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Lim, N. J. & Brandt, S. A. (2023). DEM Resolution and Roughness Effect in Relation to Model Performance (1ed.). In: John G Lyon; Lynn Lyon (Ed.), Geospatial Information Handbook for Water Resources and Watershed Management, Volume II: Methods and Modelling. Boca Raton: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DEM Resolution and Roughness Effect in Relation to Model Performance
2023 (English)In: Geospatial Information Handbook for Water Resources and Watershed Management, Volume II: Methods and Modelling / [ed] John G Lyon; Lynn Lyon, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2023, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To understand how the produced flood boundaries from hydraulic modeling can be affected by the resolution of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the roughness values used, and how different performance measures can affect the choice of most optimal models, different simulations were conducted using varying pairs of DEM and Manning’s n. Each result was then compared to the reference flood data and analyzed using different performance measures that account for the sizes of inundation (F-statistics), and the distance between the modeled and reference flood (disparity measures). The results showed that the different pairs of DEM resolution and Manning’s n produced different performance scores and flood extents. High-resolution DEMs performed generally better with higher resolution DEMs, while lower resolution DEMs received better performance when paired with lower Manning’s n. The different model performances also produced different combinations having the most optimal performances depending on the assumptions they applied in the computations. Additionally, the results showed that models from coarser resolution DEMs can produce higher maximum scores than higher resolution DEMs. However, when the maps, cross-sectional profiles, and the water surface elevations from the coarser resolution DEMs were compared with the higher resolution DEMs, they are more inaccurate in representing the terrain, flood boundaries, and the water depths. Thus, interpreting model results only based on performance measure, particularly for lower resolution DEMs, may give incorrect conclusion on the optimality of the result. It is important that the flood extent maps, cross-sectional profiles, and the derived water depths are analyzed together with the performance scores to gain better understanding of the reliability of flood model results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2023 Edition: 1
Series
Geospatial Information Handbook for Water Resources and Watershed Management
National Category
Physical Geography Environmental Management Other Computer and Information Science Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40657 (URN)10.1201/9781003175025 (DOI)9781003175025 (ISBN)9781032006499 (ISBN)978-1-032-00651-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-06-16Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, K., Brandt, S. A., Barthel, S., Linder, N., Lim, N. J. & Giusti, M. (2023). Diverse experiences by active travel: Longitudinal study reveals a persistent discrepancy across residential contexts.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse experiences by active travel: Longitudinal study reveals a persistent discrepancy across residential contexts
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2023 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To inform spatial planning promoting low-carbon travel and well-being, we investigate the potential for experiential diversity by active travel across different residential contexts. We use spatiotemporal tracking and experience data from the Gävle city-region, Sweden, generated by 165 participants over the course of 15 months. Findings reveal a discrepancy between typical travel distances to locations of positive experiences (1.5–5 km) and the distances at which active travel dominates (up to 1.5 km). This discrepancy largely persists across urban, suburban, and peripheral contexts, with urban dwellers travelling further for nature experiences, whereas peripheral dwellers travel further for urbanicity experiences. These results illustrate the importance of spatial scale for promoting diverse positive experiences by active travel, regardless of residential context. Planning strategies include enhancing environmental diversity close to people’s homes and providing infrastructure that promotes switching from motorised to active travel for trips of a few kilometres.

Publisher
p. 10
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43456 (URN)
Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
Gullberg, Y., Samuelsson, K. & Brandt, S. A. (2023). Key perceptions associated with attitudes towards water reuse in a Swedish town. Water Reuse, 13(4), 507-524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key perceptions associated with attitudes towards water reuse in a Swedish town
2023 (English)In: Water Reuse, ISSN 2709-6092, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 507-524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As climate change and urbanization affect current water management systems, new solutions and approaches rooted in public acceptance are needed to ensure future water supply. In this study, we examine public attitudes to reuse of recycled water and associated worldviews, values, and perceptions in a site without historical water issues. A survey of 143 randomly sampled residents in the municipality of the growing Swedish town Knivsta revealed that 81.4% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards using recycled water in general. The results did not indicate any differences in attitudes between those living in and outside the municipality's urban areas. Perceived benefits and risks were found to be significantly related to both attitudes towards using recycled water in general and to the extreme case of using it for drinking purposes. Additionally, trust in public authorities was highly predictive of attitudes towards drinking recycled water. Furthermore, attitudes were found to be related to an environmental worldview and underlying biospheric, altruistic, and hedonic values. This indicates a need to consider the intended purpose as well as engaging with underlying values as part of the technology legitimation process for improving the chances of successful implementation of water recycling technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2023
