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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Gold, J. E., Kurowski, A., Gore, R., ProCare, R. t. & Punnett, L. (2018). Knee pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling program. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 61(10), 849-860
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knee pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling program
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2018 (English)In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 849-860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Approximately 25-30% of nursing personnel experience knee pain (KP). We sought to identify physical and psychosocial work exposures, and personal factors related to prevalent, incident, and persistent KP 5-8 years after safe resident handing program (SRHP) implementation in nursing homes.

Methods: Health and exposure information was obtained from worker surveys 5-6 years (“F5”) and 7-8 years (“F6”) post-SRHP implementation. Prevalent KP correlates were examined at F5; persistent and incident KP predictors were analyzed at F6, utilizing robust Poisson multivariable regression.

Results: F5 KP prevalence (19.7%) was associated with combined physical exposures, and with either high job strain or low social support, in separate models. Two-year persistent KP was similarly associated with these psychosocial exposures. Being overweight was associated with KP in all analyses.

Conclusions: The SRHP program did not eliminate knee physical loading, which should be reduced to prevent nursing home worker KP. Workplace psychosocial exposures (high job strain, low social support) also appeared germane.

Keywords
healthcare workers, job strain, lower extremity, moving and lifting patients, workload
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27900 (URN)10.1002/ajim.22902 (DOI)000444537500007 ()30156000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052819710 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding information

U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH/CDC), Grant number: U19-OH008857

Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
Gold, J., Punnett, L., Gore, R. & ProCare Research Team, .. (2017). Predictors of low back pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling programme. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 74(6), 389-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of low back pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling programme
2017 (English)In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives. Healthcare workers have high rates of low back pain (LBP) related to handling patients. A large chain of nursing homes experienced reduced biomechanical load, compensation claims and costs following implementation of a safe resident handling programme (SRHP). The aim of this study was to examine whether LBP similarly declined and whether it was associated with relevant self-reported occupational exposures or personal health factors.

Methods. Worker surveys were conducted on multiple occasions beginning with the week of first SRHP introduction (baseline). In each survey, the outcome was LBP during the prior 3 months with at least mild severity during the past week. Robust Poisson multivariable regression models were constructed to examine correlates of LBP cross-sectionally at 2 years (F3) and longitudinally at 5–6 years (F5) post-SRHP implementation among workers also in at least one prior survey.

Results. LBP prevalence declined minimally between baseline and F3. The prevalence was 37% at F3 and cumulative incidence to F5 was 22%. LBP prevalence at F3 was positively associated with combined physical exposures, psychological job demands and prior back injury, while frequent lift device usage and ‘intense’ aerobic exercise frequency were protective. At F5, the multivariable model included frequent lift usage at F3 (relative risk (RR) 0.39 (0.18 to 0.84)) and F5 work– family imbalance (RR=1.82 (1.12 to 2.98)).

Conclusions. In this observational study, resident lifting device usage predicted reduced LBP in nursing home workers. Other physical and psychosocial demands of nursing home work also contributed, while frequent intense aerobic exercise appeared to reduce LBP risk.

Keywords
aerobic exercise; healthcare workers; intervention, moving and lifting patients; protective devices
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22828 (URN)10.1136/oemed-2016-103930 (DOI)000401736400002 ()27919063 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84995486587 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Gold, J., Hallman, D., Hellström, F., Björklund, M., Crenshaw, A. G., Mathiassen, S. E., . . . Ali, S. (2017). Systematic review of quantitative imaging biomarkers for neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18, Article ID 395.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic review of quantitative imaging biomarkers for neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders
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2017 (English)In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 395Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

This study systematically summarizes quantitative imaging biomarker research in non-traumatic neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). There were two research questions: 1) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the presence of neck and shoulder MSDs?, 2) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the severity of neck and shoulder MSDs?

Methods

PubMed and SCOPUS were used for the literature search. One hundred and twenty-five studies met primary inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from 49 sufficient quality studies.

Results

Most of the 125 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. Only half controlled for potential confounders via exclusion or in the analysis. Approximately one-third reported response rates. In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. The literature synthesis suggested that neck muscle size may be decreased in neck pain, and trapezius myalgia and neck/shoulder pain may be associated with reduced vascularity in the trapezius and reduced trapezius oxygen saturation at rest and in response to upper extremity tasks. Reduced vascularity in the supraspinatus tendon may also be a feature in rotator cuff tears. Five of eight studies showed an association between a quantitative imaging marker and MSD severity.

Conclusions

Although research on quantitative imaging biomarkers is still in a nascent stage, some MSD biomarkers were identified. There are limitations in the articles examined, including possible selection bias and inattention to potentially confounding factors. Recommendations for future studies are provided.

