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Lim, N. J. & Brandt, S. A. (2019). Flood map boundary sensitivity due to combined effects of DEM resolution and roughness in relation to model performance. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 10(1), 1613-1647
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flood map boundary sensitivity due to combined effects of DEM resolution and roughness in relation to model performance
2019 (English)In: Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, ISSN 1947-5705, E-ISSN 1947-5713, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1613-1647Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In comprehending flood model results, we performed sensitivity analyses and evaluated how different combinations of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and Manning’s roughness affect flood maps produced from a 2D hydraulic model. Moreover, we analysed how the estimation of accuracy can further be influenced by the performance measure and the area’s topography. Various combinations of DEM and Manning’s n produced different results, in terms of quantified performance in relation to actual flood extent and the generated flood boundaries. High-resolution DEMs performed better with higher Manning’s n, while lower n values were better for lower resolution DEMs. Furthermore, although lower resolution DEMs (25 and 50 m) received higher quantified performances, there are more discrepancies in the flood maps and water surface elevations (WSE) produced by them. The current statistical estimators of model performance do not necessarily provide an accurate estimate of which combination of DEM resolution and roughness are more suitable for application to modelling. Different statistical estimates have different assumptions, which can affect the model selection. Therefore, a more holistic approach towards model selection should be adopted that gives equal importance to statistical estimators, as well as the quality of flood inundation extents.

Keywords
DEM, flood, GIS, goodness of fit, hydraulic modelling, Manning’s n, sensitivity analysis
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28426 (URN)10.1080/19475705.2019.1604573 (DOI)000472604200001 ()2-s2.0-85069489814 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Milutinovic, G., Ahonen-Jonnarth, U., Seipel, S. & Brandt, S. A. (2019). The impact of interactive visualization on trade-off-based geospatial decision-making. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 33(10), 2094-2123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of interactive visualization on trade-off-based geospatial decision-making
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 2094-2123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a previous work we developed GISwaps, a novel method for geospatial decision-making based on Even Swaps. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of a visualization framework integrated with this method, implemented within a decision support system. This evaluation is based on two different studies. In the quantitative study, 15 student participants used GISwaps with no visual features, and 15 participants used GISwaps with the integrated visual framework, as the tool in a solar farm site location case study. The results of the quantitative evaluation show positive impact of the visualization in terms of increased coherency in trade-offs. The results also show a statistically significant difference in average trade-off values between the groups, with users from the non-visual group setting on average 20% higher trade-off values compared with the users in the visual group. In the qualitative study, we had one expert in GIS, two experts in decision-making and two experts in solar energy as a focus user group. Data in this study were obtained by observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. The impact of the visualization framework was assessed positively by all participants in the expert group. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
GIS decision-making, GISwaps, interactive visualization, tradeoffs
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30515 (URN)10.1080/13658816.2019.1613547 (DOI)000470448200001 ()2-s2.0-85065643312 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Lim, N. J., Sahlin, E. A. U. & Brandt, S. A. (2018). A cartographic framework for visualising flood uncertainties.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cartographic framework for visualising flood uncertainties
2018 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28427 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, K., Giusti, M., Peterson, G. D., Legeby, A., Brandt, S. A. & Barthel, S. (2018). Impact of environment on people’s everyday experiences in Stockholm. Landscape and Urban Planning, 171, 7-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of environment on people’s everyday experiences in Stockholm
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people’s everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people’s experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis. 

Keywords
Affordances, Public participatory GIS, Spatial regression, Urban ecosystem services, Urban social-ecological systems
National Category
Environmental Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25599 (URN)10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.11.009 (DOI)000423643000002 ()2-s2.0-85035000677 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01193Swedish Research Council Formas, 2011-75
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Myagmartseren, P., Buyandelger, M. & Brandt, S. A. (2017). Implications of a Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Urban Development in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), 2017, Article ID 2819795.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of a Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Urban Development in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
2017 (English)In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2017, article id 2819795Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New technology has provided new tools for effective spatial planning. Through the example of locating suitable sites for urbandevelopment in Ulaanbaatar, this paper illustrates how multicriteria decision analysis and geographical information systems canbe used for more effective urban planning. Several constraint and factor criteria were identified, transformed into map layers,and weighted together using the analytic hierarchy process. Besides localization results, this study shows the effect of using poorelevation data and how a sensitivity analysis can be applied to yield further information, spot weighting weaknesses, and assess thequality of the criteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017
National Category
Physical Geography Remote Sensing Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23637 (URN)10.1155/2017/2819795 (DOI)000395153100001 ()2-s2.0-85014138733 (Scopus ID)
Projects
GLOBES 2
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, GLOBES 2, no. 170430
Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B. & Brandt, S. A. (2016). A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, 5(6), Article ID 95.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography
2016 (English)In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