Keywords
environmental worldview, participatory planning, public acceptance, recycled water, technology legitimation, value-belief-norm theory
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43104 (URN)10.2166/wrd.2023.010 (DOI)001068554200001 ()2-s2.0-85181726858 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Ma, L., Brandt, S. A., Seipel, S. & Ma, D. (2023). Simple agents – complex emergent path systems: Agent-based modelling of pedestrian movement. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple agents – complex emergent path systems: Agent-based modelling of pedestrian movement
2023 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In well-planned open and semi-open urban areas, it is common to observe desire paths on the ground, which shows how pedestrians themselves enhance the walkability and affordance of road systems. To better understand how these paths are formed, we present an agent-based modelling approach that simulates real pedestrian movement to generate complex path systems. By using heterogeneous ground affordance and visit frequency of hotspots as environmental settings and by modelling pedestrians as agents, path systems emerge from collective interactions between agents and their environment. Our model employs two visual parameters, angle and depth of vision, and two guiding principles, global conception and local adaptation. To examine the model’s visual parameters and their effects on the cost-efficiency of the emergent path systems, we conducted a randomly generated simulation and validated the model using desire paths observed in real scenarios. The results show that (1) the angle (found to be limited to a narrow range of 90–120°) has a more significant impact on path patterns than the depth of vision, which aligns with Space Syntaxtheories that also emphasize the importance of angle for modelling pedestrian movement; (2) the depth of vision is closely related to the scale-invariance of path patterns on different map scales; and(3) the angle has a negative exponential correlation with path efficiency and a positive correlation with path costs. Our proposed model can help urban planners predict or generate cost-efficient path installations in well- and poorly designed urban areas and may inspire further approaches rooted in generative science for future cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42413 (URN)10.1177/23998083231184884 (DOI)001011852000001 ()2-s2.0-85162881096 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-22 Created: 2023-06-22 Last updated: 2023-07-10Bibliographically approved
Ma, L., Seipel, S., Brandt, S. A. & Ma, D. (2022). A New Graph-Based Fractality Index to Characterize Complexity of Urban Form. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 11(5), Article ID 287.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Graph-Based Fractality Index to Characterize Complexity of Urban Form
2022 (English)In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Examining the complexity of urban form may help to understand human behavior in urban spaces, thereby improving the conditions for sustainable design of future cities. Metrics, such as fractal dimension, ht-index, and cumulative rate of growth (CRG) index have been proposed to measure this complexity. However, as these indicators are statistical rather than spatial, they result in an inability to characterize the spatial complexity of urban forms, such as building footprints. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a graph-based fractality index (GFI), which is based on a hybrid of fractal theory and deep learning techniques. First, to quantify the spatial complexity, several fractal variants were synthesized to train a deep graph convolutional neural network. Next, building footprints in London were used to test the method, where the results showed that the proposed framework performed better than the traditional indices, i.e., the index is capable of differentiating complex patterns. Another advantage is that it seems to assure that the trained deep learning is objective and not affected by potential biases in empirically selected training datasets Furthermore, the possibility to connect fractal theory and deep learning techniques on complexity issues opens up new possibilities for data-driven GIS science.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
complexity; fractals; building groups; graph convolutional neural networks; urban form
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Cultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-38476 (URN)10.3390/ijgi11050287 (DOI)000801418000001 ()2-s2.0-85129726341 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-29 Created: 2022-04-29 Last updated: 2022-12-05Bibliographically approved
Brandt, S. A. & Lim, N. J. (2022). Geodata, översvämningsmodellering och kompetens – Hur kan osäkerhet bidra till ökad resiliens?. Kart och Bildteknik, 2022(2), 6-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geodata, översvämningsmodellering och kompetens – Hur kan osäkerhet bidra till ökad resiliens?
