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Holmberg, J. (2019). Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In an increasingly digitized world teachers are expected to take on the role of educational designers and use ICT to design in ways that add pedagogical value to teaching and learning. This thesis adopts a design-based research (DBR) approach to: (a) explore and contribute to the educational design processes of teachers of English as a foreign language in their efforts to use ICT for added pedagogical value, (b) examine how ICT is used in educational designs to create/contribute to what the teachers and students describe as added value and (c) explore, problematize and refine DBR as a research approach.

Literature studies and a collaborative self-study preceded the DBR to guide its focus and implementation. The DBR was carried out over a period of two years in four upper secondary schools in Sweden in which every student had access to their own computer. The research data consists of: (a) audio recorded design conversations, (b) enacted educational designs and design elements as parts of these, (c) reflective log entries written by the participating teachers, (d) focus group interviews with students and (e) the researcher’s field notes.

Six different theoretical frameworks and models are used in combination in the accompanying articles to analyze the data and achieve the three research aims. The findings show how teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development are interconnected and reciprocal aspects of the educational design process and how the externalization of, and reflection on, these aspects is necessary to develop the specific and practical TPACK needed to realize design intentions in situated contexts. A number of challenges and opportunities in the educational process have been identified.

Moreover, the findings show how ICT was used to contribute added value in educational designs by facilitating: (a) more authentic and seamless learning experiences in external online contexts with both in-class and out-of-class actors irrespective of time and place, (b) an exchange of digital knowledge representations of understanding and practice between different actors, e.g. for the purposes of modelling, supporting cognitive apprenticeship, meta-cognitive self-regulation and formative assessment and (c) new and extended forms of, and opportunities for, collaborative creation and meaning-making.

The current common focus in DBR on the development of prescriptive design principles is problematized in relation to the findings of the thesis, which illustrate the complex and situated nature of the educational design process. A theoretically and empirically informed design framework (DF) is developed and used as a conceptual tool to guide and analyze educational design processes and enactments. The findings illustrate how the use of the DF and the process of collaborative design reflection contributed to the analysis of the teachers’ design intentions and de facto design practices and to a DBR format that allowed the participants to use their respective competencies in the development of educational designs for added value. The thesis thereby serves as an example of how DBR can be methodically implemented to study and generate increased knowledge about teachers’ design intentions and design practices, develop research-based educational designs in line with teachers’ pedagogical intentions and support their development as educational designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 127
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Science, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 19-001
Keywords
added pedagogical value, design-based research, design framework, educational design, educational design research, EFL, ICT, teacher practice, TPACK
National Category
Didactics Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Information Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29113 (URN)978-91-7797-534-2 (ISBN)978-91-7797-535-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-25, L 70, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Fransson, G., Holmberg, J., Lindberg, J. O. & Olofsson, A. D. (2019). Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts. Oxford Review of Education, 45(1), 102-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts
2019 (English)In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the prac- tice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capi- talise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Agency; capitalisation; digital technologies; enactment; self- understanding; teacher
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27781 (URN)10.1080/03054985.2018.1500357 (DOI)000454618100006 ()2-s2.0-85052304072 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1762
Available from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-23 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Fransson, G. & Fors, U. (2018). Teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and reframing of practice in digital contexts. The international journal of information and learning technology, 35(2), 130-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and reframing of practice in digital contexts
2018 (English)In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of teachers’ reframing of practice in digital contexts by analysing teachers’ pedagogical reasoning processes as they explore ways of using ICT to create added pedagogical value.

Design/methodology/approach

A design based-research (DBR) approach is employed, in which the on-site researcher collaborates with eight teachers of English as a foreign language in four Swedish schools over a period of two years. Multiple data sources are included for thematic coding and analysis. The TPACK framework is used as a conceptual construct in the analysis.

Findings

The findings show that teachers’ pedagogical reasoning is a complex and multidimensional process and is closely integrated with teachers’ reframing of practice. Common characteristics in the teachers’ reframing of practice are identified. The results highlight the reciprocal relationship between developments in teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development and the need for a distinction between general and specific, theoretical and practical TPACK.

