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Östman, Anders
Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
El-Mekawy, M. & Östman, A. (2015). A unified building model for a real 3D cadastral system. In: Carlos Nunes Silva (Ed.), Emerging issues, challenges and opportunities in urban e-planning: (pp. 252-279). Hershey, PA: IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A unified building model for a real 3D cadastral system
2015 (English)In: Emerging issues, challenges and opportunities in urban e-planning / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 252-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cadastral systems today are mostly based on digitally represented 2D parcel maps or land registries of 3D components referenced to different documents. With clear limitations to this method, this chapter focuses on creating 3D property information based on existing 3D building models. It starts by investigating shortages of the most prominent semantic building models for BIM and geospatial models (IFC and CityGML, respectively) as well as a pre-developed Unified Building Model (UBM). The result shows that neither one of the three has capabilities for complete 3D cadastre systems. The chapter proposes an extension to the UBM by adding four subtypes to the boundary surfaces above- and under-ground, namely “Building Elements,” “Digging,” “Protecting Area,” and “Real Estate Boundary.” The extended UBM is then implemented in a case study of a hospital building in Sweden and shown to be able to model all surfaces that define 3D cadastral information of buildings. The extended UBM is argued to contribute to e-planning in cities and urban applications as well as to 3D cadastral applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015
Series
Advances in civil and industrial engineering (ACIE) book series, ISSN 2326-6139
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19300 (URN)10.4018/978-1-4666-8150-7.ch012 (DOI)2-s2.0-84954596862 (Scopus ID)978-1-4666-8150-7 (ISBN)978-1-4666-8151-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
El-Mekawy, M., Östman, A. & Hijazi, I. (2012). A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 1(2), 120-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS
2012 (English)In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM) and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for representation of BIM and geospatial models respectively. CityGML has emerged as a standard for modeling city models while IFC has been developed as a reference model for building objects and sites. Current CAD and geospatial software provide tools that allow the conversion of information from one format to the other. These tools are however fairly limited in their capabilities, often resulting in data and information losses in the transformations. This paper describes a new approach for data integration based on a unified building model (UBM) which encapsulates both the CityGML and IFC models, thus avoiding translations between the models and loss of information. To build the UBM, all classes and related concepts were initially collected from both models, overlapping concepts were merged, new objects were created to ensure the capturing of both indoor and outdoor objects, and finally, spatial relationships between the objects were redefined. Unified Modeling Language (UML) notations were used for representing its objects and relationships between them. There are two use-case scenarios, both set in a hospital: "evacuation" and "allocating spaces for patient wards" were developed to validate and test the proposed UBM data model. Based on these two scenarios, four validation queries were defined in order to validate the appropriateness of the proposed unified building model. It has been validated, through the case scenarios and four queries, that the UBM being developed is able to integrate CityGML data as well as IFC data in an apparently seamless way. Constraints and enrichment functions are used for populating empty database tables and fields. The motivation scenarios also show the needs and benefits of having an integrated approach to the modeling of indoor and outdoor spatial features.

Keywords
IFC, CityGML, UBM, unified building model, 3D city modeling
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22075 (URN)10.3390/ijgi1020120 (DOI)000209465400002 ()2-s2.0-84907326401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-04 Created: 2016-07-04 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Fritsch, D., Mooney, K. & Östman, A. (2012). EDUSERV - the education service of EuroSDR: sharing experience for capacity building. In: ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences: . Paper presented at 22nd Congress of the International-Society-for-Photogrammetry-and-Remote-Sensing, AUG 25-SEP 01, 2012, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA (pp. 87-90). , XXXIX-B6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EDUSERV - the education service of EuroSDR: sharing experience for capacity building
2012 (English)In: ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2012, Vol. XXXIX-B6, p. 87-90Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes EduServ, the Education Service of EuroSDR - a European spatial data research organisation whose aim is to address the research needs of spatial data provision in Europe. With a current membership coming from seventeen European countries and a strong working relationship with related European organisations, EuroSDR has amassed considerable experience in addressing the extent and nature of this need. In order to facilitate the transfer of outcomes of EuroSDR research activities to the user domain, e.g. to key personnel in geographic information (GI) production organisations and industry, EuroSDR commenced this annual series of elearning courses in 2002. The Internet courses are preceded by a seminar at which participants meet tutors and receive guidelines for following the courses from their own locations. Delivery of the two-week courses requires an acceptable level of Internet connectivity, which exists in most member countries. EuroSDR is aware, however, that should such courses be shared internationally, other forms of communication will need to be addressed, such as satellite broadcasting. This would require effective collaboration with related organisations with experience with this means of communication. EduServ courses are offered in two successive years. During the courses, participants enjoy access to course tutors with a 24-hour response to queries guaranteed. Thereafter, course material for these courses is made available online. EuroSDR continues to work with past course tutors to ensure that this valuable resource is maintained as an effective and sustainable archive. This paper is aimed at sharing EuroSDR's experience in distance education with the wider scientific community with a view to its applicability to a global audience, whereby instead of sharing expertise within the GI community in Europe, European mapping agencies can share their knowledge and experience with the international GI community.

