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Frelin, A. & Quiles-Fernández, E. (2018). Professional border territories: A cross-country understanding of social educators and pedagogues in the school landscape. In: : . Paper presented at PESP Invisible College 2018, 10 September 2018, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional border territories: A cross-country understanding of social educators and pedagogues in the school landscape
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This proposal outlines a cross-country conversation about the social dimensions of pedagogical work. Through our work being alongside a Swedish social pedagogue and a Spanish social educator, we begin to ponder about the border territories that social pedagogy holds in different contexts, times and places.

As we know, professions provide important services to the society based on discretionary work that requires university based training and licensing (e.g. Evetts, 2009). In our educational field, the professionals dealing with social pedagogy vary from country to country. For example, due to the social needs that appeared in Spain in the 90s, the Ministry of Education created a university degree called Social Education. However, before that, social educators worked in non-regulated educational spaces. Professionalizing their role allowed them to start a relational work with children, youth, families, teachers, social workers, social services, and doctors, with social well-being goals. The curriculum that those university programs offer relates to schooling processes, social development, and family matters. This means that, holistically, social educators are able to work in several education communities, crossing borders and building bridges, offering possibilities that have not considered it in the past by their participants. Possibilities that usually are seeing as ‘the path for a better life’.

In Sweden, social workers have traditionally taken care of the more severe social and welfare issues, whereas teachers have had responsibility for pastoral care and other less severe relational problems. Recently, in response to a growing teacher shortage in most Nordic countries, and calls to ‘let teachers be teachers’, a new para-professional group with a social pedagogue non-university degree or comparable occupational training have become more common in schools. 

Thinking with both realities, and attending the three narrative inquiry dimensions, we have puzzled about which spaces do social educators/social pedagogues appropriate inside and outside of school, what do they perceive to be their task to perform, what do they leave to others, and with whom do they interact. All those wonders have created our research puzzle: what negotiations happen in the professional border territories, or spaces in-between, and how can we understand the dynamic inter-professional educational work landscapes in different countries?

In order to trace some emerging professional boundaries and potential boundary crossings between teachers and social educators/social pedagogues, our discussion is nested in the notion of professional territory, which consists of the professionals’ conceived task perception, the social transaction and the appropriated physical space where interaction takes place (Grannäs & Frelin, 2017).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26192 (URN)
Conference
PESP Invisible College 2018, 10 September 2018, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Alterator, S. (2018). Professional border territory negotiations between teachers and social pedagogues – a case study. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 2018, 46th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), 8-10 March 2018, Oslo, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional border territory negotiations between teachers and social pedagogues – a case study
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25795 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2018, 46th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), 8-10 March 2018, Oslo, Norway
Note

Accepted

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Wistrand, A. (2018). Professionalitet under press: Lärares arbete bland restträsk, pappersfloder och medkänslomalströmmar. In: Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr (Ed.), Läraren och yrkesetiken: . Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professionalitet under press: Lärares arbete bland restträsk, pappersfloder och medkänslomalströmmar
2018 (Swedish)In: Läraren och yrkesetiken / [ed] Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Dagens ämneslärare möter en mängd utmaningar i vardagen, vilket innebär att det vissa gånger kan kännas tungt att arbeta som lärare. De upplevelserna delas av många inom lärarprofessionen, och har orsaker som ofta ligger utanför det som direkt går att påverka. Har de yrkesetiska principerna potential att hjälpa till att hantera den professionella pressen och i så fall hur?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018
National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25573 (URN)
Note

In press

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Grannäs, J. (2017). Changing school environments through the eyes of the students. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 2017, The 45th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) 'Learning and education – material conditions and consequences', 23-25 March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing school environments through the eyes of the students
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. The purpose of this case study is to enhance our understanding of different students’ views of their educational environment, inside and outside of the classroom. The focus lies on their experiences of safe and unsafe places, along with spaces that supports and impede their learning. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories in a newly opened school.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23855 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2017, The 45th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) 'Learning and education – material conditions and consequences', 23-25 March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
Projects
Hur byggs en hållbar utbildningsmiljö upp?
Note

Contribution to the symposium Changing Design of School Environment is Changing Education - Changing processes through the eyes of the stakeholders Part 2

Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Rytivaara, A. & Frelin, A. (2017). Committed to trouble: Learning from teachers’ stories of challenging yet rewarding teacher-student relationships. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 68, 12-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Committed to trouble: Learning from teachers’ stories of challenging yet rewarding teacher-student relationships
2017 (English)In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 68, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Teacher-student relationships are vital for student learning, yet they can be experienced as a burden by teachers and cause teacher attrition. This paper is based on the stories of six teachers who gave accounts of relationships with students that, counterintuitively, were both problematic and positive. Narrative analysis was applied to these accounts in order to disentangle the complexities of teaching and better understand what factors led the teachers to find the challenge of difficult teacher-student relationships ultimately rewarding.