Keywords
scaling, spatial heterogeneity, conundrum of length, MAUP, topological analysis
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22247 (URN)10.3390/ijgi5060095 (DOI)000379861200022 ()2-s2.0-85009101145 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Brandt, S. A. (2016). Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models. Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), 30(6), 1677-1690
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models
2016 (English)In: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1677-1690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As flood inundation risk maps have become a central piece of information for both urban and risk management planning, also a need to assess the accuracies and uncertainties of these maps has emerged. Most maps show the inundation boundaries as crisp lines on visually appealing maps, whereby many planners and decision makers, among others, automatically believe the boundaries are both accurate and reliable. However, as this study shows, probably all such maps, even those that are based on high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), have immanent uncertainties which can be directly related to both DEM resolution and the steepness of terrain slopes perpendicular to the river flow direction. Based on a number of degenerated DEMs, covering areas along the Eskilstuna River, Sweden, these uncertainties have been quantified into an empirically-derived disparity distance equation, yielding values of distance between true and modeled inundation boundary location. Using the inundation polygon, the DEM, a value representing the DEM resolution, and the desired level of confidence as inputs in a new-developed algorithm that utilizes the disparity distance equation, the slope and DEM dependent uncertainties can be directly visualized on a map. The implications of this strategy should benefit planning and help reduce high costs of floods where infrastructure, etc., have been placed in flood-prone areas without enough consideration of map uncertainties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
1D hydraulic modeling, River flood inundation, Uncertainty, Quantile regression, Geographical information systems (GIS), Digital elevation model (DEM)
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Physical Geography Other Civil Engineering Climate Research Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20996 (URN)10.1007/s00477-016-1212-z (DOI)000379753200009 ()2-s2.0-84954554055 (Scopus ID)
Projects
GLOBES 2Kvalitetsbeskrivning av geografisk information vid översvämningskartering (Lantmäteriet)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, 170430
Note

Även finansiering från EU via Lantmäteriet (Projekt 2)

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Lim, N. J., Brandt, S. A. & Seipel, S. (2016). Visualisation and evaluation of flood uncertainties based on ensemble modelling. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 30(2), 240-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualisation and evaluation of flood uncertainties based on ensemble modelling
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 240-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates how users incorporate visualisation of flood uncertainty information in decision-making. An experiment was conducted where participants were given the task to decide building locations, taking into account homeowners’ preferences as well as dilemmas imposed by flood risks at the site. Two general types of visualisations for presenting uncertainties from ensemble modelling were evaluated: (1) uncertainty maps, which used aggregated ensemble results; and (2) performance bars showing all individual simulation outputs from the ensemble. Both were supplemented with either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) contextual information, to give an overview of the area.The results showed that the type of uncertainty visualisation was highly influential on users’ decisions, whereas the representation of the contextual information (2D or 3D) was not. Visualisation with performance bars was more intuitive and effective for the task performed than the uncertainty map. It clearly affected users’ decisions in avoiding certain-to-be-flooded areas. Patterns to which the distances were decided from the homeowners’ preferred positions and the uncertainties were similar, when the 2D and 3D map models were used side by side with the uncertainty map. On the other hand, contextual information affected the time to solve the task. With the 3D map, it took the participants longer time to decide the locations, compared with the other combinations using the 2D model.Designing the visualisation so as to provide more detailed information made respondents avoid dangerous decisions. This has also led to less variation in their overall responses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
visualisation, uncertainty, flood, ensemble modelling, decision-making
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20124 (URN)10.1080/13658816.2015.1085539 (DOI)000365550900006 ()2-s2.0-84948086666 (Scopus ID)
Note

Finasierat via European Union (EU) through Tillvaxtverket [GLOBES 2 project] projektnummer: 170430