Research limitations/implications

An increased focus on TPACK research on teachers’ pedagogical reasoning is required. DBR is a relevant approach for this.

Practical implications

The pedagogical uses of ICT identified as adding value could benefit teachers in other contexts.

Originality/value

Rich data from multiple design contexts is collected and analysed over time through DBR. The paper contributes new knowledge about the process of pedagogical reasoning and its relation to teachers’ reframing of practice. The paper also contributes to TPACK theory development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
added pedagogical value, design-based research, ICT, pedagogical reasoning, reframing, teaching, TPACK
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25605 (URN)10.1108/IJILT-09-2017-0084 (DOI)000423358000005 ()2-s2.0-85040962120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J. (2017). Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers'€™ use of educational technology. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, 22(5), 2333-2349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers'€™ use of educational technology
2017 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 2333-2349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theoretical outcomes of design-based research (DBR) are often presented in the form of local theory design principles. This article suggests a complementary theoretical construction in DBR, in the form of a design framework at a higher abstract level, to study and inform educational design with ICT in different situated contexts. Laurillard’s Conversational Framework (CF) is used as a conceptual lens to analyse how eight teachers use or envisage using technology to support learning in one-to-one environments. The findings demonstrate how the researcher uses the CF to discern different aspects of the teachers’ situated design practices. In the study, ICT is primarily used to support communication and the exchange of knowledge representations between the teachers and their students. Considerably fewer examples are found where ICT is used to support communication, collaborative creation and modelling between peers. However, the interview analyses reveal that the teachers’ intentions to apply ICT to support learning often include this second type of ICT use. Reasons for this discrepancy between the expressed intentions and de facto use of ICT include limitations in technical know-how and a perceived conflict between collaborative learning, existing school cultures and individual assessment. The findings suggest that in DBR, an analytical design framework could be an important tool for researchers and teachers when analysing and discussing educational uses of ICT. The CF provides a promising basis for a design framework, but should be expanded to include interactions with actors outside the classroom.

Keywords
Conversational framework; Design framework; Design-based research; Educational design; EFL; Teacher
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22989 (URN)10.1007/s10639-016-9536-3 (DOI)000410414300019 ()2-s2.0-84991573930 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Masoumi, D., Elm, A., Fransson, G., Westelius, C., Björkman, A., . . . Toratti-Lindgren, M. (2017). Teachers’ and students’ understanding and use of ICT for teaching and learning – Combining different perspectives and methodologies in research on technology-enhanced learning. In: : . Paper presented at European Distance and E-Learning Network Conference (EDEN), 13-16 June 2017, Jönköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ and students’ understanding and use of ICT for teaching and learning – Combining different perspectives and methodologies in research on technology-enhanced learning
Show others...
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

More than half of the 14,000 students currently studying at the University of Gävle (HiG) are enrolled in courses that are totally or partly online based.  In 2015, a university-wide project on technology enhanced learning (TEL) (Steffens et al 2015) was initiated. The project focuses on course and programme development and is divided into four sub-projects, all of which contribute to the overall goals of project.

AIMS of the project

The aims of the project are to: (a) restructure teaching facilities and integrate digital technologies, (b) develop technology supported teaching methods, (c) integrate campus and distance education, (d) enhance teachers' and students' digital skills and (f) increase collaboration with relevant external actors.

These aims are achieved through the work of four project groups.

The digital environment group's (1) main focus is on digital tools for learning and the physical arrangement of learning spaces. The collaboration group's (2) main focus is on the maintenance and development of collaborative relationships and connections with communities in higher education for e-learning. The education and professional development group (3) focuses on issues such as professional development, learning design and the implementation of ICT in different courses and subjects. The research group (4) focuses on different issues connected to TEL.

One of the main principles of the project is that the above areas are interlinked and interdependent and that the different experiences and skills of each group and its members contribute to a broader perspective of TEL.

This poster focuses on the research conducted by the project's research group. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the research focuses on issues and aspects of teaching and learning in higher education that contribute to multifaceted knowledge. The overall aim of the research is to generate knowledge about how conditions for teaching and learning change when the use of technology increases. The four research studies that are initiated are described below.

