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Sörqvist, Patrik, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7584-2275
Publications (10 of 109) Show all publications
Holmgren, M. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). Are mental biases responsible for the perceived comfort advantage in "green" buildings?. Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are mental biases responsible for the perceived comfort advantage in "green" buildings?
2018 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26074 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Andersson, H. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). Averaging bias in environmental impact estimates: Evidence from the negative footprint illusion. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 55, 48-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Averaging bias in environmental impact estimates: Evidence from the negative footprint illusion
2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 48-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we argue that unsustainable behaviors often stem from a common averaging bias when people estimate the environmental impact of a set of environmentally friendly and less friendly objects or actions. In Experiment 1, we show that people believe that the total carbon footprint of a category of items (a community of buildings in this case) is lower, rather than higher, when environmentally friendly (“green” buildings) items are added to the category, a negative footprint illusion. Experiment 2 showed  that the carbon footprint estimate assigned to a category with a mix of environmentally friendly and less friendly objects (“green” and conventional  buildings) is the average of its subsets (the “green” buildings and the  conventional buildings, respectively), an averaging bias. A similar averaging  process may underpin estimates of the environmental impact of people's own actions, explaining why people believe that environmentally friendly actions can compensate for less friendly actions.

Keywords
“Green” buildings, Averaging bias Carbon footprint, The negative footprint illusion
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25882 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.12.005 (DOI)000428489200006 ()2-s2.0-85038968856 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Joseph, T., Hughes, R., Sörqvist, P. & Marsh, J. (2018). Differences in auditory distraction between adults and children: A duplex-mechanism approach. Journal of Cognition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in auditory distraction between adults and children: A duplex-mechanism approach
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Differences in the impact of irrelevant sound on recall performance in children (aged 7-9 years old; N = 89) compared to adults (aged 18-22 years old; N = 89) were examined. Tasks that required serial rehearsal (serial and probed-order recall tasks) were contrasted with one that did not (the missing-item task) in the presence of irrelevant sound that was either steady-state (a repeated speech token), changing-state (two alternating speech tokens) and, for the first time with a child sample, could also contain a deviant token (a male-voice token embedded in a sequence otherwise spoken in a female voice). Participants either completed tasks in which the to-be-remembered list-length was adjusted to individual digit span or was fixed at one item greater than the average span we observed for the age-group. The disruptive effects of irrelevant sound did not vary across the two methods of determining list-length. We found that tasks encouraging serial rehearsal were especially affected by changing-state sequences for both age-groups (i.e., the changing-state effect) and there were no group differences in relation to this effect. In contrast, disruption by a deviant sound—generally assumed to be the result of attentional diversion—was evident among children in all three tasks while adults were less susceptible to this effect. This pattern of results suggests that developmental differences in distraction are due to differences in attentional control rather than serial rehearsal efficiency.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26075 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Wallhagen, M., Eriksson, O. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). Gender Differences in Environmental Perspectives among Urban Design Professionals. Buildings, 8(4), Article ID 59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Differences in Environmental Perspectives among Urban Design Professionals
2018 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban design professionals are key actors in early design phases and have the possibility to influence urban development and direct it in a more sustainable direction. Therefore, gender differences in environmental perspectives among urban design professionals may have a marked effect on urban development and the environment. This study identified gender differences in environment-related attitudes among urban design professionals involved in the international architectural competition 'A New City Centre for Kiruna' in northern Sweden. Participants' self-rated possibility to influence environmental aspects was higher for males than for females. Conversely, the importance placed on environmental aspects had higher ratings among females, although the differences regarding the rating of personal responsibilitywere small. The gap between the participants' self-rated belief in their ability to influence and rated importance of environmental aspects was larger among female participants. Females placed great importance on environmental aspects even though they felt that their possibility to influence these was rather low. Conversely, male participants felt that they had the greatest possibility to influence, although some males rated the importance of environmental aspects thelowest. The gender differences identified are important froman equality and environmental perspective as they may influence pro-environmental behavior among urban design professionals and ultimately influence the environmental performance of the built environment.