2022 (Swedish)In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 2022, no 2, p. 6-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Kartografiska Sällskapet, 2022
National Category
Physical Geography Learning Civil Engineering Remote Sensing Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-38360 (URN)2-s2.0-85161966347 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K., Angelstam, P., Brandt, S. A., Axelsson, R. & Bax, G. (2022). Limited GIS skills hamper spatial planning for green infrastructures in Sweden. Geografiska Notiser, 80(1), 16-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limited GIS skills hamper spatial planning for green infrastructures in Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 16-35Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The term green infrastructure captures the need to conserve biodiversity and to sustain landscapes’ different ecosystem services. Maintaining green infrastructures through protected areas, management and landscape restoration requires knowledge in geography, spatial data about biophysical, anthropogenic and immaterial values, spatial comprehensive planning, and thus geographical information systems (GIS). To understand land use planning practices and planning education regarding GIS in Sweden we interviewed 43 planners and reviewed 20 planning education programmes. All planners used GIS to look at data but did not carry out spatial analyses of land covers. BSc programmes included more GIS than MSc programmes but very few taught analyses for spatial planning. As key spatial planning actors, municipalities’ barriers and bridges for improved GIS use for collaborative learning about green infrastructures are discussed. A concluding section presents examples of how GIS can support spatial planning for green infrastructures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geografilärarnas Riksförening, 2022
Keywords
GIS education, green infrastructures, municipal planning, spatial analyses, geodata
National Category
Forest Science Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Physical Geography Human Geography Learning Other Civil Engineering Remote Sensing Landscape Architecture
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-39669 (URN)
Available from: 2022-08-09 Created: 2022-08-09 Last updated: 2022-08-29Bibliographically approved
Brandt, S. A. (2022). Okunskap får städer att svämma över. Forskning & framsteg (2), 38-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Okunskap får städer att svämma över
2022 (Swedish)In: Forskning & framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ett varmare klimat innebär kraftigare skyfall och fler översvämningar. Men många kommuner är dåliga på att avgöra var risken för höga vattenflöden gör det olämpligt att bygga. Det menar naturgeografen Anders Brandt – som vill se ett kunskapslyft i geografi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen Forskning & Framsteg, 2022
Keywords
forskarkommentar, geografi, skolämne, stadsplanering, klimat, översvämning
National Category
Physical Geography Human Geography Educational Sciences Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37164 (URN)
Available from: 2021-10-15 Created: 2021-10-15 Last updated: 2022-03-16Bibliographically approved
Brandt, S. A., Lim, N. J., Colding, J. & Barthel, S. (2021). Mapping Flood Risk Uncertainty Zones in Support of Urban Resilience Planning. Urban Planning, 6(3), 258-271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping Flood Risk Uncertainty Zones in Support of Urban Resilience Planning
2021 (English)In: Urban Planning, E-ISSN 2183-7635, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 258-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

River flooding and urbanization are processes of different character that take place worldwide. As the latter tends to make the consequences of the former worse, together with the uncertainties related to future climate change and flood‐risk modeling, there is a need to both use existing tools and develop new ones that help the management and planning of urban environments. In this article a prototype tool, based on estimated maximum land cover roughness variation, the slope of the ground, and the quality of the used digital elevation models, and that can produce flood ‘uncertainty zones’ of varying width around modeled flood boundaries, is presented. The concept of uncertainty, which urban planners often fail to consider in the spatial planning process, changes from something very difficult into an advantage in this way. Not only may these uncertainties be easier to understand by the urban planners, but the uncertainties may also function as a communication tool between the planners and other stakeholders. Because flood risk is something that urban planners always need to consider, these uncertainty zones can function both as buffer areas against floods, and as blue‐green designs of significant importance for a variety of ecosystem services. As the Earth is warming and the world is urbanizing at rates and scales unprecedented in history, we believe that new tools for urban resilience planning are not only urgently needed, but also will have a positive impact on urban planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon, Portugal: Cogitatio, 2021
Keywords
digital elevation models, ecosystem services, flood map uncertainties, GIS tool, river floods, urban resilience
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36847 (URN)10.17645/up.v6i3.4073 (DOI)000708511600004 ()2-s2.0-85113766289 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bettering life through integrative GIS (BIG)
Available from: 2021-07-28 Created: 2021-07-28 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, K., Chen, T.-H. K., Antonsen, S., Brandt, S. A., Sabel, C. & Barthel, S. (2021). Residential environments across Denmark have become both denser and greener over 20 years. Environmental Research Letters, 16(1), Article ID 014022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential environments across Denmark have become both denser and greener over 20 years
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2021 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 014022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite much attention in the literature, knowledge about the dynamics surrounding urban densification and urban greening is still in dire need for architects, urban planners and scientists that strive to design, develop, and regenerate sustainable and resilient urban environments. Here, we investigate countrywide patterns of changes in residential density and residential nature at high spatial resolution over a time period of >20 years (1995-2016), combining a dataset of address-level population data covering all of Denmark (>2 million address points) with satellite image-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Our results show that many residential environments across Denmark have witnessed simultaneous densification and greening since the mid-1990s. In fact, the most common change within 500 metre neighbourhoods around individual address points is of joint increases in population and NDVI (28%), followed by increasing NDVI with stable population figures (21%). In contrast, only 8% of neighbourhoods around address points have seen a decline in either population or NDVI. Results were similar in low- middle- and high-density environments, suggesting that trends were driven by climate change but also to some degree enabled by urban planning policies that seek to increase rather than decrease nature in the cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP, 2021
Keywords
population register, remote sensing, urban densification, urban greening, urbanisation dynamics
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-34489 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/abcf7a (DOI)000603533100001 ()2-s2.0-85098585809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-12-02 Created: 2020-12-02 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3884-3084

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