Study 1: Lecturers’ and students’ agency in encounters with digital media in higher education

This research study focus on issues related to lecturers’ digital teaching practices and students’ digital technological use in their everyday lives and for learning purposes.

Digital practices are defined as the different contexts in which lecturers teach and students participate in digital media (such as learning management systems, forums, communities etc.). Previous research shows that students’ own digital practices are not always made use of in higher education (Buzzard et al., 2011; Kelm, 2011).

A controversial issue in the Swedish higher education context is the discourse on students as customers. The perception of students as customers and “buyers” of ready-packaged content from lecturers is problematic. This view of what higher education stands for clashes with traditional academic views emphasizing critical thinking, reflection, self-directed learning, collaborative and individual learning etc.

In this study, the concept of agency is important in that it reflects “the capacity of actors to critically shape their own responsiveness to problematic situations” (Emirbayer & Mische, 1998, p. 971). In the different perceptions of students’ and lecturers’ tasks and roles in teaching and learning, especially in TEL, all the actors have to display agency in order to manoeuvre in the educational and digital contexts. Notably, agency is not something that people have, but is something that people achieve (Biesta & Tedder, 2006).

Aim

The aim of the research project is to study: (a) students’ use of digital technology in their everyday practices and in relation to teaching situations and (b) how lecturers’ agency is played out in teaching and learning when trying to facilitate TEL.

Methodology

In spring 2017 an online survey involving up to 200 students will be conducted in order to generate knowledge about (a) students’ everyday experiences of digital practices and how these are utilized in higher education and (b) how higher education challenges and develops students’ digital skills and knowledge. In the same period, interviews with lecturers at the university will be conducted in order to generate knowledge about lecturers’ (c) everyday teaching practices with digital technologies and (d) the perceived challenges and development of teaching in relation to their use.

Study 2: Teachers’ understanding and enactment of practice in online and blended educational contexts

The knowledge that teachers need to develop is referred to as a ‘didaktik’ knowledge in the German/European tradition (cf. Kansanen 2009) and as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the Anglo-Saxon literature (Shulman 1986; 1987). However, in what Castells (2011) describes as a network society, teachers are faced with new challenges and opportunities. Koehler et al (2014) argue that teachers’ development and integration of a new knowledge domain is not simply a matter of adding this “technology knowledge” to existing knowledge, but involves a reframing and reconceptualization of their existing professional practices and knowledge. They refer to this amalgam knowledge as technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK framework has been widely accepted as a useful theoretical construct. However, there is a need for research on the development and manifestation of TPACK in different disciplinary contexts (Koehler et al 2014).

Aim

The aim of this sub-project is to study: a) how teachers reframe and reconceptualize their practices and the kind of knowledge that is needed in online contexts b) how teachers practices are manifested when ICT is used to create (intended) added pedagogical values in educational designs c) the characteristics of educational designs regarded as adding pedagogical value

Methodology

Three higher education teachers of different courses and subjects in three different departments participate in the study. A design-based research approach is applied, where one of the participating researchers engages in so-called design conversations with the teachers. As is characteristic of DBR, this researcher does not only observe and interview, but also acts as a “co-designer” on the understanding that the teachers are the context experts and the final decision makers (McKenney & Reeves 2012; Plomp & Nieveen 2013).

The data consists of recorded design conversations, educational designs and the artefacts used in the educational designs, the researcher’s/co-designer’s field notes and recorded “field-note conversations” between the researcher/co-designer and the other researcher.

Expected outcomes

The study is expected to contribute knowledge about how teachers’ knowledge and practices are understood and manifested in online and mixed higher educational contexts.

Study 3: Researching and developing student nurses’ drug calculation skills in an explorative design comprising digital technologies

This study is partly experimental in nature. It focuses on the challenges involved in student nurses’ development of accurate drug calculation skills. Challenges like this are not specific to nurse education at the University of Gävle, but appear to be universal (cf. Wright, 2009). However, it has also been claimed that written drug calculation tests do not accurately evaluate the skills involved in drug calculation, in that they are decontextualized from healthcare settings (Wright, 2005; 2012). It has also been claimed that this problem is more imaginary than factual, given that in practice nurses have been shown to handle drug calculation well (Wright, 2009).