Keywords
Architects, Architectural competition, Environmental aspects, Environmental impact, Gender, Possibility to influence, Pro-environmental behavior, Responsibility, Urban design, Urban planners
National Category
Applied Psychology Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26529 (URN)10.3390/buildings8040059 (DOI)000430894400013 ()2-s2.0-85045747862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Kabanshi, A., Marsh, J. E. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). When A+B < A: Cognitive bias in experts' judgment of environmental impact. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 823.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When A+B < A: Cognitive bias in experts' judgment of environmental impact
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When ‘environmentally friendly’ items are added to a set of conventional items, people report that the total set will have a lower environmental impact even though the actual impact increases. One hypothesis is that this “negative footprint illusion” arises because people, who are susceptible to the illusion, lack necessary knowledge of the item’s actual environmental impact, perhaps coupled with a lack of mathematical skills. The study reported here addressed this hypothesis by recruiting participants (‘experts’) from a master’s program in energy systems, who thus have bachelor degrees in energy-related fields including academic training in mathematics. They were asked to estimate the number of trees needed to compensate for the environmental burden of two sets of buildings: One set of 150 buildings with conventional energy ratings and one set including the same 150 buildings but also 50 ‘green’ (energy-efficient) buildings. The experts reported that less trees were needed to compensate for the set with 150 conventional and 50 ‘green’ buildings compared to the set with only the 150 conventional buildings. This negative footprint illusion was as large in magnitude for the experts as it was for a group of novices without academic training in energy-related fields. We conclude that people are not immune to the negative footprint illusion even when they have the knowledge necessary to make accurate judgments.

Keywords
averaging bias, Climate Change, Environmental impact, Judgment, Negative footprint illusion
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26530 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00823 (DOI)000433393500002 ()29896142 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047665372 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
Ellis, R., Sörqvist, P., Zekveld, A. & Rönnberg, J. (2017). Editorial: Cognitive hearing mechanisms of language understanding: Short- and long-term perspectives. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-4, Article ID 1060.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial: Cognitive hearing mechanisms of language understanding: Short- and long-term perspectives
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-4, article id 1060Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24086 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01060 (DOI)000403870900001 ()28690579 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021211471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Kabanshi, A., Wigö, H., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2017). Human perception of room temperature and intermittent air jet cooling in a classroom. Indoor + Built Environment, 26(4), 528-537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human perception of room temperature and intermittent air jet cooling in a classroom
2017 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 528-537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environments with high temperatures and under steady conditions are perceived poor. The introduction of airflow variations in such environments improves the perception. However the risk of draught is high and to avoid this, variations in high velocity supply is used. This method is far more energy efficient than cooling the entire space as only the occupants are cooled. This paper discusses two studies on occupant cooling conducted at the University of Gävle.  The experiments were performed in a full scale mockup classroom and a total of 85 students participated. In Study 1, students sat in a classroom for about 60 minutes in one of two heat conditions: 20 and 25 º C. In Study 2, the indoor parameters of 25 º C were maintained but airflow variation in the sitting zone was manipulated. In both studies, the participants performed various tasks and answered questionnaires on their perception of the indoor climate. As shown here, higher room temperature deteriorates human perception of the indoor climate in classrooms, and the use of intermittent air jet cooling improves the perception of indoor climate just like cooling by reducing the room air temperature. This study contributes to further knowledge of how convective cooling can be used as a method of cooling in school environments so as to improve on building energy use. 

Keywords
Heat, air jet cooling, Air velocity variations, Human perception, Indoor air quality, thermal sensation
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20211 (URN)10.1177/1420326X16628931 (DOI)000400158700008 ()2-s2.0-85019000704 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Vachon, F. & Sörqvist, P. (2017). Increased distractibility in schizotypy: independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(3), 565-578
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased distractibility in schizotypy: independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?
2017 (English)In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span [OSPAN]), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

Keywords
Distraction, Domain-Specificity, Schizophrenia, Schizotypy, Verbal Working Memory, Visuo-Spatial Working Memory, Working Memory Capacity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21279 (URN)10.1080/17470218.2016.1172094 (DOI)000389233300018 ()27028661 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84973925877 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Keus van de Poll, M., Marsh, J. E. & Sörqvist, P. (2017). Kan arbetsminne förklara varför människor med schizotypy har uppmärksamhetsproblem?. Best Practice (April)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kan arbetsminne förklara varför människor med schizotypy har uppmärksamhetsproblem?
2017 (Swedish)In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874, no AprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Det är lätt att undvika att distraheras av det vi ser. Det räcker med att blunda. När det gäller ljud kan vi å andra sidan inte bara stänga av öronen för att slippa höra det. När vi sitter och jobbar, och inte vill höra ljud som finns i bakgrunden, registrerar hjärnan ljudet automatiskt.

Bakgrundsljud, som kan komma från folk som pratar, telefoner som ringer och så vidare, fångar vår uppmärksamhet och gör att vi tappar fokus på den uppgift vi har framför oss. Detta kan i förlängningen leda till irritation och till försämrad prestation och hälsa.

