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Röer, J. P., Bell, R., Buchner, A., Saint-Aubin, J., Sonier, R.-P., Marsh, J. E., . . . Arnström, S. (2022). A multilingual preregistered replication of the semantic mismatch effect on serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 48(7), 966-974
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multilingual preregistered replication of the semantic mismatch effect on serial recall
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 966-974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Visual-verbal serial recall is disrupted when task-irrelevant background speech has to be ignored. Contrary to previous suggestion, it has recently been shown that the magnitude of disruption may be accentuated by the semantic properties of the irrelevant speech. Sentences ending with unexpected words that did not match the preceding semantic context were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. This particular instantiation of a deviation effect has been termed the semantic mismatch effect. To establish a new phenomenon, it is necessary to show that the effect can be independently replicated and does not depend on specific boundary conditions such as the language of the stimulus material. Here we report a preregistered replication of the semantic mismatch effect in which we examined the effect of unexpected words in 4 different languages (English, French, German, and Swedish) across 4 different laboratories. Participants performed a serial recall task while ignoring sentences with expected or unexpected words that were recorded using text-to-speech software. Independent of language, sentences ending with unexpected words were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. In line with previous results, there was no evidence of habituation of the semantic mismatch effect in the form of a decrease in disruption with repeated exposure to the occurrence of unexpected words. The successful replication and extension of the effect to different languages indicates the expression of a general and robust mechanism that reacts to violations of expectancies based on the semantic content of the irrelevant speech.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association, 2022
Keywords
auditory distraction, irrelevant speech, selective attention, working memory
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37178 (URN)10.1037/xlm0001066 (DOI)000735828200001 ()34647788 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119254976 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-18 Created: 2021-10-18 Last updated: 2022-12-05Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Lyskov, E., Grönkvist, M., Kölegård, R., Dahlström, N., Knez, I., . . . Willander, J. (2022). Cognitive performance, fatigue, emotional and physiological strains in simulated long-duration flight missions. Military Psychology, 34(2), 224-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive performance, fatigue, emotional and physiological strains in simulated long-duration flight missions
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2022 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pilots in long-duration flight missions in single-seat aircrafts may be affected by fatigue. This study determined associations between cognitive performance, emotions and physiological activation and deactivation – measured by heart rate variability – in a simulated 11-hours flight mission in the 39 Gripen aircraft. Eleven participants volunteered for the study. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Cognitive performance and objective fatigue were measured by non-executive and executive tasks. Emotions were assessed by the Circumplex Affect Space instrument. Heart rate variability (HRV) was considered in relation to the cognitive battery test in four time points – Hours 3, 5, 7, 9 – and their associations with emotional ratings. Results indicated decrease in performance in the non-executive task after approximately seven hours. This result was correlated with self-reported measures of fatigue. Heart rate variability, assessed by indices of parasympathetic modulation – RMSSD, pNN50 and mean RR Interval – remained unchanged for both non-executive and executive tasks over time. There were associations between increased boredom as well as passiveness and decrease in stimulation as well as activeness, and increased HRV. This suggests that a low self-regulatory effort for maintaining performance in these tasks in these environmental conditions was required. Combined results indicate that pilots may be able to adapt to environmental demands and fatigue in long-duration missions providing that low self-regulatory effort is prevalent. Keywords: fatigue, heart rate variability, cognitive performance, emotions, long-duration military missions 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Fatigue, heart rate variability, cognitive performance, emotions, long-duration missions
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35493 (URN)10.1080/08995605.2021.1989236 (DOI)000742314900001 ()2-s2.0-85122788165 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-25 Created: 2021-03-25 Last updated: 2024-04-01Bibliographically approved
Colding, J., Barthel, S., Ljung, R., Eriksson, F. & Sjöberg, S. (2022). Urban commons and collective action to address climate change. Social Inclusion, 10(1), 103-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban commons and collective action to address climate change
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2022 (English)In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change and the coupled loss of ecosystem services pose major collective action problems in that all individuals would benefit from better cooperation to address these problems but conflicting interests and/or incomplete knowledge discourage joint action. Adopting an inductive and multi‐layered approach, drawing upon the authors’ previous research on urban commons, we here summarize key insights on environmentally oriented urban commons and elaborate on what role they have in instigating climate‐proofing activities in urban areas. We deal with three types of urban commons, i.e., “urban green commons,” “coworking spaces,” and “community climate commons.” We describe how allotment gardens, community gardens, and other types of urban green commons contribute to environmental learning that may boost under‐ standing of environmental issues and which constitute important learning arenas for climate‐change mitigation and adap‐ tation. We also deal with the newly emerging phenomenon of coworking spaces that share many essential institutional attributes of urban commons and which can work for climate‐change mitigation through the benefits provided by a shar‐ ing economy and through reduction of domestic transportation and commuting distance. Community climate commons represent commons where local communities can mobilize together to create shared low‐carbon assets and which hold the potential to empower certain segments and civil society groups so that they can have greater influence and ownership of the transformation of reaching net‐zero carbon goals. We conclude this article by identifying some critical determinants for the up‐scaling of environmentally oriented urban commons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cogitatio, 2022
Keywords
civic society; climate change; collective action; community climate commons; coworking spaces; mobilization; urban commons; urban green commons
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37630 (URN)10.17645/si.v10i1.4862 (DOI)000761001000003 ()2-s2.0-85124990145 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FairtransUrban Commons
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