Keywords
MRI, MSD, near-infrared spectroscopy, overuse, pain, PET/CT, thermography
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20784 (URN)10.1186/s12891-017-1694-y (DOI)000410323900001 ()10.1186/s12891-017-1694-y (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029322406 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ImagingBiorev
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761NIH (National Institute of Health), AR056019
Available from: 2015-12-04 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Gold, J., Hallman, D., Hellström, F., Björklund, M., Mathiassen, S. E., Piligian, G. & Barbe, M. F. (2016). Biochemical biomarkers for MSDs: systematic review results. In: : . Paper presented at Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biochemical biomarkers for MSDs: systematic review results
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background. Although the potential for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) biomarkers to detect subclinical disease and monitor MSD severity was discussed more than 20 years ago, only one review on biochemical biomarkers exclusive to humans has been published (Saxton 2000). The aim of this study was to systematically summarize biochemical biomarker research in neck and upper extremity MSDs that could appear in a work-related context. Two research questions guided the review: (1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? (2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs?

Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS. 87 studies met primary inclusion criteria. Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient-quality articles.

Results. Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies. Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis. Most sufficient-quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs). In sufficient-quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. Evidence suggested that: (a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, (b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and (c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs. Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

Discussion. While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21912 (URN)
Conference
Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Dropkin, J., Moline, J., Kim, H. & Gold, J. (2016). Blended work as a bridge between traditional workplace employment and retirement: a conceptual review. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2(4), 373-383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blended work as a bridge between traditional workplace employment and retirement: a conceptual review
2016 (English)In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 373-383Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Because of population aging, the consensus among policy makers is that employment in older workers must increase. However, methods for attaining this are uncertain. Blended work, which consists of working anywhere and any-time with information and communication technology, may help achieve this goal. The article focuses on 4 top-ics related to older workers and blended work: the benefits, risks, individual- and organizational-level barriers, and organizational and government interventions and policies designed to remove these risks and barriers. Legislation to protect against age discrimination and disability associated with age is also reviewed. The objectives are to dis-cuss the literature on blended work and the older worker and highlight some consequences the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and American with Disabilities Act may have on blended work. Delaying retirement through blended work could promote older workers’ health and well-being, but risks and barriers at individual- and organi-zational-levels are not inconsequential. At the individual level, these include social isolation, and managements’ loss of control over employees at the organizational level. Potential interventions include developing blended work as an employee benefit to replace long distance travel. Federal policies include providing subsidies to state and local gov-ernments to reduce costs of upgrading broadband fiber-optic cables. Specific subgroups of workers are more likely to benefit from blended work. Older white collar professionals with good technological and computer skills and who can work independently are one subgroup that might fit a blended worker personality.

Keywords
blended work, workers, older workers, interventions, workplace employment, retirement
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20866 (URN)10.1093/workar/waw017 (DOI)000385363400001 ()2-s2.0-85035105000 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Gold, J. E., Hallman, D., Hellström, F., Björklund, M., Crenshaw, A. G., Djupsjöbacka, M., . . . Barbe, M. F. (2016). Systematic review of biochemical biomarkers for neck and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 42(2), 103-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic review of biochemical biomarkers for neck and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 103-124Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective:  This study systematically summarizes biochemical biomarker research in non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).  Two research questions guided the review:  1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? and, 2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs? 

Methods:  A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS.  Eighty-seven studies met primary inclusion criteria.  Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient quality articles.

Results:  Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls.  A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies.  Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis.  Most sufficient quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs).

In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied.  Evidence suggested that: a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs.  Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

Conclusion: While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

Keywords
collagen degradation and repair, inflammation, lipids, muscle injury, muscle metabolites, pain, serotonin, tendon injury, triglycerides
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19271 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3533 (DOI)000371449500002 ()26599377 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959483922 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761
Available from: 2015-05-02 Created: 2015-05-02 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Gold, J. E., Lewis, C., Mathiassen, S. E. & Elcadi, G. H. (2016). Trapezius oxygenation and hemodynamics during work : a field study using EMG and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). In: : . Paper presented at Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trapezius oxygenation and hemodynamics during work : a field study using EMG and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background. Relative blood volume (RBV) and muscle oxygenation (TSI) can be measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), but no studies have used NIRS with workers performing their job in the field. The study aims were (1) to assess day-to-day within-subjects dispersion in NIRS measurements during work, and (2) to determine whether trapezius RBV and TSI differed between office and industrial workers. Electromyography (EMG) measured trapezius muscle activity.