Aim

The aims of this sub-project are to: (a) deepen the understanding of the challenges and mistakes that student nurses make in drug calculation exams, why they occur and how they might be prevented, (b) explore how the teaching and examination of drug calculation can be made more effective and contextualized and whether digital technologies can help in this.

Methodology

A multiple design method is employed using empirical data from written examinations, analyses of the set tasks and interviews with student nurses.

Expected outcomes

It is expected that the study will contribute knowledge about why (some) student nurses find it difficult to pass exams and that sufficient knowledge will be developed to facilitate the exploration of an experimental design for teaching and learning that includes digital technologies.

Study 4: Situating ICT in teacher education programmes at the University of Gävle

Integrating ICT as an integral part of teacher education programmes has been addressed as the most significant factor in determining the future level of ICT use in teaching and learning practices (Davis, 2010). According to the Swedish Higher Education Act, ICT should be embedded across entire educational practices in teacher education programmes (Government Bill, 2009/10:89). Numerous teacher educationprogrammes have made extensive efforts to prepare and empower teacher education students’ ICT competences so that ICT-based technologies are seamlessly woven into the teaching and learning process. Most schools try to enhance teachers’ digital competences by in-service education and expect newly qualified teachers to be adequately trained to use digital technologies in their educational practices. However, in reality it would seem that many newly qualified teachers do not have the necessary skills for this (see Chigona, 2015; Koehler, Mishra, Akcaoglu, & Rosenberg, 2013). 

Aims

This study focuses on understanding why a large number of the newly qualified teachers in teacher education institution remain underprepared to use digital technologies in their educational practices, despite an increased investment in the provision of digital technologies in these institutions.

 Methodology

In order to explore how digital technologies are integrated into teacher education in higher education institutions, a sequential explanatory multiple sources design consisting of two distinct phases will be implemented (Creswell, 2012). In this design, a number of course syllabi in a programme will be analyzed. Interviews with key actors, including students, teacher educators and gatekeepers, will be conducted in order to contextualize and deepen the analysis of the syllabi.

Expected outcomes

The study is expected to deepen the understanding of how student teachers are pedagogically trained in ICT in teacher education institutions.

Concluding remarks

The four research studies in the project investigate how students and teachers understand and use educational ICT. This is done by using different methodologies and from different perspectives. It is expected that the research studies will contribute to the broader and more inclusive project perspective by their specific aims and generate knowledge that will contribute to the multifaceted field of TEL.

