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Murali, D., Acosta-Pazmiño, I. P., Loris, A., García, A. C., Benni, S., Tinti, F. & Gomes, J. (2024). Experimental assessment of a solar photovoltaic-thermal system in a livestock farm in Italy. Solar Energy Advances, 4, Article ID 100051.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental assessment of a solar photovoltaic-thermal system in a livestock farm in Italy
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2024 (English)In: Solar Energy Advances, ISSN 2667-1131, Vol. 4, article id 100051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the performance of a solar photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) system in a swine farm at Mirandola in Italy. In this project named RES4LIVE, funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 program, a PVT system is installed to replace fossil fuel consumption in one of the barns on the farm. The electrical energy from the collectors is utilized to operate the heat pump and provide electricity to the barn, whereas the thermal energy from the collector is stored in a borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) for further use by a 35 kW heat pump. The hybrid solar field consists of 24 covered PVT flat plate collectors (7.68 kWel and 25 kWth) with a total aperture area of 39.3 m2, which can increase the temperature of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) to up to 40 °C. The PVT system is connected to a modular solar central (SC) with a standardized design that can also be used for other similar applications. The hybrid solar system complemented by energy storage is expected to save approximately 20,850 kg CO2/year . The data collected from the PVT system, SC, and BTES are rigorously analyzed to evaluate its overall performance. A comprehensive performance assessment reveals the capability of the solar system to reduce carbon emissions and effectively replace fossil fuel consumption in the agricultural sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Renewable energy source (RES), Livestock farm, Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT), RES4LIVE, Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43544 (URN)10.1016/j.seja.2024.100051 (DOI)2-s2.0-85184508392 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon Europe, 101000785
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
Hosouli, S., Bagde, S., Talha Jahangir, M., Hasnain Qamar, S., Formosa, N. & Gomes, J. (2024). Mitigating PV cell cracking in solar photovoltaic thermal collectors with a novel H-pattern absorber design. Applied Thermal Engineering, 242, Article ID 122516.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigating PV cell cracking in solar photovoltaic thermal collectors with a novel H-pattern absorber design
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2024 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 242, article id 122516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a novel absorber design for a Solar Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) collector, specifically addressing the persistent issue of cell cracking induced by thermal expansion. Despite considerable research efforts to advance PVT technology, cell cracking remains a critical challenge, contributing to decreased collector efficiency. In contrast to previous studies, this research adopts a unique approach. A novel PVT design is proposed, featuring an aluminium alloy structure with a distinctive 'H'-shaped pattern of expansion cavities positioned between Photovoltaic (PV) cells and the absorber. This innovative design is engineered to mitigate thermal expansion and optimize the overall performance of the collector.

A 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic model, simulated using ANSYS software, validates the proposed PVT design against experimental data from a reference collector. A parametric study explores various H-pattern cavity dimensions, revealing that the 2 mm H-pattern plate cavity design achieves the lowest directional expansion, minimizing the risk of breakage. Results show that the proposed design outperforms the reference collector by 10 %, 2 %, and 8 % in thermal, electrical, and overall efficiency, respectively. Furthermore, the H-pattern design reduces thermal expansion by 20 %, enhancing structural resilience and minimizing the likelihood of PV cell cracking. This study represents a significant advancement in PVT technology, providing a practical and easily implementable solution to the critical issue of cell cracking and presenting an optimal design for real-world applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Solar energy, PVT collector, Thermal expansion, Ansys, Thermal modelling, Efficiency
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43809 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2024.122516 (DOI)2-s2.0-85184153449 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2024-02-19 Created: 2024-02-19 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
Lança, M., Gomes, J. & Cabral, D. (2024). Thermal performance of three concentrating collectors with bifacial photovoltaic cells part I – Experimental and computational fluid dynamics study. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part A, journal of power and energy, 238(1), 140-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal performance of three concentrating collectors with bifacial photovoltaic cells part I – Experimental and computational fluid dynamics study
