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Silén, Marit
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Svantesson, M., Silén, M. & James, I. (2018). It’s not all about moral reasoning: Understanding the complex content of Moral Case Deliberation. Nursing Ethics, 25(2), 212-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s not all about moral reasoning: Understanding the complex content of Moral Case Deliberation
2018 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain.

Objective:

To explore and compare the content beyond moral reasoning in the dialogue in Moral Case Deliberation at Swedish workplaces.

Methods:

A mixed-methods approach was applied for analysing audio-recordings of 70 periodic Moral Case Deliberation meetings at 10 Swedish workplaces. Moral Case Deliberation facilitators and various healthcare professions participated, with registered nurses comprising the majority.

Ethical considerations:

No objection to the study was made by an Ethical Review Board. After oral and written information was provided, consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation.

Findings:

Other than ‘moral reasoning’ (median (md): 45% of the spoken time), the Moral Case Deliberations consisted of ‘reflections on the psychosocial work environment’ to a varying extent (md: 29%). Additional content comprised ‘assumptions about the patient’s psychosocial situation’ (md: 6%), ‘facts about the patient’s situation’ (md: 5%), ‘concrete problem-solving’ (md: 6%) and ‘process’ (md: 3%).

Conclusion:

The findings suggest that a restorative function of staff’s wellbeing in Moral Case Deliberation is needed, as this might contribute to good patient care. This supports outcome criteria of improved emotional support, which may include relief of moral distress. However, facilitators need a strategy for how to proceed from the participants’ own emotional needs and to develop the use of their emotional knowing to focus on the ethically difficult patient situation.

Keywords
Clinical ethics; ethics consultation; ethics rounds; healthcare professionals; Moral Case Deliberation; psychosocial aspects; qualitative research
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23612 (URN)10.1177/0969733017700235 (DOI)000429899900008 ()28421865 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044337153 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Silén, M., Skytt, B. & Engström, M. (2018). Relationships between structural and psychological empowerment, mediated by person-centred processes and thriving for nursing home staff. Geriatric Nursing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between structural and psychological empowerment, mediated by person-centred processes and thriving for nursing home staff
2018 (English)In: Geriatric Nursing, ISSN 0197-4572, E-ISSN 1528-3984Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Person-centred care has been shown to have positive outcomes for patients and for staff. However, the complexity of the link between structural conditions, work in a person-centred manner and outcomes for staff is insufficiently described. We tested the relationship between structural empowerment and psychological empowerment, as mediated by nursing home staff members’ self-ratings of working in a person-centred manner, the person-centred climate and thriving. Questionnaires were distributed to staff working in 12 nursing homes in Sweden. A serial mediation model was tested. The results showed that higher access to structural empowerment was related to higher psychological empowerment mediated by staff working in a more person-centred manner, improved person-centred climate, and improved staff ratings of thriving. These results point to the importance of strengthening the preconditions for staff to work in a person-centred manner and nursing home managers play an important role in this.

Keywords
Nursing home staff, Outcomes, Person-centred processes, Structural conditions
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27863 (URN)10.1016/j.gerinurse.2018.06.016 (DOI)30120010 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051509200 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Johansson, L. & Silén, M. (2018). Research methods in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: a descriptive study. Nurse Education Today, 66, 187-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research methods in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: a descriptive study
2018 (English)In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 66, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: During the nursing programme in Sweden, students complete an independent project that allows them to receive both a professional qualification as a nurse and a Bachelor's degree. This project gives students the opportunity to develop and apply skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making, thus preparing them for their future work. However, only a few, small-scale studies have analysed the independent project to gain more insight into how nursing students carry out this task.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe the methods, including ethical considerations and assessment of data quality, applied in nursing students' independent Bachelor's degree projects in a Swedish context.

DESIGN: A descriptive study with a quantitative approach.