References

  1. Biesta, G. & Tedder, M. (2006). How is agency possible? Towards an ecological understanding of agency-as-achievement. Working paper 5, Learning Lives: Learning, Identity and Agency in the Life Course, University of Exeter, England.
  2. Buzzard, C., Crittenden, V.L., Crittenden, W.F. & McCarty, P. (2011). The Use of Digital Technologies in the Classroom: A Teaching and Learning Perspective. Journal of Marketing Education. 33 (2), 131-139.
  3. Buzzard, C., Crittenden, V.L., Crittenden, W.F. & McCarty, P. (2011). The Use of Digital Technologies in the Classroom: A Teaching and Learning Perspective. Journal of Marketing Education. 33 (2), 131-139.
  4. Castells, M. (2011) The Rise of the Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, 2nd edn (Vol. 1). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons. 
  5. Chigona, A. (2015). Pedagogical shift in the twenty-first century: Preparing teachers to teach with new technologies. Africa Education Review, 12(3), 478-492. doi:10.1080/18146627.2015.1110912
  6. Davis, N. (2010). Technology in Preservice Teacher Education. In P. Editors-in-Chief:  Penelope, B. Eva, E. B. Barry McGawA2 - Editors-in-Chief:  Penelope Peterson, & M. Barry (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition) (pp. 217-221). Oxford: Elsevier.
  7. Emirbayer, M., & Mische, A. (1998). What is agency? American Journal of Sociology, 103(4), 962-1023.
  8. Kansanen, P. (2009). The curious affair of pedagogical content knowledge. Orbis Scholae, 3(2), 5-18.
  9. Kelm, R. (2011). Social Media. It’s what students do. Business Communication Quarterly. 74, (4), 505-520.
  10. Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Akcaoglu, M., & Rosenberg, J. (2013). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework for teachers and teacher educators. In R. Thyagarajan (Ed.), ICT integrated teacher education: A resource book. New Delhi, India: CEMCA.
  11. Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M.J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 101-111). Springer New York.
  12. McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2012). Conducting educational design research. London: Routledge.  
  13. Plomp, T. & Nieveen, N. (Eds.). (2013) Educational Design Research: Introduction and Illustrative Cases.  Enschede, Netherlands; SLO Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.
  14. Regeringens proposition, (2009/10:89) Regeringens proposition 2009/10:89 om lärarutbildning m.m. [Government Bill, 2009/10:89 regarding teacher education etc.]  (Stockholm, Gotab) (in Swedish).
  15. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4–14.
  16. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1–22.  
  17. Steffens, K., Bannan, B., Dalgarno, B., Bartolomé, A. R., Esteve-González, V., & Cela-Ranilla, J. M. (2015). Recent Developments in Technology- Enhanced Learning: A Critical Assessment. RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 12(2). pp. 73-86.
  18. Wright, K. (2005). An exploration into the most effective way to teach drug calculation skills to nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 25, 430–436. 
  19. Wright, K. (2009). The assessment and development of drug calculation skills in nurse education – A critical debate. Nurse Education Today, 29, 544–548. Doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2008.08.019 
  20. Wright, K. (2012). Editorial. Drug calculation skills – Are we running scared? Nurse Education Today, *. Doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2011.06.001 
National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25694 (URN)
Conference
European Distance and E-Learning Network Conference (EDEN), 13-16 June 2017, Jönköping, Sweden
Projects
Nätbaserat lärande
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Fransson, G. & Fors, U. (2017). Teachers’ reframing of practice during a design-based research project. In: Morris, L. & Tsolakidis, C. (Ed.), The International Conferenceon Information Communication Technologies in Education (ICICTE 2017) Proceedings: . Paper presented at International Conference on Information, Communication Technologies in Education, 6-8 July 2017, Rhodes, Greece (pp. 378-388).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ reframing of practice during a design-based research project
2017 (English)In: The International Conferenceon Information Communication Technologies in Education (ICICTE 2017) Proceedings / [ed] Morris, L. & Tsolakidis, C., 2017, p. 378-388Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study explores how eight teachers in one-to-one environments frame, reframe and develop different aspects of their practice during a two-year long study. The data consists of 23 hours of transcribed open-ended interviews, 35 reflective log entries written by the teachers, their educational designs and the researchers’ field notes. The results show: (a) how different dimensions of the teachers’ pedagogical reasoning are formulated, manifested and developed during the time of the study and (b) how different aspects of their technological, pedagogical and content knowledge are included in and developed through their pedagogical reasoning.

Keywords
ICT, Curriculum Studies, Design-Based Research, reframing, teachers pedagogical reasoning, TPACK
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24708 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Information, Communication Technologies in Education, 6-8 July 2017, Rhodes, Greece
Available from: 2017-07-11 Created: 2017-07-11 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J. (2016). Field-testing a conceptual design framework to study teachers’ intentions with and use of educational technology. In: : . Paper presented at The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 8-12 April, 2016, Washington, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field-testing a conceptual design framework to study teachers’ intentions with and use of educational technology
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, design framework is suggested as a conceptual construct in DBR to analyze and inform teachers’ design thinking and practical interventions in different educational contexts. In the study, Laurillard’s Conversational Framework is proposed as a potential basis for such a design framework and used as a conceptual lens with which to analyze how teachers use or envision using technology to support learning in one-to-one environments. The findings are presented in relation to a) the use of the Conversational Framework as a conceptual research tool and a potential design framework and b) the participating teachers’ visions for and practical use of technology to support students’ learning.