This research has been supported through a grant facilitated by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) and FORMAS, within the research program Fair Transformation to a Fossil Free Future (FAIRTRANS), hosted by the Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University. The work is also supported through means within the research program Urban Commons at the University of Gävle.

Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-03-25Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Dahlstrom, N., Knez, I., Ljung, R., Cameron, M. & Willander, J. (2021). Dynamic decision-making of airline pilots in low-fidelity simulation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 22(1), 83-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic decision-making of airline pilots in low-fidelity simulation
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2021 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dynamic decision-making in aviation involves complex problem solving in a dynamic environment characterized by goal conflicts and time constrains. Training mostly focuses on testing domain-specific knowledge and skills that may result in context-specific rather than general problem-solving skills. A low-fidelity decision-making simulation may favour the understanding of the decision process rather than the decision outcome alone. We investigated airline pilots’ decision-making strategies and task performance through the use of the low-fidelity computer simulation (microworld) COLDSTORE, a non-linear, opaque, time-delayed task. Almost thirty percent of pilots adapted (Adaptors) to the task’s demands, reaching the desired objective. About thirty five percent of pilots approached the task using a cautious strategy (Cautious). However, the success rates in reaching the task’s objective revealed that performance was compromised for the cautious group. A changing (Changers) and oscillating (Oscillators) approach was also observed. More experienced pilots differed from least experienced pilots in strategy and performance adopted. We suggest that low-fidelity dynamic decision-making simulations offer an environment for practicing and understanding the decision-making process. That may contribute to pilots’ ability to coordinate monitoring, recognition, planning, judgement and choice when acting under flight environment time constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Dynamic decision-making, airline pilots, low-fidelity simulations, microworlds, instance-based learning theory
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32394 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2020.1758830 (DOI)000535432300001 ()2-s2.0-85085489936 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-04 Created: 2020-06-04 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Eccles, R., van der Linde, J., le Roux, M., Holloway, J., MacCutcheon, D., Ljung, R. & Swanepoel, D. W. (2021). Effect of music instruction on phonological awareness and early literacy skills of five- to seven-year-old children. Early Child Development and Care, 191(12), 1896-1910
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of music instruction on phonological awareness and early literacy skills of five- to seven-year-old children
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2021 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 191, no 12, p. 1896-1910Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT Multiple studies and systematic reviews have shown that music instruction improves phonological awareness (PA) and early literacy skills in children, although findings vary. In meta-analyses, the reliability and significance of the transfer effect are reduced. The study evaluated the effect of varying durations of music instruction exposure, over a single academic year, on PA and early literacy of young children. Based on the exposure to music instruction, participants were assigned to either a low- or high-exposure group. Additional analyses were conducted for 17 age-matched pairs and to compare participants that only received class music to those that received additional music instruction. Between-groups comparisons showed no significant difference after a single academic year of music instruction. Within-groups comparisons identified more PA improvements in the high-exposure group. Exposure to music instruction for no less than one academic year, is required to conclusively evaluate the effect on PA and early literacy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
early literacy, music instruction, phonological awareness, young children
National Category
Pediatrics Learning
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-33343 (URN)10.1080/03004430.2020.1803852 (DOI)000558545500001 ()2-s2.0-85089292439 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), IB2017-7004
Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2021-11-29Bibliographically approved
Rosa, E., Grönkvist, M., Kölegård, R., Dahlström, N., Knez, I., Ljung, R. & Willander, J. (2021). Fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in simulated long-duration single-piloted flight missions. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, 92(9), 710-719
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue, emotion and cognitive performance in simulated long-duration single-piloted flight missions
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2021 (English)In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 92, no 9, p. 710-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatigue of air force pilots has become an increasing concern due to changes in mission characteristics. In the current study we investigated fatigue, emotions and cognitive performance in a simulated 11-hours mission in the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft.

