2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earnedwhen graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even964though there are still obvious needs for it.The most actual challenge at the moment is to prove why mentoring should be put higher on the listof preferences of the educational challenges among a number of many issues calling for attention.Another issue which must be highlighted is the need and importance of education of mentors. As aconclusion, I suggest that the issue of mentoring has lately buried under other ‘more important’issues to a great extent, and the ecological niche for mentoring, so to speak, seems to have fadedaway even though the legislation is in place.

Keywords
Teacher registration, induction, mentoring
National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30929 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019, 6–8 Mars 2019, Uppsala, Sweden.
Projects
induction
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G. (2019). Mentoring in Sweden: The rise, fall and present state of the actual. In: : . Paper presented at Teacher Development Summit: Is there a future for Nordic Teacher Induction (NTI), 11-12 November 2019, Reykjavik, Island.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mentoring in Sweden: The rise, fall and present state of the actual
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this presentation the background, development and state of the actual regarding support to newly qualified teachers (NQT) and teacher induction system in Sweden will be outlined. The issue supporting NQTs became high on the educational agenda 2006 when an Official Investigation was launced and in 2008 proposed a national system national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary year and the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52). This was implemented in 2010-2011 but severe challenges regarding the registration occurred leading to recurrent changes in the legislation regarding the legislation. Further, in mid 2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earned when graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even though there are still obvious needs for i. It is concluded that the issue of mentoring to a great extent since than has been buried under other ‘more important’ issues, and seems to have faded away even though the legislation regarding mentoring is in place.

Implementing mentoring for NQTs may imply the implementation of education for the mentors. However, in Sweden it was just five out of 18 surveyed universities and university colleagues that gave an mentor education of 7,5 ECTS (five week of studies). In this presentations the present state of the actual in this matter for autumn 2019 will be presented as a summary of challenges to overcome if (agin) putting mentoring of NQTs higher on the educational agenda in Sweden

Keywords
Teacher registration, induction, mentoring, Policy
National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30930 (URN)
Conference
Teacher Development Summit: Is there a future for Nordic Teacher Induction (NTI), 11-12 November 2019, Reykjavik, Island
Projects
induction
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Fransson, G. (2019). Principals’ experiences of changes in relationships with newly qualified teachers resulting from a teacher registration reform. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(4), 556-568
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principals’ experiences of changes in relationships with newly qualified teachers resulting from a teacher registration reform
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 556-568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand, from principals’ points of view, how a teacher registration reform is enacted by examining the potential changes in the relationships between principals and newly qualified teachers (NQTs). The reform entailed principals performing an aptitude assessment of new teachers in their probationary year.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five principals from two Swedish municipalities on three occasions in one academic year. A third follow-up interview was conducted one year later with four of the principals, the fifth no longer being in post.

Findings

The assessment appears to be downplayed by the principals, whereas the supportive dimension and the facilitation of NQTs’ professional development seem to be acknowledged and made explicit. For some of the principals, their creative translation of the reform’s intentions transformed these relations and strengthened their leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The study is small-scale and was carried out in a specific period of policy implementation from the principals’ perspectives. Future studies would benefit from involving both principals’ and teachers’ perspectives.

Practical implications

Policymakers appear to have underestimated the structural aspects of the reform, even though in general the reform enactments had some kind of positive effect on these relations.

Social implications

For some principals, their creative translation of the reform’s intentions transformed relations and strengthened their leadership.

Originality/value

The data are from a unique period when a reform was implemented and later partly withdrawn. The study deepens the understanding on how principals tries to enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical and instructional leaders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
principals, assessment, relationships
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26987 (URN)10.1108/IJEM-02-2018-0076 (DOI)000465040900002 ()2-s2.0-85064570040 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G. (2018). A theoretical contribution to research on ‘teacher induction policies’ and ‘mentoring policy’. In: : . Paper presented at The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 13-18 April, 2018, New York, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theoretical contribution to research on ‘teacher induction policies’ and ‘mentoring policy’
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012;). For instance, Mullen (2012) writes that: “While some theorists think of coaching as a type of mentoring, others see the exact reverse – that is, mentoring as a type of coaching” (p. 9). Further, in the educational field a clear line is seldom drawn between ‘mentoring’ practiced in  initial teacher training and the ‘mentoring’ of newly qualified teachers. This may mean that the same phenomenon is described in different ways, or that different descriptions are applied to the same phenomenon.