Keywords
ICT, design-based research, teacher, design framework, educational design, EFL
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21484 (URN)
Conference
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting, 8-12 April, 2016, Washington, USA
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J. (2014). Exploring theoretical development of Design Based Research: viewing design as reflective conversations with situations. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2014, The Past, the Present and the Future of Educational Research, 2-5 september 2014, Porto, Portugal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring theoretical development of Design Based Research: viewing design as reflective conversations with situations
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In a world of rapid technological change, where learners are becoming increasingly accustomed to new ways of finding information and communicating with each other, teachers are having to face up to the challenges and opportunities involved in learning how to successfully use technology in their teaching practices. The ongoing digitization of society also has epistemological consequences. Nowadays learning is often viewed as constructive, self-regulated, situated and collaborative (de Corte 2010) – and teaching is increasingly referred to as designing for learning(cf. Laurillard 2012; Olofsson & Lindberg Eds., 2012). Considerable investments are made around the world to introduce technology into schools, with the expectation that teachers will put it to good use (cf. Lim et al 2013). However, in order to do this, teachers need to learn how to master and integrate a new knowledge domain, i.e. technological knowledge, into their existing practices, and understand the reciprocal interaction between technology, pedagogy and content knowledge (cf. Mishra & Koehler 2008). Teachers are thus having to face a number of challenges in an already complex profession, where a multitude of factors have to be constantly taken into consideration and situated problem-solving strategies designed . Studying and elaborating how technology can be integrated into practice to help teachers successfully design for learning thus becomes a priority for teachers and it has been argued that it would be of high priority for educational researchers as well (cf. Laurillard 2012; Schleicher 2011). However, existing research on the educational use of digital technologies has been criticized of lacking theoretical grounding, providing limited empirical evidence and using ineffective research methodologies, thus providing limited advice to practitioners and limited evidence of the effects of digital technologies in learning. (cf. Bebell et al., 2010; Orlando 2009). This correlates with the identification of a widening gap between educational research and educational practice that is not just limited to the use of digital technologies (cf. Berliner 2008; Dumont & Istance 2010). It is argued that ‘too much research on learning is disconnected from the realities of educational practice and policy making’, and that ‘too many schools do not exemplify the conclusions’ drawn by such research, thus resulting in a situation in which (scientific) theory and educational practice are less informed by each other (Dumont & Instance 2010, p. 21).

Design based research (DBR) is increasingly being considered as one way of informing research on teachers design with educational technologies and simultaneously contributing in closing the research-practice gap described above. However, the dual goals of DBR, i.e. practical design of working educational interventions and theory building on working design models and principles, makes it a potentially powerful, but also a very ambitious and complex endevour (cf. Anderson & Shattuck 2012; McKenney & Reeves 2012). Given that the researcher in DBR is both designer, implementer and evaluator there is an obvious risks for a conflict of interest, biased perspectives, and that taken for granted assumptions don’t become critically scrutinized. Considering the complexity of assessing if, how and why learning occurs, the generalizability of interventions designed in situated contexts into generic design principles as a viable goal of DBR must also be problematized. Thus, the aim of this conceptual paper is to make a contribution to the theoretical development of the DBR-concept by problematizing certain key-concepts and goals of DBR. This is primarily done by contrasting Simon’s and Schön’s views of design and discussing the potential of using Schön’s view of design as a reflective conversation with the situation as an alternative perspective in DBR research 

Method

As hinted above a methodological approach has been to problematize certain key-concepts and goals used and expressed in previous DBR-research. For example, since teaching is increasingly being referred to as designing for learning, our understanding of the word design becomes important. Two influential thinkers in the field of design are Simon and Schön (Schön 1983, 1987, 1992; Simon 1969/1996, 1973). The works of Simon and his ‘paradigm of rational problem solving’ (cf. Dorst 2006) still heavily influence the fields of design methodology and are evident in design approaches for teaching and learning today (cf. Dorst 2006; Mor & Winters 2007). However, the current critique of educational research hinted at above in many ways echoes the critique that Schön directed against what he referred to as ‘the model of Technical Rationality’ and its consequences for research on design practice some 20-30 years ago. For this paper a review of earlier research on DBR and the main foci and presented outcomes us such research has been made. Moreover, a literature review of the research of Simon and Schön has been conducted and their views of design has been contrasted to account for two different ways of thinking about the process of design and research on this process. Schön’s concept of design as a reflective conversation with the situation has then been critically examined along with its usefulness as a conceptual tool in DBR on teachers design with educational technologies.

