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Johansson, E., Mathiassen, S. E., Lund Rasmussen, C., Lyskov, E. & Hallman, D. (2019). Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM), 26-28 June 2019, Maastricht, The Netherlands. , Article ID 1-45.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: To determine the extent to which male and female office workers differ in their time-use composition of sitting behaviors (SB) and physical activity (PA) during work and leisure.

Methods: SB and PA was measured using thigh-worn accelerometers for up to 8 full days in 77 male and 104 female office workers. Daily time-use compositions during work and leisure were described in four exhaustive categories, i.e. sitting in short (<30  min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and active behaviors. Following a compositional data analysis procedure, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated to express time in sitting relative to non-sitting, short relative to long sitting bouts, and standing relative to active behaviors. Differences between sexes (men and women) and domains (work and leisure) were examined on the basis of these ilrs using ANOVA.

Results: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, long bouts, standing, and active was, on average, 34%, 36%, 22% and 8% among men and 31%, 37%, 24% and 8% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34%, 25%, 28% and 13% among men and 29%, 28%, 31% and 12% among women. Time spent sitting relative to non-sitting differed significantly between work and leisure (ilr sitting-vs-non-sitting, partial eta squared=0.09, p<0.01). During leisure, men used proportionally more time than women in short sitting bouts (ilr short-vs-long, partial eta squared=0.06, p<0.01) and spent more time in active behaviors relative to standing (ilr standing-vs-active, partial eta squared=0.04, p<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed during work (p>0.05).

Conclusions:  The leisure behavior observed among men is probably more beneficial for health than that observed for women. However, both men and women spent a major proportion of their time sitting, both at and outside their office work, and they were, in general, only little active. Thus, both men and women could benefit from interventions to reduce SB and increase PA both at work and during leisure.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30450 (URN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM), 26-28 June 2019, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Note

ICAMPAM 2019 Poster abstracts: https://ismpb.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ICAMPAM2019PosterAbstracts.pdf

Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-09-23
Johansson, E., Mathiassen, S. E., Lund Rasmussen, C., Lyskov, E. & Hallman, D. (2019). Sedentary and physical activity behaviours during work and leisure among male and female office workers of different age: A compositional analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sedentary and physical activity behaviours during work and leisure among male and female office workers of different age: A compositional analysis
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30708 (URN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761
Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Mixter, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Lindfors, P., Dimberg, K., Jahncke, H., Lyskov, E. & Hallman, D. (2019). Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties. Applied Ergonomics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties
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2019 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

Keywords
recovery, stress, mental task
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30459 (URN)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120223
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-26Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Hygge, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Hallman, D., Mixter, S. & Lyskov, E. (2017). Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations. Ergonomics, 60(9), 1218-1227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations
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2017 (English)In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 1218-1227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa. In univariate regression models, the desired change in task alternations was significantly associated with Gender, Age, Occupation, Years with current work tasks, and Perceived job control, while Occupation was the only significant determinant in a multiple regression model including all factors. Our results suggest that alternations between productive physical and mental tasks could be a viable option in future job rotation.

Keywords
cognitive task, job rotation, pause, physical variation, repetitive work
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22560 (URN)10.1080/00140139.2017.1282630 (DOI)000405845900004 ()28112588 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85011278003 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120223
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Jahncke, H., Hygge, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Hallman, D., Mixter, S. & Lyskov, E. (2016). A cross-sectional study of alternations between physical and mental tasks. In: : . Paper presented at Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cross-sectional study of alternations between physical and mental tasks
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background. Health and well-being at work is generally assumed to be associated with sufficient physical and mental variation. Job rotation, where workers typically alternate between different physical tasks, is a popular initiative. Controlled experiments suggest that favourable effects are associated with alternations between mental and physical tasks, but little is known about this intervention in real work. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the occurrence of alternations between mental and physical tasks, and (2) to identify key determinants of such alternations.