Available from: 2015-08-19 Created: 2015-08-19 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Brandt, S. A. & Lim, N. J. (2016). Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm. In: A. H. Schumann, G. Blöschl, A. Castellarin, J. Dietrich, S. Grimaldi, U. Haberlandt, A. Montanari, D. Rosbjerg, A. Viglione, and S. Vorogushyn (Ed.), IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports: . Paper presented at 7th International Water Resources Management Conference of ICWRS, 18-20 May 2016, ochum, Germany (pp. 153-159). Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), 373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm
2016 (English)In: IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports / [ed] A. H. Schumann, G. Blöschl, A. Castellarin, J. Dietrich, S. Grimaldi, U. Haberlandt, A. Montanari, D. Rosbjerg, A. Viglione, and S. Vorogushyn, Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) , 2016, Vol. 373, p. 153-159Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The apparent absoluteness of information presented by crisp-delineated flood boundaries can lead tomisconceptions among planners about the inherent uncertainties associated in generated flood maps. Even mapsbased on hydraulic modelling using the highest-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), and calibrated withthe most optimal Manning’s roughness (n) coefficients, are susceptible to errors when compared to actual floodboundaries, specifically in flat areas. Therefore, the inaccuracies in inundation extents, brought about by thecharacteristics of the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the river, have to be accounted for. Instead ofusing the typical Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic methods for uncertainty quantification, an empiricalbaseddisparity-distance equation that considers the effects of both the DEM resolution and slope was used tocreate prediction-uncertainty zones around the resulting inundation extents of a one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulicmodel. The equation was originally derived for the Eskilstuna River where flood maps, based on DEM dataof different resolutions, were evaluated for the slope-disparity relationship. To assess whether the equation isapplicable to another river with different characteristics, modelled inundation extents from the Testebo Riverwere utilised and tested with the equation. By using the cross-sectional locations, water surface elevations, andDEM, uncertainty zones around the original inundation boundary line can be produced for different confidences.The results show that (1) the proposed method is useful both for estimating and directly visualising modelinaccuracies caused by the combined effects of slope and DEM resolution, and (2) the DEM-related uncertaintiesalone do not account for the total inaccuracy of the derived flood map. Decision-makers can apply it to alreadyexisting flood maps, thereby recapitulating and re-analysing the inundation boundaries and the areas that areuncertain. Hence, more comprehensive flood information can be provided when determining locations whereextra precautions are needed. Yet, when applied, users must also be aware that there are other factors that caninfluence the extent of the delineated flood boundary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), 2016
Series
IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports, ISSN 0144-7815 ; 373
Keywords
River floods, Hydraulic modelling, Inundation mapping, Digital elevation models (DEM), Uncertainty
National Category
Ocean and River Engineering Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Physical Geography Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21496 (URN)10.5194/piahs-373-153-2016 (DOI)000391006000026 ()2-s2.0-85044511792 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Water Resources Management Conference of ICWRS, 18-20 May 2016, ochum, Germany
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Schmidinger, H. & Brandt, S. A. (2015). Närområdesexkursioner och inre motivation för bättre lärande: en studie i svenska gymnasieskolan. Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, 2015(1), 22-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Närområdesexkursioner och inre motivation för bättre lärande: en studie i svenska gymnasieskolan
2015 (Swedish)In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, Vol. 2015, no 1, p. 22-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports results from two locally based geography excursions at two secondary schools in Sweden, in order to study how the pupils’ own experience from the local neighborhood, intrinsic motivation, and flow interact during the learning process to see if these parameters affect their understanding and knowledge of the studied objects. The methods used were observations during the excursions, as well as interviews and questionnaires afterwards. The results show that the pupils believe that they learn more when studying objects in their natural environment, i.e. outside their classroom. Furthermore, the results show that intrinsic motivation may be difficult, but not impossible, to achieve, and also that there are good opportunities for attaining flow. If the pupils can see patterns and structures of the objects and processes studied, they will start understand and gain knowledge. This process will increase chances for intrinsic motivation, which will further increase understanding and knowledge, and attaining flow. Once achieved, a spiral process of continued flow, continued intrinsic motivation, and increasing knowledge may be maintained.

Keywords
Locally based excursions, Intrinsic motivation, Flow, Geography, Secondary school education, Närområdesexkursioner, Inre motivation, Flow, Geografi, Gymnasieutbildning
National Category
Physical Geography Geology Human Geography Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18903 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3884-3084

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