Expected Outcomes

The paper argues that the rich affordances of digital technologies and teachers’ and students’ situated designs with such technologies in complex and changing educational contexts make viewing design as rational problem-solving problematic. Instead, it is suggested that adopting Schön’s view of design as a reflective conversation with the situation in DBR-approaches has the potential of informing both research on the use of digital educational technologies and teachers’ situated use of such technologies. The paper presents suggestions as to how Schön’s ideas for research on teachers’ situated practices could contribute to theory development in DBR. Finally, some of the possibilities and challenges of the reflective design-based research approach suggested in this paper are discussed. Arguably such an approach could have the potential of increasing knowledge about principles and methods used by teachers to guide their framing, reflection-in-action and knowing-in-action. An increased knowledge of such framing principles, or principles for reflection-in-action, could be useful in teachers’ reflective conversations in different unique situations, thus increasing the potential for generalizability in DBR research. The formulation of such principles could also form the basis of a meta-language for talking about design. The DBR format would ensure that teachers and researchers are involved in the development of such a meta-language, thus making it understandable and potentially useful for both parties. However, it should be noted that despite the suggested possibilities of reflective DBR, a research approach as the one suggested in this paper must also be regarded as extremely challenging. In addition to the inherent challenges in DBR described in the paper, the challenges of trying to study and elaborate understanding of teachers’ knowing-in-action and reflection-in-action also need to be taken into consideration. Due to their tacit and esoteric nature, this would be no easy task.

References

Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-Based Research A Decade of Progress in Education Research? Educational Researcher, 41(1), 16–25. Bebell, D., O’Dwyer, L.M., Russell, M. & Hoffman, T. (2010) Concerns, considerations and new ideas for data collection and research in educational technology studies. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 29-52 Berliner, D.C. (2008) Research policy and practice: The great disconnect. In Lapan, S.D., & Quartaroli, M.T. (Eds.) Research essentials: An introduction to designs and practices (pp.295-325). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass. de Corte, E. (2010). Historical developments in the understanding of learning. In Dumont, H., Istance, D., & Benavides, F. (Eds.) The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice (pp. 35-67). OECD Publishing Dorst, K. (2006) Design Problems and Design Paradoxes. Design Issues, 22(3), 4-17. Dumont, H., & Istance, D. (2010) Analysing and designing learning environments for the 21st century. In Dumont, H., Istance, D., & Benavides, F. (Eds.) The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice (pp. 19-34). OECD Publishing Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. London: RoutledgeFalmer Lim, C.-P., Zhao, Y., Tondeur, J., Chai, C.-S., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). Bridging the Gap: Technology Trends and Use of Technology in Schools. Educational Technology & Society, 16 (2), 59–68. McKenney, S. & Reeves, T. C. (2012) Conducting Educational Design Research. London: Routledge Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. (2008). Introducing technological pedagogical content knowledge. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. Mor, Y. & Winters, N. (2007) Design approaches in technology-enhanced learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(1), 61-75. Olofsson, A., & Lindberg, J. (Eds.) (2012). Informed Design of Educational Technologies in Higher Education: Enhanced Learning and Teaching. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global. Orlando, J. (2009). Understanding changes in teachers’ ICT practices: A longitudinal perspective. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(1), 33–44. Schön, D. (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. Schön, D. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner: Towards a new design for teaching in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schön, D. (1992) The theory of inquiry: Dewey’s legacy to education. Curriculum inquiry 22(2), 119–139. Schleicher, A. (2011) Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession: Lessons from around the World, OECD Publishing. Simon, H. A. (1969/1996). The sciences of the artificial (3rd ed). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Simon, H. A. (1973) The Structure of Ill-structured Problems. Artificial Intelligence 4, 181–201.