Series
International Archives of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISSN 2194-9034
Keywords
Internet/Web, Education, Exchange, Learning, International
National Category
Educational Sciences Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22080 (URN)10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXIX-B6-87-2012 (DOI)000358213300016 ()2-s2.0-84924415772 (Scopus ID)
Conference
22nd Congress of the International-Society-for-Photogrammetry-and-Remote-Sensing, AUG 25-SEP 01, 2012, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Available from: 2016-07-04 Created: 2016-07-04 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hedefalk, F. & Östman, A. (2011). Making Swedish environmental geodata INSPIRE compliant: A harmonization case study. Mapping and Image Science (3), 30-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Swedish environmental geodata INSPIRE compliant: A harmonization case study
2011 (English)In: Mapping and Image Science, ISSN 1651-8705, no 3, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European project Nature-SDIplus has developed data and metadata specifications for three INSPIRE Annex III themes: Habitat and Biotopes, Bio-geographical regions and Species distributions. These serves as a foundation for the thematic groups developing the corresponding INSPIRE specifications. The aim of this study is to test a data harmonization approach to make Swedish environmental geodata and metadata compliant with these specifications. In the harmonization process, we use offline transformations that are split into one spatial and one non-spatial part, and standardized formats to allow vendor neutrality. Moreover, we extend the compliance tests to the data and metadata specifications by validating against both extensible Markup Language (XML)-schema and Schematron. Finally, we identify harmonization processes that may be costly or have negative impacts on data quality. The harmonized data and metadata are thereafter published as network services compliant with OGC Web Service specifications. The output from our method is data and metadata that are valid to the Nature-SDIplus data specifications and metadata profiles. Although the usage of standardized formats facilitates vendor neutrality, the nonspatial transformation procedures expressed in interoperable languages seem to be insufficient to execute all the mapping rules. Therefore, some of these transformations cannot be executed in a vendor neutral environment without modifications. Furthermore, by splitting the harmonization into two manageable parts, we avoid some limitations about XML schema translations in existing spatial transformation tools. Additional findings are: (1) by extending the validation with Schematron tests, we find non-compliances that have been missed during the XML schema tests; (2) costly processes are identified, which are caused by missing elements and by unstructured information given as comments; and (3) degradation of the positional and thematic accuracy occur during the harmonization.