Method. We developed a questionnaire combining established questions with specific questions about alternations. Workers from two occupations (industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work), in jobs containing both physical and mental tasks, were included in the study. 122 (55 females) out of 293 workers approached at four companies answered the questionnaire.

Results. On average, the workers alternated 3.5 times per day between mental and physical tasks. In the non-industrial companies, workers reported wanting more alternations than they had, while desired and actual alternations did not differ in the industrial companies. This effect of occupation on the difference between the number of alternations wanted and the actual alternations available was significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task, and vice versa. This main effect of primarily performed task type (i.e. either physical or mental) on preferred subsequent task type was significant (p < 0.001). In a univariate analysis, gender appeared to be a strong determinant of the occurrence of alternations, but the effect was absorbed when adding the occupation variable.

Discussion. Within the studied companies, work offered alternations between mental and physical tasks and there was a preference among workers to alternate between tasks. Occupation rather than gender was a key determinant of the number of alternations reported.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21905 (URN)
Conference
Ninth International Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PREMUS), June 20-23, 2016, Toronto, Canada
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Srinivasan, D., Mathiassen, S. E., Hallman, D. M., Samani, A., Madeleine, P. & Lyskov, E. (2016). Effects of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on muscle activity and heart rate variability in a repetitive upper-extremity precision task. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(1), 227-239
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on muscle activity and heart rate variability in a repetitive upper-extremity precision task
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Most previous studies of concurrent physical and cognitive demands have addressed tasks of limited relevance to occupational work, and with dissociated physical and cognitive task components. This study investigated effects on muscle activity and heart rate variability of executing a repetitive occupational task with an added cognitive demand integral to correct task performance.

Methods Thirty-five healthy females performed 7.5 min of standardized repetitive pipetting work in a baseline condition and a concurrent cognitive condition involving a complex instruction for correct performance. Average levels and variabilities of electromyographic activities in the upper trapezius and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles were compared between these two conditions. Heart rate and heart rate variability were also assessed to measure autonomic nervous system activation. Subjects also rated perceived fatigue in the neck–shoulder region, as well as exertion.

Results Concurrent cognitive demands increased trapezius muscle activity from 8.2 % of maximum voluntary exertion (MVE) in baseline to 9.0 % MVE (p = 0.0005), but did not significantly affect ECR muscle activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, perceived fatigue or exertion.

Conclusion Trapezius muscle activity increased by about 10 %, without any accompanying cardiovascular response to indicate increased sympathetic activation. We suggest this slight increase in trapezius muscle activity to be due to changed muscle activation patterns within or among shoulder muscles. The results suggest that it may be possible to introduce modest cognitive demands necessary for correct performance in repetitive precision work without any major physiological effects, at least in the short term.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Mental demands, cycle to cycle variability, entropy, pipetting, autonomic nervous system
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19400 (URN)10.1007/s00421-015-3268-8 (DOI)000367610200022 ()26403235 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84952984643 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Motorvar
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0075
Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Lyskov, E., Hallman, D. & Mathiassen, S. E. (2015). Directly measured physical activity and heart rate variability among workers with and without musculoskeletal disorders. In: University of Limerick (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM), Limerick, Ireland, June 10-12, 2015 (pp. 74).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directly measured physical activity and heart rate variability among workers with and without musculoskeletal disorders
2015 (English)In: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, p. 74-Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background

Aberration in autonomous nervous system regulation may play an important role in the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Recent studies indicated that sympathetic activity was increased relative to vagal effects in subjects with MSD, as measured through heart rate variability (HRV). However, the cause of this physiological change is difficult to determine, since several factors influence HRV, almost importantly the pattern of daily physical activity (PA).The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in PA between workers with and without MSD, and assess associations between HRV and PA. Methods: Twenty-six workers with MSD (41 years, 13 females) and twenty-four matched symptom-free controls from an industry in mid-Sweden participated in the study. ECG was monitored by the First Beat system whereas PA was recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer ActivPAL attached to thigh. GPS data were collected to identify the spatial location of the participants

Results

The groups showed similar distributions of total time spent at work, at home and "elsewhere". The lowest PA levels were found at work for both groups. Leisure time PA "elsewhere" was significantly lower among subjects with MSD than among controls. Time domain HRV variables were clearly correlated with PA levels and showed trend differences (0.05<p<0.1) between the MSD and the control group during sedentary and physically active periods.