Keywords
Educational design, Design-based research, Schön, reflective practice, teacher practice
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20760 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2014, The Past, the Present and the Future of Educational Research, 2-5 september 2014, Porto, Portugal
Projects
ICT in learning. Research project at the University of Gavle
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J. (2014). Studying the process of educational design: revisiting Schön and making a case for reflective design-based research on teachers' 'conversations with situations'. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(3), 293-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying the process of educational design: revisiting Schön and making a case for reflective design-based research on teachers' 'conversations with situations'
2014 (English)In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This conceptual paper discusses Donald A. Schön’s views on design and how itcould inform design-based research (DBR) on teachers’ use of technology ineducation. It argues that the rich affordances of digital technologies and teachers’and students’ situated designs with such technologies in complex and changingeducational contexts make viewing design as rational problem-solving problematic.Instead, it is suggested that adopting Schön’s view of design as a reflectiveconversation with the situation in DBR approaches has the potential of informingboth research on the use of digital educational technologies and teachers’ situateduse of such technologies. The paper then presents suggestions as to howSchön’s ideas for research on teachers’ situated practices could contribute to theorydevelopment in DBR. Finally, some of the possibilities and challenges of thereflective DBR approach suggested in this paper are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2014
Keywords
design-based research; educational design research; Schön; teacher practice; TPACK
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17356 (URN)10.1080/1475939X.2014.942748 (DOI)000341128200002 ()2-s2.0-84905322000 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-15 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J. (2013). Added Value? Preschool Teacher Students’ Views On And Examples Of The Added Value Of ICT As A Tool For Learning. In: : . Paper presented at The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), 10-13 september 2013, Istanbul, Turkey..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Added Value? Preschool Teacher Students’ Views On And Examples Of The Added Value Of ICT As A Tool For Learning
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s digitalized society the potential of digital technologies and how to use these to support learning has increasingly become a focus of research. Since preschool children’s use of ICT is continuously increasing, more interest is also being paid to the question of how ICT can be used for pedagogical purposes in preschools, although research in this area is still limited (Sandvik, Smørdal & Østerud 2012). The use of ICT in preschools is itself a controversial matter. Earlier research has questioned whether young children should be subjected to ICT (Straker et al 2009; Kalas 2010). A growing number of studies, however, identify the potential of ICT as a tool for learning in preschools when the use of ICT is based on pedagogical principles and supports learning of an intended content (McCarrick & Li 2007; McKenney & Voogt 2009). In other words, if ICT is to be used to create a pedagogical added value in preschools, preschool teachers must develop an ability to integrate pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge and technological knowledge.

The aim of this study is to examine what kind of added pedagogical value pre-service preschool teachers think educational technologies can bring to preschools and to analyze their oral, written and practical digital examples and presentations of such added value through the lenses of the theoretical framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK).

Mishra and Koehler (2008) has built on Shulman’s (1986) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to create a conceptual framework that also includes technological knowledge and the ability to successfully integrate this with their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. They label their conceptual framework Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK framework has proven useful as a tool for describing the type of knowledge required by teachers for successful technology integration (Voogt et al 2012).  A teacher that possesses TPACK knows how to successfully integrate ICT in their practice to create an added pedagogical value. Thus, looking for signs of TPACK means looking for signs of successful technology integration. Hence there are a number of studies that try to measure teachers’ or student teachers’ TPACK with the intention of identifying successful ICT integration (Angeli & Valanides 2009; Kramarski & Michalsky 2010). In this study the theoretical framework TPACK is used to analyze preschool teacher students’ oral presentations, written texts and digital examples of ICT use for added value in preschools.

The following research questions have been formulated: - What types of arguments did the preschool teacher students present to support or questions the use of ICT to create added pedagogical value in preschools? - What types of examples were given of successful ICT use for added pedagogical value in preschools by the preschool teacher students in their written documentation? - To what extent do the preschool teacher students’ practical digital examples show signs of added pedagogical value by successful ICT integration (i.e. to what extent do the preschool teacher students’ digital examples show signs of TPACK or other subdomains in the TPACK framework)

National Category
Social Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15285 (URN)
Conference
The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), 10-13 september 2013, Istanbul, Turkey.
Available from: 2013-09-17 Created: 2013-09-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3362-7198

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