2024 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part A, journal of power and energy, ISSN 0957-6509, E-ISSN 2041-2967, Vol. 238, no 1, p. 140-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bifacial photovoltaic cells can produce electricity from incoming solar radiation on both sides. These cells have a strong potential to reduce electricity generation costs and may play an important role in the energy system of the future. However, today, these cells are mostly deployed with one side receiving only ground reflection, which leads to a profound sub-optimal utilization of one of the sides of the bifacial cells. Concentration allows a better usage of the potential of bifacial cells, which can lead to a lower cost per kWh. However, concentration also adds complexity due to the higher temperatures reached which add the requirement of cooling in order to achieve higher outputs. This way, this paper focuses on the effectiveness of forced air circulation methods by comparing the thermal performance of three specific concentrating bi-facial collector designs. This paper developed a computational model, using ANSYS Fluent intending to assess the thermal performance of a covered concentrating collector with bifacial Photovoltaic (PV) cells. These results have then been validated by outdoor measurements. Results show that even a simple natural ventilation mechanism such as removing the side gable can effectively reduce the receiver temperature, thus resulting in favourable cell operation conditions when compared to the case of an airtight collector. Therefore, compared with a standard model, a decrease of 13.5% on the cell operating temperature was reported when the side gables are removed. However, when forced ventilation is apllied a 22.8% reduction on temperature is found compared to the standard air-tight model. The validated CFD model has proven to be a useful and robust tool for the thermal analysis of solar concentrating systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage, 2024
Keywords
bifacial photovoltaic cells; computational fluid dynamics; concentrators; convection heat transfer; cooling of photovoltaic cells; reflector geometry
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43033 (URN)10.1177/09576509231197881 (DOI)001061938800001 ()2-s2.0-85170536072 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Lança, M., Gomes, J., Cabral, D. & Hosouli, S. (2024). Thermal performance of three concentrating collectors with bifacial PV cells. Part II – parametrical study. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part A, journal of power and energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal performance of three concentrating collectors with bifacial PV cells. Part II – parametrical study
2024 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part A, journal of power and energy, ISSN 0957-6509, E-ISSN 2041-2967Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

One of the problems in using PV cells to extract energy from sunlight is the temperature effect on PV cells. As the solar panel is heated, the conversion efficiency of light to electrical energy is diminished. Moreover, successive temperature elevations can cause dilatations in the array of cells which may also contribute to the degradation of the receiver. Some of the operating temperature mitigation approaches may include air-flow ventilation. In this study, data obtained by experimental and numerical simulations of a collector with bifacial PV cells is compared to the expressions found in the literature for the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient. Forced ventilation was applied to the studied collector as it accounts for much better heat dissipation. A new correlation for the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient is developed for such a geometry, for inlet velocities ranging between 3 and 8 m/s. Values of heat transfer coefficient estimated in the present work have been compared with studies of other researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE, 2024
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43811 (URN)10.1177/09576509241231852 (DOI)001157837100001 ()2-s2.0-85184458049 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-19 Created: 2024-02-19 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Yildizhan, H., Hosouli, S., Yılmaz, S. E., Gomes, J., Pandey, C. & Alkharusi, T. (2023). Alternative work arrangements: Individual, organizational and environmental outcomes. Heliyon, 9(11), Article ID e21899.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative work arrangements: Individual, organizational and environmental outcomes
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2023 (English)In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e21899Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible working models are widely used around the world. Furthermore, several countries are currently transitioning to a 4-day workweek. These working models have significant effects on organizational behavior and the environment. The study investigates the employees' attitudes and behaviors toward flexible working and 4-day workweek and the impact on the environment. The semi-structured interview method was used in the study to determine employee attitudes and behaviors; the carbon footprint calculation method was used to determine the environmental impact of a 4-day workweek. According to the study's findings, it has been discovered that there would be a positive impact on socialization, happiness, stress factor, motivation, personal time, mental health, comfort, work-life balance, time-saving, willingness, positive working environment, personal time, and physical health. Furthermore, a 4-day workweek reduced commuting emissions by 20%, resulting in a 6,07 kg tCO2e reduction per person. As a result, the study attempted to draw attention holistically to the positive effects of the flexible working model and 4-day workweek. The study is intended to serve as a tool for decision-makers and human resource managers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
4-Day workweek; Carbon emission; Employee behavior; Environmental impact; Flexible working; Organizational behavior
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43336 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e21899 (DOI)001114545900001 ()38034699 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85176926016 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Hosouli, S., Gomes, J., Loris, A., Pazmiño, I.-A., Naidoo, A., Lennermo, G. & Mohammadi, H. (2023). Evaluation of a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system in a dairy farm in Germany. Solar Energy Advances, 3, Article ID 100035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system in a dairy farm in Germany
