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Magnusson, L. O. & Bäckman, K. (2019). STEM and STEAM - in the intercept of teacher's perspective and children'sperspective. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 2019, EDUCATION IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD, 6 – 8 mars 2019, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>STEM and STEAM - in the intercept of teacher's perspective and children'sperspective
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Over the past decades, the concepts of STEM and STEAM has been discussed and used in educational research in different ways. This paper is based on the results from two separate studies. One concerning preschool teachers' understanding of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, STEM, in relation to teaching in preschool. The other study concern children’s perspective and strategies in their use of digital technology concerning visual aspects of arts, the A in STEAM. The purpose of this paper is to compare and connects results from the two studies out of the question: What does the A in STEAM add to manners of teaching the subjects referred to in STEM? One theoretical point of departure derives from Shulman's (1986) theory of how knowledge develops in teaching and that teachers use special knowledge in teaching, i.e. pedagogical content knowledge, PCK. We also relate to the concepts of children’s perspective and child perspective (Halldén, 2003; Sommer, Pramling Samuelsson, & Hundeide, 2011) as well as the complexity of diffractive readings (Barad 2014; Magnusson, 2017). The two studies that are in focus are conducted in different ways, with varying methodological approaches and analysed with different theoretical perspective. In this paper, we want to do a meta-analysis with the help of the concepts of children’s perspective and child perspective. By doing that we hope to find new knowledge and thereby contribute to teacher knowledge about teaching STEAM areas. The research follows guidelines for research ethics adopted in the humanities and social sciences in Sweden (codex.vr.se). The preliminary results of the meta-analyses presented in this paper concern how different aspects of the intercept of teacher’s perspective/child perspective and children's perspective, in the two studies, can come to show learning, teaching/education and knowledge practice concerning the contribution of A in STEAM in relation to STEM. In an extension, we mean that the result can influence teacher knowledge and their didactic choices in teaching when it comes to the selection of content and strategies. The study can also contribute to a deeper understanding of what A in STEAM mean from children’s perspective in preschool education.

Barad, K. (2014). Diffracting Diffraction: Cutting Together Apart. Parallax, 20(3), 168–18

Halldén, G. (2003). Barnperspektiv som ideologiskt eller metodologiskt begrepp. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, (1), 12.

Magnusson, L. O. (2017). Treåringar, kameror och förskola – en serie diffraktiva rörelser. [Three-year-olds, cameras and preschool: A series of diffractive movements]. Doctoral dissertation, University of Gothenburg. Sweden.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Sommer, D., Pramling Samuelsson, I., & Hundeide, K. (2011). Barnperspektiv och barnens perspektiv i teori och praktik. Stockholm: Liber.

www.codex.vr.se

Keywords
children’s perspective, child's perspective, teacher knowledge, preschool education, STEM, STEAM
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29364 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019, EDUCATION IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD, 6 – 8 mars 2019, Uppsala, Sweden
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Hammarberg, A. & Bäckman, K. (2017). Preschool teachers pedagogical content knowledge in Mathematics, Science and Technology: What is possible to teach?. In: 27th EECERA Annual conference 'Social justice, solidarity and children's rights': Abstract book. Paper presented at EECERA 27th Conference, 'Beyond the Crisis: Social Justice, Solidarity and Children's Rights' 29th august-1st september 2017, Bologna, Italy (pp. 139-140). Bologna: EECERA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool teachers pedagogical content knowledge in Mathematics, Science and Technology: What is possible to teach?
2017 (English)In: 27th EECERA Annual conference 'Social justice, solidarity and children's rights': Abstract book, Bologna: EECERA , 2017, p. 139-140Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the research is to investigate how preschool teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) can be understood in relation to mathematics, science and technology (MST) in preschool i.e. the knowledge and values that underlie preschool teachers' choice of content and how it effects teaching in preschool. Teachers' knowledge of how children learn and the specific knowledge of how all children can be involved in the classroom is one of the components of PCK (Shulman, 1986) that together with issues of gender, class and ethnicity form the framework of the study. Data will be analysed with support of Shulman's theory (1986) and the sociocultural perspective (e.g. Rogoff, 2003, Wenger, 1998). A survey was conducted together with a reference group consisting of experienced preschool managers and preschool teachers. The survey is based on concepts that derive from Shulman (1986) and on the objectives spelled out in the national preschool curriculum (National Agency, 2016). The survey has been sent to 2000 Swedish preschool teachers and has been