Methods: A total of twelve subjects were evaluated in a high-fidelity dynamic flight simulator for 12 consecutive hours. Perceived fatigue was measured by the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Index (SPFI). Emotions were assessed with the Circumplex Affect Space. Cognitive performance was assessed by five cognitive tasks.

Results: Significant increase in self-reported fatigue, general decrease in two positive emotional states, as well increase of one negative emotional state occurred after approximately seven hours into the mission. Self-reported fatigue negatively correlated with enthusiasm and cheerfulness (r’= -0.75; -0.49, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and gloominess (r’ = -0.61; r’ = -0.30, respectively). Response time in the low-order task negatively correlated with enthusiasm, cheerfulness and calmness (r’= - 0.44; r’= - 0.41; r’= - 0.37, respectively) and positively correlated with boredom and anxiousness (r’ = 0.37; r’ = 0.28, respectively). Mission duration had an adverse impact on emotions in these environmental conditions, particularly after seven hours.

Discussion: These results contribute to the understanding of fatigue development in general and of emotion-cognition relationships. These findings emphasize that both emotional states and the type of cognitive tasks to be performed should be considered for planning long-duration missions in single-piloted fighter aircrafts as to increase the probability of missions’ success.

Keywords: military missions, fighter aircraft, objective and subjective pilot performance

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aerospace Medical Association, 2021
Keywords
military missions, fighter aircraft, objective and subjective pilot performance
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35491 (URN)10.3357/AMHP.5798.2021 (DOI)000708037700004 ()34645551 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118525157 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-25 Created: 2021-03-25 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Eccles, R., van der Linde, J., le Roux, M., Holloway, J., MacCutcheon, D., Ljung, R. & Swanepoel, D. W. (2021). Is phonological awareness related to pitch, rhythm, and speech-in-noise discrimination in young children?. Language, speech & hearing services in schools, 52(1), 383-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is phonological awareness related to pitch, rhythm, and speech-in-noise discrimination in young children?
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2021 (English)In: Language, speech & hearing services in schools, ISSN 0161-1461, E-ISSN 1558-9129, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 383-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose. Phonological awareness (PA) requires the complex integration of language, speech, and auditory processing abilities. Enhanced pitch and rhythm discrimination have been shown to improve PA and speech-in-noise (SiN) discrimination. The screening of pitch and rhythm discrimination, if nonlinguistic correlates of these abilities, could contribute to screening procedures prior to diagnostic assessment. This research aimed to determine the association of PA abilities with pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination in children aged 5–7 years old.

Method. Forty-one participants' pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination and PA abilities were evaluated. To control for confounding factors, including biological and environmental risk exposure and gender differences, typically developing male children from high socioeconomic statuses were selected. Pearson correlation was used to identify associations between variables, and stepwise regression analysis was used to identify possible predictors of PA.

Results. Correlations of medium strength were identified between PA and pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination. Pitch and diotic digit-in-noise discrimination formed the strongest regression model (adjusted R2 = .4213, r = .649) for phoneme–grapheme correspondence.