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2023 (English)In: Solar Energy Advances, ISSN 2667-1131, Vol. 3, article id 100035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Livestock farms are a major contributor to CO2 emissions. The use of renewable energy sources (RES) is an important step to mitigate emissions from farms. This paper develops and evaluates a market-integrated, cost-effective, and case-sensitive RES solution for livestock farms. For this purpose, the dairy farm at LVAT-ATB in Germany; which includes three barns for milk production with a total area of 3950 m2, was considered. A solar PVT system is designed to most effectively use the heat recovery of the milk coolers and to use the thermal heat from the PVT system to lift the inlet temperature of an electric boiler (E-boiler) and reduce grid electricity consumption. The performance and monthly thermal output of the designed PVT system are evaluated using two different PVT collectors; Solarus (concentrated) and Dual Sun (flat plate). A preliminary analysis was performed to determine the PVT collector most suitable for the livestock farm here studied. The DualSun collector generated a higher electricity output than the Solarus C-PVT, however, the C-PVT was able to reach higher temperatures. Since the LVAT-ATB farm site included an existing heat recovery system, the integration point was carefully defined and a semi-automated system was incorporated to (1) use the heat from the heat recovery system as the inlet heat for the PVT system and (2), to use the PVT buffer tank as additional storage to store excess heat from the heat recovery system. Using this approach, a maximum amount of thermal energy can be stored. The PVT system would further raise the temperature from the heat recovery system and thus minimize the electricity consumption of the E-boiler. Furthermore, a draft layout of all the components and outdoor enclosure was presented. 24 Solarus PVT collectors running at mean temperature of 45 °C meet 16% of the annual hot water demand of the dairy farm by direct solar heat and this number of PVTs can supply up to 38% of hot water demand in summer months. The payback period for this system is less than 6 years and annual electrical energy utilization ratio and highest solar thermal fraction are 9.7 and 51.9%, respectively. Furthermore, 24 PVTs on an annual basis, generate slightly more than 4,200 kWh of electricity that can be used to offset electricity consumed by electric boilers in the LVAT farm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Livestock farms; RES4Live project; PVT systems; Fossil-free farming; Energy use of livestock farms
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41590 (URN)10.1016/j.seja.2023.100035 (DOI)2-s2.0-85158010871 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Cabral, D., Hayati, A., Gomes, J., Gorouh, H. A., Nasseriyan, P. & Salmanzadeh, M. (2023). Experimental Electrical Assessment Evaluation of a Vertical n-PERT Half-Size Bifacial Solar Cell String Receiver on a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector. Energies, 16(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Electrical Assessment Evaluation of a Vertical n-PERT Half-Size Bifacial Solar Cell String Receiver on a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
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2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A two-trough parabolic-shaped concentrating photovoltaic solar collector with a vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver was designed and built for household applications, with the aim of smooth the electrical ‘duck curve’. The study consisted in testing the concentrating photovoltaic solar collector outdoors, under real weather conditions, for its daily electrical peak power and efficiency, as well as for its electrical transversal and longitudinal Incidence Angle Modifier direction. The outdoor testing measurements were conducted in a parabolic trough with low concentration coupled with a central vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver. Furthermore, the electrical transversal Incidence Angle Modifier showed to be very delicate due to the position and outline of the receiver, which led to an electrical peak efficiency close to 10% at ±25° (i.e., for an electrical power output of around 49.3 W/m2). To validate the measured parameters, a ray-tracing software has been used, where the measured Incidence Angle Modifiers have a very good agreement with the simulated Incidence Angle Modifiers (e.g., deviation of <4%). Consequently, the concentrating solar collector met the objective of lowering the Photovoltaic cell stress and high radiation intensity, by shifting the electrical peak power at normal (e.g., at 0°) to higher incidence angles (e.g., ±25°); this aids the electrical demand peak shaving, by having the highest electrical power production displaced from the highest intensity solar radiation during the day.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
concentrating photovoltaic solar collector; compound parabolic collector; half-size bifacial photovoltaic cells; phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused cells; collector testing
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41145 (URN)10.3390/en16042007 (DOI)000944950000001 ()2-s2.0-85149167311 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), ME 2018-7559
Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Hosouli, S., Gomes, J., Talha Jahangir, M. & Pius, G. (2023). Performance Evaluation of Novel Concentrating Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Collector under Quasi-Dynamic Conditions. Solar, 3(2), 195-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of Novel Concentrating Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Collector under Quasi-Dynamic Conditions