Keyword
commitment, teacher-student relationships, teacher emotions, narrative
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24784 (URN)10.1016/j.tate.2017.08.004 (DOI)000414824100002 ()2-s2.0-85027710490 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Väg-skäl
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-5993
Note

Ytterligare finansiär:

Faculty of Education, University of Tampere

Available from: 2017-08-02 Created: 2017-08-02 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. (2017). Enacting democratic relations in everyday teaching: comparing teachers’ practices from preschool to high school. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 12(3), 341-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enacting democratic relations in everyday teaching: comparing teachers’ practices from preschool to high school
2017 (English)In: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In democratic societies fostering democratic citizens is an important goal of education and  includes experience of democratic relations. But how do teachers interpret and carry this out? Are there differences between the levels of schooling, and if so, what? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed to elicit practical arguments (Fenstermacher and Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities and teaching democracy ‘as a way of life’ in the spirit of Dewey. For example, the task of fostering quality in relations, such as empathy, was only discussed by preschool teachers, whereas the task of balancing equal relationships was addressed by all the informants at all levels. It also became clear that the progression of democratic learning runs parallel with addressing ever-present relational issues of a democratic nature.

Keyword
democratic citizens, democratic learning, democratic relationships, professional responsibility, teaching, teacher professionalism
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23857 (URN)10.1386/ctl.12.3.341_1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040904693 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Frelin, A. & Grannäs, J. (2017). Exploring a conceptual framework to understand howprincipals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers. In: : . Paper presented at The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER2017), 22-25 August 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring a conceptual framework to understand howprincipals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

Theoretical framework

The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

Methods/methodology

The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

Expected outcomes/results

Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

References

Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

 Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25228 (URN)
Conference
The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER2017), 22-25 August 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
Projects
RAOL-projektet (Rektors arbete och lämplighetsprövning av ny lärare)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120292
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Grannäs, J. (2017). Exploring the Support Function ”School Host” as Equalizer of Educational Opportunity in the School Environment. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 AERA Annual Meeting, 27 April - 1 May, 2017, San Antonio, TX, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Support Function ”School Host” as Equalizer of Educational Opportunity in the School Environment
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper a spatial perspective is used to explore the support work of school hosts in the common areas of the school environment aimed at equalizing educational opportunities and preventing social exclusion. Recent investments in student support staff are aimed at improving student care and boosting students’ academic performances. Interviews from two case schools, complemented by observations and documents, were compared in order to determine how the hosts relate to physical, conceived and social spaces in schools. Results show ways in which spatial aspects such as the physical layout of the school enable or limit their work. Their actions are the outcome of the relations between the school environment and their task perceptions. Moreover, they draw upon established relationships.

Keyword
Desegregation, Equity, School culture, School organization, Social context, Learning environment
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22691 (URN)
Conference
2017 AERA Annual Meeting, 27 April - 1 May, 2017, San Antonio, TX, USA
Projects
Hur byggs en hållbar utbildningsmiljö upp?
Note

Pilotprojekt som finansierats med rektorsmedel.

Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Frelin, A. & Fransson, G. (2017). Four components that sustain teachers’ commitment to students: a relational and temporal model. Reflective Practice, 18(5), 641-654
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four components that sustain teachers’ commitment to students: a relational and temporal model
2017 (English)In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 641-654Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Teacher commitment is a key factor for explaining how and why teachers care about their students’ learning and well-being, and it is a well-known fact that teachers invest emotionally in their work and their students. The purpose of the article is to contribute to the conceptual underpinning of commitment in relation to the teacher-student relationship and to suggest a conceptual model based on empirical material. Eight teachers were selected for interview, all of whom had been in the profession since 1993 and had reported high commitment throughout their careers. The content of the teachers’ accounts were analysed, with attention to how commitment to students manifested itself in their stories. The analysis resulted in a model consisting of four temporally related components of teacher commitment to students: moral, action/motivational, knowledge/self-confidence and reward/self-esteem. Understanding teacher commitment is important for preventing teacher attrition. Rather than applying general measures to boost commitment, this model provides conceptual bases for addressing deficits in particular components of teacher commitment.

Keyword
moral, teacher commitment, teacher-student relationships, teaching
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23739 (URN)10.1080/14623943.2017.1307722 (DOI)000410867100006 ()2-s2.0-85019083629 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Väg-skäl
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2011-5993
Available from: 2017-03-11 Created: 2017-03-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Grannäs, J. & Frelin, A. (2017). Highlighting educational support professionals’ indirect contributions to the educational environment. Nordic Studies in Education, 37(3-4), 217-230
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highlighting educational support professionals’ indirect contributions to the educational environment
2017 (English)In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 217-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article contributes to the discussion about educational environments. Drawing on Dewey’s and Hansen’s work, the point of departure is that the educational environment is dynamic and connected to educational purposes, and that educational relationships can be both direct and indirect and connected to norms, values and subject matter. In a case study, using interviews and observations, the periphery of educational environments is explored. Distinctions between the intended and actual functions, and between environment and surroundings in different parts of the municipal administration, and the resulting shortcomings of using an atomistic rather than an ecological perspective in education, are also discussed.

Keyword
Dewey, Educational environment, New Public Management, School Ecology, School staff
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23891 (URN)10.18261/issn.1891-5949-2017-03-04-07 (DOI)2-s2.0-85036531698 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 110145
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1871-4488

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