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Macassa, Gloria
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Publications (10 of 78) Show all publications
Macassa, G. (2018). Can Geographic Information Systems Help us to Better Understand Inequalities in Health Outcomes in the Era of Sustainable Development?. Gävle: Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Geographic Information Systems Help us to Better Understand Inequalities in Health Outcomes in the Era of Sustainable Development?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this working paper is to describe how geographic information systems can help the understanding of inequalities in health outcomes, including health care, in the era of sustainable development. Geographic information systems can help to reduce both social and spatial disparities in health outcomes (including health care location-based disparities) globally (in developed, middle-income and low-income countries alike), thus contributing to sustainable population health for today’s and future generations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle, 2018. p. 11
Series
Working paper, ISSN 1403-8757 ; 58
Keywords
geographic information systems, social inequalities, spatial inequalities, sustainable develop-ment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28871 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08
Abbasi, S. H., Sundin, Ö., Jalali, A., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2018). Ethnic Differences in the Risk Factors and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: a Patient-Based Study in Iran. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 5(3), 623-631
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic Differences in the Risk Factors and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: a Patient-Based Study in Iran
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, ISSN 2197-3792, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 623-631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Diverse ethnic groups may differ regarding the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to assess the association between ethnicity and CAD risk and severity in six major Iranian ethnic groups.

Methods

In this study, 20,165 documented coronary artery disease patients who underwent coronary angiography at a tertiary referral heart center were recruited. The demographic, laboratory, clinical, and risk factor data of all the patients were retrieved. The Gensini score (an indicator of CAD severity) was calculated for all, and the risk factors and severity of CAD were compared between the ethnical groups, using adjusted standardized residuals, Kruskal–Wallis test, and multivariable regression analysis.

Results

The mean age of the participants (14,131 [70.1%] men and 6034 [29.9%] women) was 60.7 ± 10.8 years. The Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest prevalence of ≥4 simultaneous risk factors. The mean Gensini score was the highest for the Gilaks (77.1 ± 55.9) and the lowest among the Lors (67.5 ± 52.8). The multivariable regression analysis showed that the Gilaks had the worst severity (β 0.056, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.102; P = 0.018), followed by the Torks (β 0.032, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.059; P = 0.020). Meanwhile, the Lors showed the lowest severity (β −0.087, 95% CI −0.146 to −0.027; P = 0.004).

Conclusions

This study found that there was heterogeneity in CAD severity and a diverse distribution in its well-known traditional risk factors among major Iranian ethnic groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Health status disparities, Ethnicity, Coronary artery disease, Iran
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24816 (URN)10.1007/s40615-017-0408-3 (DOI)000439352900021 ()28776137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026809542 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Salvador, E. M. & da Cruz Francisco, J. (2018). Food Insecurity in Mozambique: What Do We Know? And what Can Be Done?. Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food Insecurity in Mozambique: What Do We Know? And what Can Be Done?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Household food insecurity is defined as inadequate or insecure access to food because of financial constraints. The objective of this short article is to highlight the prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Mozambique during the past three years. Food insecurity is an important societal and public health problem in Mozambique, and its main determinants are climate change, transportation, and poverty. There is a urgent need for research that can provide a deeper understanding of the determinants of food insecurity in the country and disentangle potential relationships with physical and psychological health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018. p. 5
Series
Working paper, ISSN 1403-8757 ; 59
Keywords
household food insecurity, prevalence, determinants, Mozambique
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28874 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Ahmadi, E., Macassa, G. & Larsson, J. (2018). Managers’ working hours and time allocation in effective SMEs – an organizational health perspective. In: Per Lindberg (Ed.), FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts. Paper presented at FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?, 10-12 juni 2018, Gävle (pp. 118). Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managers’ working hours and time allocation in effective SMEs – an organizational health perspective
2018 (English)In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 118-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background

There is an increased global interest in occupational health across small businesses as they represent a large share of employers in many societies. In the model of healthy work organisations, employee health is a prerequisite for higher productivity and profitability and management practices are considered as determinants of organisational health. A better understanding of how managers in effective companies use their time can offer a better understanding of how this can affect employees’ well-being and business effect-iveness. Managers’ long working hours and share of time spent on Management by Walking Around (MBWA) are considered important characteristics of managers’ work that might have consequences for employees’ and managers’ own health outcomes, as well as for organisational effectiveness. MBWA is a management technique common for successful companies in regard to their effectiveness; providing an opportunity for a spontaneous manager-subordinate interaction that might be important for employee health and wellbeing. Studies of managerial work have to some extent not clearly placed managers’ time use in the broad context of leadership, often missing to link it with leadership behaviour theories, health and effectiveness.