2023 (English)In: Solar, E-ISSN 2673-9941, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concentrating Photovoltaic Thermal (CPVT) collectors are suitable for integration in limited roof space due to their higher solar conversion efficiency. Solar sunlight can be used more effectively by CPVT collectors in comparison to individual solar thermal collectors or PV modules. In this study, the experimental investigation of a novel CPVT collector called a PC (power collector) has been carried out in real outdoor conditions, and the test set-up has been designed based on ISO 9806:2013. A quasi-dynamic testing method has been used because of the advantages that this method can offer for collectors with a unique construction, such as the proposed collector, over the steady-state testing method. With a quasi-dynamic testing method, it is possible to characterize the collector within a wide range of incidence angles and a complex incidence angle modifier profile. The proposed novel collector has a gross area of 2.57 m2. A maximum power output per collector unit area of 1140 W is found at 0 °C reduced temperature (1000 W/m2 irradiance level), while at a higher reduced temperature (70 °C), it drops down to 510 W for the same irradiance level. The data have been fitted through a multiple linear regression method, and the obtained efficiency curve coefficients are 0.39, 0.192, 1.294, 0.023, 0.2, 0, −5929 and 0 for Kθd, b0, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5 and c6, respectively. The experimental characterization carried out on the collector proved that the output powers calculated by using the obtained parameters of the quasi-dynamic testing method are in good agreement with experimental points.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
quasi-dynamic collector testing; photovoltaic-thermal; concentrating photovoltaic thermal; quasi-dynamic model; ISO 9806:2013
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41589 (URN)10.3390/solar3020013 (DOI)
Funder
European Commission, 101000785European Commission, 814865European Commission, 2020-1-TR01-KA202-093467
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-05-11Bibliographically approved
Gomes, J., Cabral, D. & Karlsson, B. O. (2022). Defining an Annual Energy Output Ratio between Solar Thermal Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules. Energies, 15(15), Article ID 5577.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining an Annual Energy Output Ratio between Solar Thermal Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules
2022 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 5577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photovoltaics (PV) and Solar Thermal (ST) collectors are sometimes competitors, as investment capacity, energy demand, and roof space are limited. Therefore, a ratio that quantifies the difference in annual energy output between ST and PV for different locations is useful. A market survey assessing the average price and performance both in 2013 and 2021 was conducted, showing a factor of 3 cell price decrease combined with a 20% efficiency increase, while ST showed negligible variation. Winsun simulations were conducted, and the results were plotted on the world map. Despite variations due to local climate, the ratio of energy production (ST/PV) increases at lower latitudes mainly due to (a) higher air temperature increasing ST output but decreasing the PV output; (b) solar radiation reducing ST efficiency to zero while having a minor impact on PV efficiency. The ratio was calculated for several ST operating temperatures. For latitudes lower than 66 degrees, the ratio of a flat plate at 50 degrees C to a PV module ranges from 1.85 to 4.46, while the ratio between a vacuum tube at 50 degrees C and a PV module ranges from 3.05 to 4.76. This ratio can support the decision between installing ST or PV while combining different factors such as energy value, system complexity, and installation cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
annual energy output ratio, PV & solar thermal, solar electricity, solar heat, global energy scenario, decision-making tool
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36301 (URN)10.3390/en15155577 (DOI)000839714100001 ()2-s2.0-85136466784 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Commission, 814865European Commission, 01000785
Available from: 2021-06-17 Created: 2021-06-17 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Afzali Gorouh, H., Salmanzadeh, M., Nasseriyan, P., Hayati, A., Cabral, D., Gomes, J. & Karlsson, B. (2022). Thermal modelling and experimental evaluation of a novel concentrating photovoltaic thermal collector (CPVT) with parabolic concentrator. Renewable energy, 181, 535-553
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal modelling and experimental evaluation of a novel concentrating photovoltaic thermal collector (CPVT) with parabolic concentrator
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2022 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 181, p. 535-553Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, a zero-dimensional thermal model has been developed to analyze a novel low concentration photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) collector. The model has been developed by driving heat transfer and energy balance equations for each part of the collector and then solving all the equations simultaneously. Moreover, a Monte-Carlo ray-tracing software has been used for optical stimulations of the parabolic trough solar collector. The novel CPVT collector has been experimentally tested at Gävle University (Sweden) and the model has been validated against the experimental results. The primary energy saving equivalent to the thermal-electrical power cogeneration of the CPVT collector has been determined. The effect of glass cover removal, heat transfer fluid (HTF) inlet temperature and mass flow rate on the collector performance has been investigated. The optimum HTF mass flow rates of the collector for maximum electrical yield and overall primary energy saving were determined under specified operating conditions by considering the pump consumption. The effect of mean fluid temperature on the thermal and electrical efficiencies has been studied and the characteristic equation of the thermal efficiency has been obtained. The thermal and electrical peak efficiencies of the collector have been found to be 69.6% and 6.1%, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Photovoltaic-thermal collector, Parabolic concentrator, Thermal modelling, Primary energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37089 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2021.09.042 (DOI)000703538200002 ()2-s2.0-85115429547 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), ME2018-7559
Available from: 2021-10-04 Created: 2021-10-04 Last updated: 2021-10-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8156-2587

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