Conclusions

Workers with MSD showed a different pattern of leisure time PA compared with symptom-free workers. These PA differences may have contributed in explaining the difference in autonomic activity, as measured through HRV, observed between the two groups, and even in previous studies of similar groups.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19688 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM), Limerick, Ireland, June 10-12, 2015
Projects
STIMUL
Available from: 2015-06-16 Created: 2015-06-16 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hallman, D. M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Lyskov, E. (2015). Long-term monitoring of physical behavior reveals different cardiac responses to physical activity among subjects with and without chronic neck pain. BioMed Research International, 2015, Article ID 907482.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term monitoring of physical behavior reveals different cardiac responses to physical activity among subjects with and without chronic neck pain
2015 (English)In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, article id 907482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

Method Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor) and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work, and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated, and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV.

Results The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low and high frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups.

Conclusions Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

Keywords
Autonomic regulation; baroreceptor; sympathetic nervous system; chronic pain; accelerometer
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19139 (URN)10.1155/2015/907482 (DOI)000364086900001 ()26557711 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84947087511 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STIMUL
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Mathiassen, S. E., Hallman, D., Lyskov, E. & Hygge, S. (2014). Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment. PLoS ONE, 9(11), Article ID e112090.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e112090Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggests that fatigue caused by physical work maybe more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the complexity of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3minutes of a memory test differing in complexity between sessions. Throughout the session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography,arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As intended, perceived fatigue, HRV, and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task complexity, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can,indeed, accelerate recovery of central components of fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate. Our results encourage further research into combinations of physical and mental tasks in an occupational context.

Keywords
physical work, mental tasks, variation, intermittent work, rest breaks, electromyography, heart rate variability, pressure pain threshold, perceived fatigue
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17180 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0112090 (DOI)000344402600102 ()25375644 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84910643695 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-06-28 Created: 2014-06-28 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hallman, D., Hed Ekman, A. & Lyskov, E. (2014). Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 87(7), 735-744
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time
2014 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder with unclear mechanisms. Changes in physical activity and autonomic nervous system regulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic NSP. The aim of the current study was to investigate autonomic regulation in relation to physical activity and perceived symptoms during work and leisure time among workers with chronic NSP (n = 29) as compared to a healthy control group (CON, n = 27).

METHODS: Physical activity was objectively monitored for 7 days using accelerometry. Beat-to-beat heart rate was collected continuously for 72 h, with simultaneous momentary ratings of pain, stress, and fatigue. Duration of sitting/lying, standing and walking, number of steps, and energy expenditure were used as measures of physical activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices were extracted in time and frequency domains as reflecting autonomic regulation. Data were divided into work hours, leisure time, and sleep.

RESULTS: The NSP group rated higher levels of stress and fatigue at work and leisure, and reduced sleep quality as compared to CON. Elevated heart rate and reduced HRV were found in NSP compared with CON, especially during sleep. The NSP group demonstrated a different pattern of physical activity than CON, with a lower activity level in leisure time. Higher physical activity was associated with increased HRV in both groups.

CONCLUSION: Changes in HRV reflected an autonomic imbalance in workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. This can be explained by reduced physical activity in leisure time. Intervention studies aimed at increasing physical activity may shed further light on the association between autonomic regulation and physical activity in work-related NSP.

Keywords
Heart rate variability, Trapezius myalgia, Sympathetic, Perceived stress, Daily physical activity
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-13414 (URN)10.1007/s00420-013-0917-2 (DOI)000342203400006 ()24162088 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84925507629 (Scopus ID)
Projects
7130
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4094-3391

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