Objective

The objective of this study was to explore, on the one hand, the total amount of working hours that managers spent, and on the other, their patterns of time allocation to different activities in effective SMEs. Research questions were: 1) What patterns regarding managers’ working hours can be identified across socio-demographic variables, leader-ship experience factors and leadership profiles in effective SMEs? 2) What patterns regarding proportions of total working hours spent on MBWA can be identified across socio-demographic variables, leadership experience factors and leadership profiles in effective SMEs?

Method

The study used data collected within the project, “Successful Companies in Gästrikland”. Annually the project nominates 120 companies for the award based on companies’ financial indicators. The study employed a cross-sectional design and analysed responses to questionnaires collected within the project during years 2014-2018. The inclusion criteria were small and medium sized companies (more than four and less than 250 subordinates), high-level managers having subordinates. Data analysis were carried out using descriptive statistics and regression analysis.

Results

The results section is being processed and will be reported on the conference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28861 (URN)978-91-88145-28-4 (ISBN)
Conference
FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?, 10-12 juni 2018, Gävle
Note

Rundabordssamtal

Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Chaquisse, E., Fraga, S., Meireles, P., Macassa, G., Soares, J., Nbofana, F. & Barros, H. (2018). Sexual and physical intimate partner violence among women using antenatal care in Nampula, Mozambique. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 9(1), Article ID 744.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexual and physical intimate partner violence among women using antenatal care in Nampula, Mozambique
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Public Health in Africa, ISSN 2038-9922, E-ISSN 2038-9930, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to estimate the prevalence of sexual and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors, in a sample of pregnant women using antenatal care (ANC) in Nampula province - Mozambique. This cross-sectional study was carried out in six health units in Nampula, from February 2013 to January 2014. Overall, 869 participants answered the Conflict Tactics Scale 2. The lifetime and past year prevalence of sexual abuse was 49% and 46%, and of physical abuse was 46% and 44%, respectively. Lifetime and past year sexual abuse was significantly associated with living as a couple, alcohol drinking and having a past diagnosis of gonorrhea. Lifetime and past year physical abuse increased significantly with age and was associated with living as a couple, alcohol drinking and history with syphilis. The prevalence of lifetime and previous year violence among women using ANC was high and similar showing that most women were constantly exposed to IPV. ANC provides a window of opportunity for identifying and acting on violence against women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PAGEPress, 2018
Keywords
Intimate partner violence; prevalence; pregnant women; reproductive health; antenatal care; Nampula, Mozambique.
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24980 (URN)10.4081/jphia.2018.744 (DOI)000448698600001 ()30079164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052132524 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-18 Created: 2017-08-18 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Francisco, J. & Mcgrath, C. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility and Population Health. Health Science Journal, 11(5), Article ID 528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate Social Responsibility and Population Health
2017 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 528Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent decades, corporate social responsibility (CSR) aspart of socially sustainable business organizations operations has become a common practice across developed and developing countries. The objective of this mini review is to reflect on the potential role that CSRmight have on the health of stakeholders (employees and society in general). We suggest that there is an opportunity for business to become agents of change and contribute to improved population health. Therefore, public health researchers need to explore how business organizations can, through CSR impact population health currently and in years to come. This would occur through helping to address global challenges in the workplace and immediate local communities, but above all through identifying the role businesses play in contributing to sustainable development and sustainable population health/health promotion across entire societies regardless of their stage of economic development.