METHODS: A total of 490 independent projects were analysed using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS: Literature reviews were the predominant project form. References were often used to support the analysis method. They were not, however, always relevant to the method. This was also true of ethical considerations. When a qualitative approach was used, and data collected through interviews, the participants were typically professionals. In qualitative projects involving analysis of biographies/autobiographies or blogs participants were either persons with a disease or next of kin of a person with a disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the projects were literature reviews, it seemed unclear to the nursing students how the data should be analysed as well as what ethical issues should be raised in relation to the method. Consequently, further research and guidance are needed. In Sweden, independent projects are not considered research and are therefore not required to undergo ethics vetting. However, it is important that they be designed so as to avoid possible research ethics problems. Asking persons about their health, which occurred in some of the empirical projects, may therefore be considered questionable.

Keywords
Academic as topic, Baccalaureate, Dissertations, Education, Nursing, Nursing education research, Writing
National Category
Nursing Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26751 (URN)10.1016/j.nedt.2018.04.006 (DOI)000433645200031 ()29709306 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046169098 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Silén, M. & Johansson, L. (2016). Aims and theoretical frameworks in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: a descriptive study. Nurse Education Today, 37, 91-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aims and theoretical frameworks in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: a descriptive study
2016 (English)In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 37, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Nursing students' independent projects in Sweden not only provide an opportunity to receive a professional qualification as a nurse but also gain a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The aim of these projects is to demonstrate knowledge and understanding within the major field of the education. Objectives: This study aimed to describe and analyze the topics as well as theoretical frameworks and concepts in nursing students' independent projects, which lead to a Bachelor's degree, in a Swedish context. Design: A total of 491 independent projects, written by nursing students in Sweden, were included in the study. Methods: Topics together with theoretical frameworks and concepts in the projects were identified. Similar topics and theoretical frameworks and concepts, respectively, were grouped into subcategories, and similar subcategories were then merged into a main category. The number of entries in each category was counted for descriptive statistics in order to allow for the demonstration of magnitude. Results: The most common topics concerned experiences and managing when having an illness, experiences of care and of being a caregiver, and healthcare staff's care and knowledge. The nursing theories/models that were most often used were Eriksson's Theory of Caritative Caring, Travelbee's Human-to-Human Relationship Model, and Orem's Self-care Theory. Among the non-nursing theories/models, perspectives and concepts lifeworld, ethical values and principles, existential concepts and quality of life/health-related quality of life, were most often used by these students. Conclusion: There may be some difficulty in finding a topic for the project that is relevant for both a professional qualification as a nurse, as well as for achieving the requirements of a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The study indicates that there is a need to widen the student's understanding of different nursing theories/perspectives/models/concepts during nursing education so that students are familiar with a broad range of these when conducting their independent project.

Keywords
Dissertations, Academic as Topic, Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate, Nursing Research/education, Writing
National Category
Nursing Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20698 (URN)10.1016/j.nedt.2015.11.020 (DOI)000371098300016 ()26718541 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84958124694 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Roos, C., Silén, M., Skytt, B. & Engström, M. (2016). An intervention targeting fundamental values among caregivers at residential facilities: Effects of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on residents' self-reported empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction.. BMC Geriatrics, 16(1), Article ID 130.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An intervention targeting fundamental values among caregivers at residential facilities: Effects of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on residents' self-reported empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction.
2016 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In Sweden the national fundamental values for care of older people state that care should ensure that they can live in dignity and with a sense of well-being. Our hypothesis was that a caregiver intervention targeting the national fundamental values would improve perceived empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction among older people living in residential facilities.

METHODS: The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with a pre- and one post-test design, conducted in 27 units (17 study units) at 12 residential facilities for older people in five municipalities in central Sweden. The units in each municipality were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. The caregiver intervention was carried out using an interpretative approach with eight guided face-to-face seminars, where self-reflection and dialogue were used. Data were collected using questionnaires. The number of residents was 43 (78 %) in the intervention group and 37 (71 %) in the control group. The Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed to detect differences between groups and Wilcoxon signed rank tests to explore differences in change over time within groups. Furthermore, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to study effects of the intervention controlling for clustering effects.