Conclusions. The current study demonstrates predictive relationships between the complex auditory discrimination skills of pitch, rhythm, and diotic digit-in-noise recognition and foundational phonemic awareness and phonic skills in young males from high socioeconomic statuses. Pitch, rhythm, and digit-in-noise discrimination measures hold potential as screening measures for delays in phonemic awareness and phonic difficulties and as components of stimulation programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASHA, 2021
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-34793 (URN)10.1044/2020_LSHSS-20-00032 (DOI)000609924400028 ()33464981 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85099707183 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-21 Created: 2021-01-21 Last updated: 2021-02-18Bibliographically approved
Eccles, R., van der Linde, J., le Roux, M., Swanepoel, D. W., MacCutcheon, D. & Ljung, R. (2021). The effect of music education approaches on phonological awareness and early literacy: A systematic review. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 44(1), 46-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of music education approaches on phonological awareness and early literacy: A systematic review
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2021 (English)In: Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, ISSN 1038-1562, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 46-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Music education has been demonstrated to positively influence the development of early literacy with the type of intervention identified as a moderating factor. However, research comparing the effects of different music education approaches on phonological awareness and early literacy is limited. This systematic review aimed to compare the effect of the predominant music education approaches, namely Orff, Kodály, Suzuki and Dalcroze, on phonological awareness and early literacy. The PRISMA-P protocol was followed, and the study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018094131). Five electronic databases were searched. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed English-language journal publications of quasi-experimental or experimental research studies with typically developing populations aged five to eight years old. Musical intervention had to be based on the principles of the Orff, Kodály, Suzuki or Dalcroze music education approaches or a combination thereof. Narrative synthesis was used in data analysis. From 329 records identified, five articles, from 1975 to 2013, qualified for final inclusion. The sample was heterogeneous regarding population characteristics, music education frequency and duration and abilities assessed. The outcomes from the included studies showed that music education improved aspects of phonological awareness and early literacy. However, standardization of methodological aspects would be required for definite comparisons between the music education approaches to be made. Although direct effects of the music education approaches could not be described, the review outlined factors, such as methodological diversity, that influence the investigation of skill transfer from music education to literacy abilities. The lack of and need for research from lower-middle income countries investigating music education as an intervention approach for phonological awareness and early literacy was identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Literacy Educators' Association, 2021
Keywords
LANGUAGE; CHILDREN; SKILLS; INTERVENTION; PRESCHOOLERS; INSTRUCTION; CURRICULUM; EFFICACY; OUTCOMES; SPEECH
National Category
Psychology Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35475 (URN)000631078000005 ()2-s2.0-85125657197 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-24 Created: 2021-03-24 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
MacCutcheon, D., Füllgrabe, C., Eccles, R., van der Linde, J., Panebianco, C. & Ljung, R. (2020). Investigating the Effect of One Year of Learning to Play a Musical Instrument on Speech-in-Noise Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory in 5-to-7-Year-Old Children. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 2865.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the Effect of One Year of Learning to Play a Musical Instrument on Speech-in-Noise Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory in 5-to-7-Year-Old Children
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The benefits in speech-in-noise perception, language and cognition brought about by extensive musical training in adults and children have been demonstrated in a number of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether one year of school-delivered musical training, consisting of individual and group instrumental classes, was capable of producing advantages for speech-in-noise perception and phonological short-term memory in children tested in a simulated classroom environment. Forty-one children aged 5-7 years at the first measurement point participated in the study and either went to a music-focused or a sport-focused private school with an otherwise equivalent school curriculum. The children’s ability to detect number and color words in noise was measured under a number of conditions including different masker types (speech-shaped noise, single-talker background) and under varying spatial combinations of target and masker (spatially collocated, spatially separated). Additionally, a cognitive factor essential to speech perception, namely phonological short-term memory, was assessed. Findings were unable to confirm that musical training of the frequency and duration administered was associated with a musician's advantage for either speech in noise, under any of the masker or spatial conditions tested, or phonological short-term memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2020
Keywords
children, cognition, musical training, phonological short-term memory, speech in noise
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
no Strategic Research Area (SFO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31616 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02865 (DOI)000509580200001 ()31998174 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078416989 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
MacCutcheon, D., Hurtig, A., Pausch, F., Hygge, S., Fels, J. & Ljung, R. (2019). Second language vocabulary level is related to benefits for second language listening comprehension under lower reverberation time conditions. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 31(2), 175-185
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Second language vocabulary level is related to benefits for second language listening comprehension under lower reverberation time conditions
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The acoustic qualities of a room can have a deleterious effect on the quality of speech signals. The acoustic measurement of reverberation time (RT) has shown to impact second language (L2) speech comprehension positively when lower due to release from spectral and temporal masking effects as well as top-down processing factors. This auralization experiment investigated the benefits of better L2 vocabulary and executive function (updating) skills during L2 listening comprehension tests under shorter versus longer RT conditions (0.3 and 0.9 s). 57 bilingual university students undertook L2 vocabulary, number updating and L2 listening comprehension tests. After splitting groups into high/low vocabulary and updating groups, a mixed ANOVA was conducted. The high number updating group showed no significant differences or interactions in L2 listening comprehension than the lower number updating group across RT conditions. The high vocabulary group had 22% better L2 listening comprehension than the low vocabulary group in long RT, and 9% better in short RT. A significant benefit in L2 listening comprehension due to release from reverberation was only evident in the high vocabulary group. Results indicate that the benefit of good room acoustics for listening comprehension is greatest for those with better language (vocabulary) ability.

Keywords
Reverberation time, Listening comprehension, Second language
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
no Strategic Research Area (SFO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29173 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2019.1575387 (DOI)000461550600004 ()2-s2.0-85060842774 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, FP7/2007-2013EU, European Research Council, FP7-607139
Available from: 2019-01-25 Created: 2019-01-25 Last updated: 2024-04-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9181-2084

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