Att vara lättdistraherad har konsekvenser både för ens sociala beteende och för hur man fungerar på en arbetsplats eller skola. En lättdistraherad person som har sin arbetsplats i ett öppet kontorslandskap till exempel, där bakgrundsljud är mycket vanligt, presterar sämre än hen skulle göra på ett privat kontor där man generellt sett blir mindre störd. Vissa störs emellertid mer än andra. Varför är det så? En del av svaret på frågan är att människor varierar i något som kallas arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en minnesfunktion som används för att tillfälligt lagra och bearbeta information som vi har i medvetandet. Storleken på arbetsminnet (arbetsminneskapaciteten) kan variera mellan människor, och prestationen på många uppgifter, till exempel att läsa och skriva, beror på arbetsminneskapaciteten. Forskning har också visat att individer med låg arbetsminneskapacitet är mer lättdistraherade jämfört med individer med hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

Distraktion, schizotypy och arbetsminne Att vara mer lättdistraherad än andra är något som människor med hög grad av schizotypy känner igen sig i. Detta gäller både för dem som har diagnosen schizofreni och för dem som inte har diagnosen men som ändå har symtomen. Människor med hög grad av schizotypy har svårare än andra att hålla kvar uppmärksamheten och förbli fokuserade på en uppgift i en bullrig miljö. Ofta har de även sämre arbetsminne än andra, vilket innebär prestationsförluster i många situationer. En hypotes har därför varit att sambandet mellan schizotypy och distraktion beror på det sämre arbetsminnet.

I en nyligen publicerad studie1 testades denna hypotes, men det visade sig att variationer i arbetsminne inte kan förklara sambandet mellan schizotypy och distraktion. Individer som klassificerades ha ”hög grad av schizotypy” var mer distraherade av oväntade ljud under såväl en visuospatial som en verbal uppgift, jämfört med dem som klassificerades ha ”låg grad av schizotypy”. Samma mönster hittades för dem som klassificerades ha låg kontra hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

Det intressantaste resultatet från studien var emellertid att schizotypy och arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog på olika sätt till hur lätt individerna distraherades av det överraskande ljudet. Detta innebär att olika mekanismer ligger bakom den uppmärksamhetsproblematik som är kopplad till schizotypy jämfört med den problematik som är kopplad till sämre arbetsminneskapacitet. Med andra ord verkar det som om variationer i arbetsminne inte kan förklara varför individer med hög schizotypy har uppmärksamhetsproblem.

Exakt hur arbetsminneskapacitet och schizotypy skiljer sig åt är något som författarna till studien endast kunde spekulera om. En hypotes som är välgrundad i litteraturen är emellertid att variationer i arbetsminneskapacitet bidrar till distraherbarhet genom att påverka hur väl människor lyckas avgränsa uppmärksamhetens omfång till den uppgift de håller på med. Hög schizotypy bidrar å andra sidan genom att göra det svårare att ignorera saker i omgivningen, vilket skulle kunna bero på brister i habituering. Det innebär i det här fallet att hög schizotypy leder till svårigheter att vänja sig vid störningsfaktorn över tid, i takt med att man får allt mer erfarenhet av bakgrundsljudet.

Slutsats

Vi drar slutsatsen att arbetsminne och schizotypy tenderar att samvariera på ett sådant sätt att människor med hög grad av schizotypy också tenderar att ha låg arbetsminneskapacitet. Men det är inte den låga arbetsminneskapaciteten i sig som skapar uppmärksamhetsproblemen hos dessa individer. En viktig implikation av denna slutsats är att ”arbetsminnesträning” (det vill säga interventioner i form av träningsprogram som syftar till att öka arbetsminneskapaciteten) inte bör bidra till att minska uppmärksamhetsproblematiken för människor med hög grad av schizotypy.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23999 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Sörqvist, P. & Kabanshi, A. (2017). Occupant perception of “green” buildings: Distinguishing physical and psychological factors. Building and Environment, 114, 140-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupant perception of “green” buildings: Distinguishing physical and psychological factors
2017 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 114, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies have found a preference bias for “environmentally friendly” or “green” artifacts and buildings. For example, indoor environments are more favorably viewed when the building is labeled/certified “green”, in comparison with one that is not labeled/certified, even though the two environments are actually identical. The present study explored how physical properties of the indoor environment (high vs. low temperature) and labeling (“green” vs. “conventional”) interacts in their effect on environment perception. Participants performed a series of tasks in four indoor environments with different labels (low vs. high carbon footprint) and different temperatures (23°C vs. 28°C). Label and temperature were manipulated orthogonally. The participants’ environmental concern was also measured. The environmentally concerned participant assigned higher thermal acceptance and satisfaction scores to the environment labeled “low carbon footprint” (i.e., “green” certified) compared to the environment labeled “high carbon footprint” (i.e., not “green” certified), but only in the cooler thermal environment. Environmentally indifferent participants’ perception of the environment did not differ depending on label or room temperature. The results suggest that a “green” label positively influence the perception of the indoor environment for occupants, but only when the temperature is within the acceptable range as proposed in guidelines for “green” buildings.

Keywords
Green buildings; Indoor environment; Bias; Satisfaction; Environmental certification
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23022 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.12.017 (DOI)000393249800013 ()2-s2.0-85006822947 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7584-2275

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