RESULTS: Primary outcome measures were empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction. In the intervention group, improvements at follow-up were found in residents' self-reported empowerment (n = 42; p = 0.001, Median difference 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5;6.0), person-centered climate (n = 42; p ≤0.001, Median difference 8.0, 95 % CI 4.5;11.4) and life satisfaction regarding the factor quality of everyday activities (n = 40; p = 0.033, Median difference 9.7, 95 % CI 1.0;21.9) while disempowerment decreased (n = 43; p = 0.018, Median difference -1.3, 95 % CI -2.0;0.0). In the control group person-centered climate decreased (n = 37; p = 0.002, Median difference -8.5, 95 % CI -13.6;-3.0) and quality of everyday activities (n = 36; p = 0.012, Median difference -11.6, 95 % CI-21.7;-3.4). Change over time between groups was significant for empowerment (p = 0.001, Median difference 6.0, 95 % CI 3.0;9.0), disempowerment (p = 0.006, Median difference -2.0, 95 % CI -4.0;-1.0) and person-centered climate (p ≤ 0.001, Median difference 16.0, 95 % CI 9.7;23.0) and for life satisfaction regarding the factor quality of everyday activities (p = 0.002, Median difference 22.1, 95 % CI 8.2;37.4). Results of GEE confirmed earlier results; revealed interaction effects for empowerment (parameter estimate -5.0, 95 % CI -8.3;-1.8), person-centered climate (parameter estimate -16.7, 95 % CI -22.4;-10.9) and life satisfaction regarding the factor quality of everyday activities (parameter estimate -25.9, 95 % CI -40.3;-11.5).

CONCLUSION: When the Swedish national fundamental values were put into practice increases in empowerment, person-centered climate and quality of everyday activities were found among older people with intact cognitive ability living in residential facilities. Limitations to consider are the differences between the two groups at baseline, drop-outs and that neither the data collector nor the outcome assessors were blinded to group assignment of participants.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in ISRCTN92658034 in January 2013.

Keywords
A sense of well-being, Empowerment, Experimental design, Life satisfaction, Living in dignity, Person-centered climate, Residential facilities for older people
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22156 (URN)10.1186/s12877-016-0306-2 (DOI)000379253200003 ()27387954 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84977266195 (Scopus ID)
Projects
NVÄ
Available from: 2016-07-14 Created: 2016-07-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Godskesen, T., Kihlbom, U., Nordin, K., Silén, M. & Nygren, P. (2015). Differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation among cancer patients in phase 3 clinical trials. European Journal of Cancer Care, 25(3), 516-523
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation among cancer patients in phase 3 clinical trials
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 516-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While participants in clinical oncology trials are essential for the advancement of cancer therapies, factors decisive for patient participation have been described but need further investigation, particularly in the case of phase 3 studies. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation in phase 3 clinical cancer trials in relation to gender, age, education levels and former trial experience. The results of a questionnaire returned from 88 of 96 patients (92%) were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. There were small, barely relevant differences in trial knowledge among patients when stratified by gender, age or education. Participants with former trial experience were less aware about the right to withdraw. Male participants and those aged ≥65 years were significantly more motivated by a feeling of duty, or by the opinions of close ones. Men seem more motivated than women by external factors. With the awareness that elderly and single male participants might be a vulnerable group and participants with former trial experience are less likely to be sufficiently informed, the information consent process should focus more on these patients. We conclude that the informed consent process seems to work well, with good results within most subgroups.

Keywords
adults, cancer, clinical trials, patient education, patient information, phase 3 trials
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20510 (URN)10.1111/ecc.12319 (DOI)000375066900018 ()25904313 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84928316987 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Silén, M., Haglund, K., Hansson, M. G. & Ramklint, M. (2015). Ethics rounds do not improve the handling of ethical issues by psychiatric staff. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 69(6), 1700-1707
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethics rounds do not improve the handling of ethical issues by psychiatric staff
2015 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1700-1707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. One way to support healthcare staff in handling ethically difficult situations is through ethics rounds that consist of discussions based on clinical cases and are moderated by an ethicist. Previous research indicates that the handling of ethically difficult situations in the workplace might have changed after ethics rounds. This, in turn, would mean that the “ethical climate”, i.e. perceptions of how ethical issues are handled, would have changed. Aim. To investigate whether ethics rounds could improve the ethical climate perceived by staff working in psychiatry outpatient clinics. Methods. In this quasi-experimental study, six inter-professional ethics rounds led by a philosopher/ethicist were conducted at two psychiatry outpatient clinics. Changes in ethical climate were measured at these clinics as well as at two control clinics at baseline and after the intervention period using the instrument Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. Results. Within-groups comparisons of median sum scores of ethical climate showed that no statistically significant differences were found in the intervention group before or after the intervention period. The median sum scores for ethical climate were significantly higher, both at baseline and after the intervention period (P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.046), in the intervention group. Conclusions. Ethics rounds in psychiatric outpatient clinics did not result in significant changes in ethical climate. Outcomes of ethics rounds might, to a higher degree, be directed towards patient-related outcomes rather than towards the staff's working environment, as the questions brought up for discussion during the ethics rounds concerned patient-related issues.