Methods. Portable NIRS and EMG instruments were adhered to the trapezius of healthy female industrial (n = 8) and office (n = 10) workers for approximately four hours on two separate days. Mean and standard deviation (SD) RBV, TSI and 50th percentile EMG were calculated for both days separately. Participants were videotaped to demarcate work and rest periods, and to qualitatively assess ergonomic exposures. Two-way mixed effects models were constructed to examine outcomes, with occupation (office/industrial) and work/rest as fixed effects and subject as a random effect.

Results. Industrial workers appeared to have more variable arm postures and handled heavier loads than office workers. The between-days variability of RBV and TSI indicated that NIRS performed well in an occupational setting. Median trapezius EMG showed an effect of occupation (p < 0.0001), and an interaction between occupation and work/rest (p < 0.0001). As expected, industrial workers had higher median EMG overall and during work, but office workers had a higher EMG during rest. Similar results for EMG SD were found. Mean RBV and RBV SD were greater in industrial workers. No effects on mean TSI were found. However, TSI SD was higher in industrial workers, while TSI SD was greater in office workers during rest.

Discussion. NIRS had a satisfying reliability and showed face validity with respect to expected responses to occupational work. NIRS shows promise as a method for measuring hemodynamics in the field.

Keywords
near infrared spectroscopy, trapezius muscle, trapezius muscle activity, occupational work
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21914 (URN)
Conference
Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Gold, J., Rauscher, K. & Zhu, M. (2015). A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults. BMC Research Notes, 8, Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults
2015 (English)In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting.

Methods

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol.

Results

There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21–31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman’s rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91–99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81–94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86–97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items.

Conclusions

While young adults correctly reported their cell phone’s characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly estimated the number of daily text messages they sent. This suggests that while self-reported texting frequency may be useful for studies where relative ordering is adequate, it should not be used in epidemiologic studies to identify a risk threshold. For these studies, it is recommended that a less biased measure, such as a cell phone bill, be utilized.

Keywords
Young adults, College students, Cell phones, Text messaging, Validity of self-reports, Short message service (SMS)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15087 (URN)10.1186/s13104-015-1090-3 (DOI)25890089 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84927709388 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Kietrys, D., Gerg, M., Dropkin, J. & Gold, J. (2015). Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting. Applied Ergonomics, 50, 98-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting
2015 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 50, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study aim was to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity muscle activity and neck and wrist posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb and wrist extensor muscle force than when texting with a touch screen; using a touch screen required greater wrist extension. Texting on either device produced greater finger flexor and wrist extensor muscle force and greater radial deviation when 1 hand/thumb was used, compared to both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and there was a trend for greater muscle force in finger flexors, wrist extensors, and trapezius, and greater wrist extension, ulnar deviation, and cervical spine flexion. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords
Ergonomic exposure, SMS (short message service), Text messaging
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15088 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2015.03.003 (DOI)000355775200012 ()25959323 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84928923117 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Gold, J., Mohamed, F., Ali, S. & Barbe, M. (2014). Serum and MRI biomarkers in mobile device texting: a pilot study. Human Factors, 56(5), 864-872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum and MRI biomarkers in mobile device texting: a pilot study
2014 (English)In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 864-872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: We aimed to determine if serum biochemical and MRI biomarkers differed between high volume (≥ 230 texts sent/day; n = 5) and low volume (≤ 25 texts sent/day; n = 5) texters.  A secondary aim was to ascertain what correlations between the biochemical and imaging biomarkers could tell us about the pathophysiology of early onset tendinopathies.

Background: Text messaging has become widespread, particularly among college-aged young adults.  There is concern that high rates of texting may result in musculoskeletal disorders, including tendinopathies.  Pathophysiology of tendinopathies is largely unknown.

Method: Ten females with a mean age of 20 were recruited. We examined serum for 20 biomarkers of inflammation, tissue degeneration and repair. We used conventional MRI and MRI mean intratendinous signal intensity (MISI) to assess thumb tendons.  Correlations between MISI and serum biomarkers were also examined.

Results: Three high volume texters had MRI tendinopathy findings as did one low volume texter.  Increased serum TNF-R1 was found in high volume texters compared to low volume texters, as were non-significant increases in MISI in two thumb tendons.  Serum TNF-R1 and TNF-α correlated with MISI in these tendons, as did IL1-R1. 

Conclusion: These results suggest that early onset tendinopathy with concurrent inflammation may be occurring in prolific texters. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for confirmation.

Keywords
musculoskeletal disorder, tendinitis, tendon, tendinopathy, SMS, inflammation, cytokines, intratendinous signal intensity
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15086 (URN)10.1177/0018720813507953 (DOI)000340724100006 ()2-s2.0-84905168281 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1062-0134

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