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematize how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’.

Perspective(s) or theoretical frame­work

In this study, a sensemaking perspective is used to acknowledge the processes of sensemaking and negotiation of meanings. According to Weick (1995), sensemaking involves three specific elements: a frame of past moments and understandings, cues of the present moment of experience and a connection in-between, Accordingly, ‘the content of sensemaking is to be found in the frames and categories’ (p. 111) that summarize past experiences. Thus, how the concept of ‘mentoring’ or the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’ is made sense of in individual or specific contexts is a result of negotiations of meanings.

Methods and data

The data for this conceptual paper comes from strategically chosen journal articles as examples of how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in different national and cultural educational contexts. A content analysis is performed to identify the various meanings of mentoring and the contexts in which it is used (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

Arguments and con­clusions

The analysis shows that major challenges in (accurate) sensemaking can be due to:

(a)   language transformation (notions and concepts from one language are transformed into another language, most often into English, which can result in a change of meaning)

(b)  context transformation (sensemaking of context specific circumstances may be difficult)

(c)   context insensitivity (mixing up different ‘mentoring contexts’)

(d)  phenomenon insensitivity (mixing up different phenomena, e.g. ‘coaching’, ‘mentoring’, etc.

In certain contexts, some of these issues may be of minor relevance, whilst in others they may be vital for achieving (accurate) sensemaking.

The paper draws attention to the importance of acknowledging linguistic, conceptual and contextual dimensions of ‘mentoring’ in the sense-making process in order to achieve stringency and coherence in research, for instance when research overviews are conducted to frame own research.

References:

Kemmis, S., Heikkinen, H., Fransson, G., Aspfors, J. & Edwards-Groves, C. (2014).  Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: Supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 43, 154–164

Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

Mullen, C.A. (2012). Mentoring: An Overview. In S.J. Fletcher & C.A. Mullen (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education (pp. 7–23). London: SAGE.

Sundli, L. (2007): Mentoring – A new mantra for education? Teaching and Teacher Edu­cation. 23(2). pp. 201–214.

Weick, K. (1995): Sensemaking in Organisations. Thousand Oaks. California: Sage Pub­lications.

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26468 (URN)
Conference
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 13-18 April, 2018, New York, USA
Projects
Induction-gruppen
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Lindberg, O. J. & Olofsson, A. D. (2018). Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 217-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

Keywords
ICT, policy, digitalization, education, school, strategy, IT, policy, digitalisering, utbildning, skola, strategi
National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28354 (URN)
Projects
Making IT Happen
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-1762
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G. (2018). Conceptual and contextual confusion? Making Sense of the Concept of “Mentoring” and the Accurate “Context”. In: AERA-conference-deposit: . Paper presented at The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 13-18 April, 2018, New York, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual and contextual confusion? Making Sense of the Concept of “Mentoring” and the Accurate “Context”
2018 (English)In: AERA-conference-deposit, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts, and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012).

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematise how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’. I first discuss how the concept of mentoring can be used in different contexts and then conduct an in-depth analysis of how the results from one specific article (Aspfors & Fransson, 2015) are used by others. More precisely, I analyse how this article is cited and quoted by other scholars.

Keywords
Teacher induction, mentoring, scientific rigour
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26813 (URN)
Conference
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 13-18 April, 2018, New York, USA.
Projects
Induction
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Lindberg, O. J. & Olofsson, A. D. (2018). From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, 23(5), 2155-2177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?
2018 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 2155-2177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as good or less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schools responded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one of their teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one who used ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachers did and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes were identified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and one non-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’ ‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’, ‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogical skills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of their teachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes. Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching and learning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themes relating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the same teacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

Keywords
Upper secondary school, IT, ICT, digital, technologies, pupil, teaching, Gymnasiskolan, IT, digital, teknologier, elever, undervisning
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27792 (URN)10.1007/s10639-018-9708-4 (DOI)000442598800021 ()2-s2.0-85045035985 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Making IT happen
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1762
Available from: 2018-08-26 Created: 2018-08-26 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5592-2964

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