National Category
Medical Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20514 (URN)10.3109/08039488.2014.994032 (DOI)25592287 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Silén, M., Svantesson, M. & James, I. (2015). What is discussed during Swedish moral case deliberartion sessions?. In: : . Paper presented at ICCEC 2015 – 11th Annual International Conference on Clinical Ethics & Consultation, 20-22 May 2015, New York, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is discussed during Swedish moral case deliberartion sessions?
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23792 (URN)
Conference
ICCEC 2015 – 11th Annual International Conference on Clinical Ethics & Consultation, 20-22 May 2015, New York, USA
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Silén, M., Ramklint, M., Hansson, M. G. & Haglund, K. (2014). Ethics rounds: An appreciated form of ethics support. Nursing Ethics, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethics rounds: An appreciated form of ethics support
2014 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Ethics rounds are one way to support healthcare personnel in handling ethically difficult situations. A previous study in the present project showed that ethics rounds did not result in significant changes in perceptions of how ethical issues were handled, that is, in the ethical climate. However, there was anecdotal evidence that the ethics rounds were viewed as a positive experience and that they stimulated ethical reflection.

AIM: The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how the ethics rounds were experienced and why the intervention in the form of ethics rounds did not succeed in improving the ethical climate for the staff.RESEARCH DESIGN:An exploratory and descriptive design with a qualitative approach was adopted, using individual interviews.

PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 11 healthcare personnel, working in two different psychiatry outpatient clinics and with experience of participating in ethics rounds, were interviewed.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was based on informed consent and was approved by one of the Swedish Regional Ethical Review Boards.

FINDINGS: The participants were generally positive about the ethics rounds. They had experienced changes by participating in the ethics rounds in the form of being able to see things from different perspectives as well as by gaining insight into ethical issues. However, these changes had not affected daily work.

DISCUSSION: A crucial question is whether or not increased reflection ability among the participants is a good enough outcome of ethics rounds and whether this result could have been measured in patient-related outcomes. Ethics rounds might foster cooperation among the staff and this, in turn, could influence patient care.

CONCLUSION: By listening to others during ethics rounds, a person can learn to see things from a new angle. Participation in ethics rounds can also lead to better insight concerning ethical issues.

National Category
Ethics
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20517 (URN)10.1177/0969733014560930 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-02-23 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Silén, M., Kjellström, S., Christensson, L., Sidenvall, B. & Svantesson, M. (2012). What actions promote a positive ethical climate?: A critical incident study of nurses' perceptions. Nursing Ethics, 19(4), 501-512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What actions promote a positive ethical climate?: A critical incident study of nurses' perceptions
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2012 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 501-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few qualitative studies explore the phenomenon of positive ethical climate and what actions are perceived as promoting it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and describe actions that acute care ward nurses perceive as promoting a positive ethical climate. The critical incident technique was used. Interviews were conducted with 20 nurses at wards where the ethical climate was considered positive, according to a previous study. Meeting the needs of patients and next of kin in a considerate way, as well as receiving and giving support and information within the work group, promoted a positive ethical climate. Likewise, working as a team with a standard for behaviour within the work group promoted a positive ethical climate. Future research should investigate other conditions that might also promote a positive ethical climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2012
National Category
Nursing Medical Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20515 (URN)10.1177/0969733011436204 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-06-07 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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