Keywords
Corporate social responsibility; Business case; Responsible leadership; Population health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25651 (URN)10.21767/1791-809X.1000528 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Hiswåls, A.-S., Ahmadi, N. & McGrath, C. (2017). Educating Public Health Professionals for an Unknown Future: Insight from a New Bachelor Programme Linking Health Promotion and Sustainable Development. Research in Health Science, 2(2), 70-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educating Public Health Professionals for an Unknown Future: Insight from a New Bachelor Programme Linking Health Promotion and Sustainable Development
2017 (English)In: Research in Health Science, ISSN 2470-6205, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to provide a description of the new bachelor programme “Health Promotion through Sustainable Development”, which started in autumn 2016 at the University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Working Life. The programme was built integrating public health and biology through a thread of health promotion and sustainable development across the three years of study. In the era of sustainable development and more complex health threats, future public health professionals need to be equipped with the right knowledge and skills that will enable them to promote a sustainable population health.

Keywords
Public health, health promotion, biology, sustainable development, University of Gävle
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24113 (URN)10.22158/rhs.v2n2p70 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Walander, A., Soares, J. F. & Macassa, G. (2017). Employment Status, Anxiety and Depression in a Municipal Context. Research in Health Science, 2(1), 12-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment Status, Anxiety and Depression in a Municipal Context
2017 (English)In: Research in Health Science, ISSN 2470-6213, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 12-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives:This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression by employment status among a sample of the working age population residing in Gävle Municipality in Sweden.

Methods: A total of 241 persons completed a self-administered postal questionnaire in the baseline survey of the Gävle Household, Labour Market and Health Outcomes (GHOLDH) survey, which collected information on the employment status and psychological health (anxiety and depression) among persons aged 18-65 years. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed.

Results: The prevalence and risk of anxiety and depression were high among people who were out of work. In the multiple regression analysis, compared to employed people, those who were not employed had a risk of anxiety of 7.76 (5.97-9.75) and 4.67 (3.60-5.74) for depression.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was higher among those who were out of labour marketas compared to those employed. Furthermore, people who were out of work had a higher risk of anxiety and depression. The odds were slightly higher for anxiety than for depression.

Keywords
Gävle, employment status, anxiety, depression
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23714 (URN)10.22158/rhs.v2n1p12 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Bergström, H., Malstam, E., Hiswåls, A. S., Soares, J., Ahmadi, N. & Marttila, A. (2017). Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in East Central Sweden. Health Science Journal (2), Article ID 491.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of employment precariousness and psychological well-being in East Central Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, no 2, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the past decade, temporary employment arrangements, including fixed-term and sub-contracted jobs, as well as project work, on-call work and work via temporary-help agencies have increased in developed countries, including Sweden. The objective of this study was to explore precariously employed individuals’ experiences and perceptions of employment strain and its effect on their psychological well-being in Gävleborg County, Sweden. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 respondents residing in Gävleborg County about their experiences of precarious employment and their perceptions of the relationship between their precarious employment and psychological well-being. Thematic analysis was conducted to relate the results to the employment strain framework. Results: The main theme to emerge in the data was managing stress. Respondent’s perceived significant stress related to keeping employment as well as having future work. In addition, they had difficulties in coping with everyday life because of economic strain, lack of work opportunities and isolation. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight how precariously employed individuals are unable to cope with the stress related to uncertainty in maintaining their current work or having control of their working hours. In addition, the results indicate that precariously employed workers experience economic strain related to income uncertainty, which affects their ability to cope with daily life.

Keywords
Precarious employment; Gävleborg county; Sweden; Psychological well-being
National Category
Health Sciences Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24157 (URN)10.21767/1791-809X.1000491 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Marttila, A., Mälstam, E. & Macassa, G. (2017). Experiences of Unemployment  and Well-Being  After Job Loss During Economic Recession: Results of a Qualitative Study in East Central Sweden. Journal of Public Health Research, 6(3), 135-141, Article ID 995.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Unemployment  and Well-Being  After Job Loss During Economic Recession: Results of a Qualitative Study in East Central Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 135-141, article id 995Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Six different themes emerged from the accounts: The respondents perceived work as the basis for belonging, and loss of work affected their social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. They also expressed feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness, which affected their physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents’ negative emotions. The respondents reported activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts as part of their coping strategy against poor mental health. Conclusions: After job loss, the respondents experienced feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. They also felt worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having other activities gave the respondents structure and meaning.

Keywords
Out of work; perceived wellbeing; qualitative approach; recession time
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25315 (URN)10.4081/jphr.2017.995 (DOI)000440723600002 ()29291191 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038114572 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
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