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Colding, J., Wallhagen, M., Sörqvist, P., Marcus, L., Hillman, K., Samuelsson, K. & Barthel, S. (2020). Applying a Systems Perspective on the Notion of the Smart City. Sustainability, 3, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying a Systems Perspective on the Notion of the Smart City
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2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 3, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the need for a widened definition of the notion of technology within the smart city discourse, with a particular focus on the “built environment”. The first part of the paper describes how current tendencies in urban design and architecture are inclined to prioritize high tech-solutions at the expense of low-tech functionalities and omits that information and communication technology (ICT) contrasts the art of building cities as an adaptable and habitually smart technology in itself. It continues with an elaboration on the need for expanding the limits of system boundaries for a better understanding of the energy and material telecouplings that are linked to ICT solutions and account for some perils inherent in smart technologies, such as rebound effects and the difficulty of measuring the environmental impacts of ICT solutions on a city level. The second part of the paper highlights how low-tech technologies and nature-based solutions can make cities smarter, representing a new technology portfolio in national and international policies for safeguarding biodiversity and the delivery of a range of ecosystem services, promoting the necessary climate-change adaption that cities need to prioritize to confer resilience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
smart city; ICT; built environment; digital technology; urban design and architecture; biodiversity; nature-based solutions; resilience
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32341 (URN)10.3390/smartcities3020022 (DOI)
Projects
Urban Studio
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00937
Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
Colding, J., Colding, M. & Barthel, S. (2020). Applying seven resilience principles on the Vision of the Digital City. Cities, 103, Article ID 102761.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying seven resilience principles on the Vision of the Digital City
2020 (English)In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 103, article id 102761Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32322 (URN)10.1016/j.cities.2020.102761 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084351711 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01193Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00937
Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-18 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Joanna, S., Barthel, S. & Colding, J. (2020). Countryside within the city: A motivating vision behind civic green area stewardship in Warsaw, Poland. Sustainability, 12(6), Article ID 2313.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Countryside within the city: A motivating vision behind civic green area stewardship in Warsaw, Poland
2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 2313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the midst of the epoch of the Urban Anthropocene, citizen engagement is an important step on the path of creating local and global sustainability. However, the factors that motivate civic urban dwellers to become voluntary stewards of nature environments inside cities need research. This is an empirical study based on deep interviews and a grounded theory approach focused on the“inner world” of people inWarsaw, Poland, that engage in green area stewardship. Our approach reveals a commonly shared vision as the prime motivator powering agency in green area stewardship.This vision was articulated as creating a countryside within the city characterized by a stronger sense of community, a shared sense of place and an enhanced connection with nature. While other studies have found inner values or direct benefits as motivating factors for engaging in urban stewardship,we instead found a green vision for re-designing what the “urban” could be like as the prime motivator for transformation—a vision with potential global sustainability implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
environmental management; community gardens; urban stewardship; social-ecological systems; qualitative analysis; grounded theory; green area activism; community; place; values
National Category
Social Anthropology
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32078 (URN)10.3390/su12062313 (DOI)000523751400160 ()2-s2.0-85083063448 (Scopus ID)
Note

Stephan Barthel's work has been funded by University of Gavle and Stockholm Resilience Centre, as well as by funds from FORMAS/The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning. The project is called Spatial and Experiential Analyses for Urban Social Sustainability (ZEUS) (reference number: 2016-01193). Johan Colding's work has been funded by the University of Gavle and also partly through a research grant (reference number: 2017-00937) received from the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS), and through means provided by the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.

Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
Colding, J., Giusti, M., Haga, A., Wallhagen, M. & Barthel, S. (2020). Enabling Relationships with Nature in Cities. Sustainability, 12, Article ID 4394.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Relationships with Nature in Cities
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2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, article id 4394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Limited exposure to direct nature experiences is a worrying sign of urbanization, particularly for children. Experiencing nature during childhood shapes aspects of a personal relationship with nature, crucial for sustainable decision-making processes in adulthood. Scholars often stress the need to ‘reconnect’ urban dwellers with nature; however, few elaborate on how this can be achieved. Here, we argue that nature reconnection requires urban ecosystems, with a capacity to enable environmental learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, i.e., learning that occurs in the head, heart and hands of individuals. Drawing on environmental psychology, urban ecology, institutional analysis and urban planning, we present a theoretical framework for Human–Nature Connection (HNC), discuss the importance of nurturing HNC for children, elaborate on the role of property-rights and the importance of creating collective action arenas in cities for the promotion of urban resilience building. As values and environmental preconceptions underly environmental behavior, there are limits to achieving HNC in cities, as presumptive sentiments toward nature not always are positive. We end by discussing the role of new digital technologies in relation to HNC, and conclude by summarizing the major points brought forward herein, offering policy recommendations for HNC as a resilience strategy that can be adopted in cities throughout the world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
Human–Nature Connection; Cognitive; affective and psychomotor environmental learning; Resilience building; Sense of place; Immersive technologies; Property rights; Urban Green Commons
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32340 (URN)10.3390/su12114394 (DOI)
Projects
Urban Studio
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00937
Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
Colding, J., Gren, Å. & Barthel, S. (2020). The Incremental Demise of Urban Green Spaces. Land, 9(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Incremental Demise of Urban Green Spaces
2020 (English)In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 9, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More precise explanations are needed to better understand why public green spaces are diminishing in cities, leading to the loss of ecosystem services that humans receive from natural systems. This paper is devoted to the incremental change of green spaces—a fate that is largely undetectable by urban residents. The paper elucidates a set of drivers resulting in the subtle loss of urban green spaces and elaborates on the consequences of this for resilience planning of ecosystem services. Incremental changes of greenspace trigger baseline shifts, where each generation of humans tends to take the current condition of an ecosystem as the normal state, disregarding its previous states. Even well-intended political land-use decisions, such as current privatization schemes, can cumulatively result in undesirable societal outcomes, leading to a gradual loss of opportunities for nature experience. Alfred E. Kahn referred to such decision making as ‘the tyranny of small decisions.’ This is mirrored in urban planning as problems that are dealt with in an ad hoc manner with no officially formulated vision for long-term spatial planning. Urban common property systems could provide interim solutions for local governments to survive periods of fiscal shortfalls. Transfer of proprietor rights to civil society groups can enhance the resilience of ecosystem services in cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
urban greenspace; privatization; property rights; incremental greenspace loss; ecosystem services; the tyranny of small decisions; resilience planning; urban densification; baseline shifts; urban nature connection
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32342 (URN)10.3390/land9050162 (DOI)
Projects
Urban Studio
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00937
Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
Colding, J., Colding, M. & Barthel, S. (2020). The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 47(1), 179-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?
2020 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on “smart cities”, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage, 2020
Keywords
Cities, smart cities, sustainability
National Category
Other Social Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26675 (URN)10.1177/2399808318763164 (DOI)000507400700012 ()2-s2.0-85044354519 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: MISTRA, University of Gävle

Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Marcus, L., Berghauser-Pont, M. & Barthel, S. (2020). Towards a socio-ecological spatial morphology: a joint network approach to urban form and landscape ecology. Urban morphology, 24(1), 21-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a socio-ecological spatial morphology: a joint network approach to urban form and landscape ecology
2020 (English)In: Urban morphology, ISSN 1027-4278, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interest in the green infrastructure of cities has rapidly increased in recent years. The reasons are several but generally relate to the great increase of research and policy on sustainable urban development. Of particular importance here is the more recent shift in this field towards greater emphasis on biodiversity and urban ecosystems and not only climate change and environmental engineering. This shift brings new demands for a deeper understanding of the morphology of green infrastructures in cities, understood as ecological environments and not only as areas for human use, as has been the general case in urban morphology. In an earlier paper (Marcus et al., 2019), we discussed how descriptions of landscape patterns of both urban and natural kinds, as developed in urban morphology and landscape ecology respectively, could be integrated into a joint socio- ecological spatial morphology. That paper outlined a framework for such a morphology where green (and blue) as well as built-up areas in cities can be jointly described as configurations of patches. However, the discussion in that paper does not address how to capture the relation between such configurations and the processes that they structure, or how such processes over time may alter such configurations, which is the aim of the present paper. It does so by extending the theory of generic function (Hillier, 1996) to other species than humans, and by applying the theory of affordances (Gibson, 1986) as a means to develop distance measures specific for different species. The origin of the discussion in both papers is the need for progress in sustainable urban development for which this relation is vital, since if we are to address the function of both urban and ecological systems through spatial form, we need to develop an understanding of how such patterns underpin and structure urban and ecological systems.

Keywords
urban morphology, landscape ecology, sustainability, socio-ecological urbanism, urban design
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32174 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01193
Available from: 2020-04-20 Created: 2020-04-20 Last updated: 2020-04-20Bibliographically approved
Ong, T., Lin, B., Philott, S., Barthel, S. & Levin, S. (2019). A model for growing and shrinking cities: Urban gardens as a bridge. In: : . Paper presented at ESA (Ecological Society of America) Annual meeting 2019, 11-16 August, Louisville, KY, USA. Louisville, USA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for growing and shrinking cities: Urban gardens as a bridge
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Louisville, USA: , 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31057 (URN)
Conference
ESA (Ecological Society of America) Annual meeting 2019, 11-16 August, Louisville, KY, USA
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Kabanshi, A., Langeborg, L., Barthel, S., Colding, J., Eriksson, O. & Sörqvist, P. (2019). Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 64, 48-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Climate change; Global warming; Averaging bias; Negative footprint illusion
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29596 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2019.05.005 (DOI)000484869600006 ()2-s2.0-85066452463 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Colding, J. & Barthel, S. (2019). Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later. Ecology & society, 24(1), 423-432, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later
2019 (English)In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 423-432, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors’ main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Resilience Alliance, 2019
Keywords
Multitier framework, Original SES framework, Robustness framework, SES modeling, Social-ecological systems, Scopus
National Category
Other Social Sciences Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29905 (URN)10.5751/ES-10598-240102 (DOI)000464153200008 ()2-s2.0-85065798993 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2637-2024

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