Keywords
Data quality, ETL, Geodata harmonization, INSPIRE, Nature-SDIplus, OGC web services, Validation, accuracy assessment, mapping, software, spatial analysis, World Wide Web, Sweden
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17954 (URN)2-s2.0-82155173266 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-11 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Abugessaisa, I. & Östman, A. (2011). Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges. International Journal of Public Information Systems, 2011(1), 11-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatial Data Infrastructure denotes the collection of technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial information. During the last few years the development of spatial data infrastructure in Sweden has been influenced by two actions. The first was the European Directive in spatial data infrastructure namely Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE), and the second action was the Swedish parliament's directive early in 2008 on e-Government. In a modern society, spatial data play major roles and have different applications such as information support during disaster prevention and management. These two milestones involving Geodata development have created huge demands and represent great challenges for researchers in the area of spatial data infrastructure. One of these challenges concerned the methodologies involved for testing proposed data specifications from INSPIRE. This paper addresses the above challenge and introduces a framework for testing Geodata. The testing of Geodata includes, the testing of the data specifications for different geographical themes and data structure, the performance testing of Opengeospatial Web Services (OWS) and the usability of Geoportals and services. The proposed methods were evaluated during a pilot test for a regional geoportal in Sweden, and the reported results in this paper show the feasibility and applicability of the methods used. The methods used assisted in the identification of the performance related defects and the bottleneck involved in relation to the response time, stress and load. The methods support the detection of different types of errors that occur during the testing time such as http error, timeout error, and socket error. During the pilot test of a geoportal, it was discovered that the response time was 30 seconds which is 6 times higher than the INSPIRE required time (Maximum 5 second), with 500 virtual users accessing the system and performing a specific task. A usability test was conducted which focused on the users' acceptance and the “think aloud” methods. The usability testing enabled the identification of user-interface related problems and the results were quantified to enable comparisons to be made with current results and those from the new test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid University Sweden, 2011
Keywords
INSPIRE, Performance testing, SDI, Geoweb services, Usability testing
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-9619 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
El-Mekawy, M., Östman, A. & Shahzad, K. (2011). Towards Interoperating CityGML and IFC Building Models: A Unified Model Based Approach. In: Kölbe T., König G. & Nagel C. (Ed.), Advances in 3D Geo-Information Sciences: . Paper presented at 5th 3D GeoInfo Conference, Berlin, Germany, 3-4 November 2010 (pp. 73-93). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Interoperating CityGML and IFC Building Models: A Unified Model Based Approach
2011 (English)In: Advances in 3D Geo-Information Sciences / [ed] Kölbe T., König G. & Nagel C., Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, p. 73-93Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

CityGML represents 3D urban objects that can be shared over different applications, whereas, IFC provides a very detailed semantic model for 3D building representations using constructive elements like beams, walls, etc. Attempts have been made to interoperate CityGML and IFC for seeking useful common applications. However, these efforts use a unidirectional method (mostly from IFC to CityGML) for conversion processes. Abidirectional method can lead to development of unified applications in the areas of urban planning, building construction analysis, homeland security, etc.The benefits of these applications clearly appear at the operational level (e.g., cost reduction, unified data-view), and at the strategic level (e.g., crisis management and increasing the analyses capabilities). In this paper, we presentan approach for interoperating CityGML and IFC based on development of aunified building model for converting IFC to CityGML and vice versa. The conversion is a two-steps process in which a model is firstly converted to the unified model and secondly to the target model. Finally, we demonstrate the approach and outcome of each step by a hospital building case that is located in Norrtälje City, north of Stockholm, Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography (LNG&C), ISSN 1863-2246
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-9600 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-12670-3_5 (DOI)978-3-642-12669-7 (ISBN)978-3-642-12670-3 (ISBN)
Conference
5th 3D GeoInfo Conference, Berlin, Germany, 3-4 November 2010
Available from: 2011-06-21 Created: 2011-06-21 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Saio, G., Marchese, A., Molina, R. & Östman, A. (2010). A training framework to support the INSPIRE implementation process. In: INSPIRE 2010 Conference in Krakow, Poland, 2010..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A training framework to support the INSPIRE implementation process
2010 (English)In: INSPIRE 2010 Conference in Krakow, Poland, 2010., 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-7421 (URN)
Available from: 2010-08-30 Created: 2010-08-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Molina, R., Saio, G. & Östman, A. (2010). Data Harmonisation in the HUMBOLDT Scenarios and the HUMBOLDT Training Framework. In: INSPIRE 2010 Conference in Krakow, Poland, 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Harmonisation in the HUMBOLDT Scenarios and the HUMBOLDT Training Framework
2010 (English)In: INSPIRE 2010 Conference in Krakow, Poland, 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-7422 (URN)
Available from: 2010-08-30 Created: 2010-08-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Östman, A. (2010). Examples of training modules in Gävle, Berlin and Dublin. Paper presented at Symposium GIS Ostrava 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examples of training modules in Gävle, Berlin and Dublin
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-6296 (URN)
Conference
Symposium GIS Ostrava 2010
Available from: 2010-01-29 Created: 2010-01-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Östman, A. (2010). Introduction of the VESTA GIS project. Paper presented at Symposium GIS Ostrava 20101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction of the VESTA GIS project
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-6295 (URN)
Conference
Symposium GIS Ostrava 20101
Available from: 2010-01-29 Created: 2010-01-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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