analysed by multivariate methods. We follow ethical guidelines on anonymity and confidentially from the Swedish Research Council (2011). Findings provide knowledge on how preschool teachers talk about MST, what words they use and their pedagogical content knowledge in relation to their teaching about mathematics, science and technology. The findings show the preschool teachers PCK and also needs and dilemmas when teaching MST content in preschool activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bologna: EECERA, 2017
Keywords
preschool teacher, Mathematics, Science, technology, pedagogical content knowl
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25690 (URN)
Conference
EECERA 27th Conference, 'Beyond the Crisis: Social Justice, Solidarity and Children's Rights' 29th august-1st september 2017, Bologna, Italy
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. & Bose, K. (2017). Teaching of Mathematics and Science in Preschools: A Comparative Account of Botswana and Sweden. Teacher Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching of Mathematics and Science in Preschools: A Comparative Account of Botswana and Sweden
2017 (English)In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Early Childhood Education, M&S Educatioin, Knowledge Base, PCK & SMK, Botswana, Sweden
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21378 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K., Hammarberg, A. & Eriksson, A. (2016). Barns lärare och deras professionskunskaper - exemplet matematik (1ed.). In: Elisabeth Björklund och Christina Gustafsson (Ed.), Praktiknära forskning: Barn, lärare och lärande (pp. 27-44). Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barns lärare och deras professionskunskaper - exemplet matematik
2016 (Swedish)In: Praktiknära forskning: Barn, lärare och lärande / [ed] Elisabeth Björklund och Christina Gustafsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, 1, p. 27-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22854 (URN)978-91-44-10971-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. (2015). Matematiskt gestaltande i förskolan. (Doctoral dissertation). Åbo: Åbo Akademis Förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matematiskt gestaltande i förskolan
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the thesis is to study how mathematics is experienced and used in preschool children’s activities and how preschool teachers frame their teaching of mathematical content. The studies include analyses of children’s actions in different activities from a mathematical perspective and preschool teachers’ intentions with and their teaching of mathematics. Preschool teachers’ understanding of the knowledge required in this area is also scrutinised. The theoretical points of departure are variation theory and sociocultural theory. With variation theory the focus is directed towards how mathematical content is dealt with in teaching situations where preschool teachers have chosen the learning objects. The sociocultural perspective has been chosen because children’s mathematical learning in play often takes place in interactions with others and in the encounter with culturally mediated concepts. The theoretical framework also includes didactical points of departure. The study is qualitative, with videography and phenomenography as metholological research approaches. In the study, video observations and interviews with preschool teachers have been used as data collection methods. The results show that in children’s play mathematics consists of volume, geometrical shapes, gravity, quantity and positioning. The situations also include size, patterns, proportions, counting and the creation of pairs. The preschool teachers’ intentions, planning and staging of their goal-oriented work are that all children should be given the opportunity to discern a mathematical content. This also includes making learning objects visible in here-and-now-situations. Variation and a clear focus on the mathematical content are important in this context. One of the study’s knowledge contributions concerns the didactics of mathematics in the preschool. This relates to the teaching of mathematics and includes the knowledge that preschool teachers regard as essential for their teaching. This includes theoretical and practical knowledge about children and children’s learning and didactical issues and strategies. The conclusion is that preschool teachers need to have a basic knowledge of mathematics and the didactics of mathematics.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens syfte är att studera hur matematik erfars och används i förskolebarns aktiviteter och hur förskollärare utformar undervisning med matematiskt innehåll. Studierna omfattar barns handlingar i olika aktiviteter utifrån ett matematiskt perspektiv och vidare förskollärares intentioner med och genomförande av undervisning i matematik. Dessutom studeras förskollärares uppfattningar av kunskapsbehov i undervisning. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är variationsteori och sociokulturell teoribildning. Med variationsteorin sätts bl.a. fokus på hur matematikinnehållet behandlas i lärsituationer där förskollärarna valt lärandeobjekt. Det sociokulturella perspektivet har valts därför att barns matematiska lärande i lek ofta sker i samspel med andra och i mötet med kulturellt förmedlade begrepp. Till det teoretiska ramverket hör även didaktiska utgångspunkter. Studien är kvalitativ med videografi och fenomenografi som metodologiska forskningsansatser. I studien har videoobservationer och förskollärarintervjuer använts som metoder för insamling av data. Resultatet visar att matematik i barns lek omfattar volym, geometriska former, tyngd, ”många” och positionering. Situationerna inkluderar även storlek, mönster, proportioner, räkning och parbildning. Förskollärares intentioner, planering och iscensättning av sitt målinriktade arbete är att alla barn ska ges möjlighet att urskilja ett matematiskt innehåll. Intentionen omfattar också att synliggöra lärandeobjekt i här-och-nu-situationer. Variation och ett tydligt fokus på det matematiska innehållet är viktigt i iscensättningen. Ett av studiens kunskapsbidrag handlar om matematikdidaktik i förskolan. Det rör undervisning av matematik och omfattar de kunskaper förskollärare anser sig behöva när de undervisar. Detta inkluderar såväl teoretiska som praktiska kunskaper om barn och barns lärande som didaktiska frågeställningar och strategier. Slutsatser är att förskollärare behöver ha vissa baskunskaper som omfattar matematik och matematikdidaktik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo: Åbo Akademis Förlag, 2015. p. 273
Keywords
mathematical formation, preschool, teaching, learning studies, here-and-now-situations, variation, the didactics of mathematics, matematiskt gestaltande, förskola, undervisning, lärstudier, här-ochnu-situationer, variation, matematikdidaktik
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18839 (URN)978-951-765-774-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-29, Auditorium Rotunda, Campus Allegro, Storgatan 7, Jakobstad, 16:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2015-01-23 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. (2015). Play and Everyday Mathematics in Preschool. In: 5th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book: . Paper presented at 25th EECERA Annual Conference, 'Innovation, Experimentation and Adventure in Early Childhood', 7–10 September 2015, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 295-296).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Play and Everyday Mathematics in Preschool
2015 (English)In: 5th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book, 2015, p. 295-296Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim with this paper is to discuss play as an arena for mathematical learning and children’s everyday mathematics in preschool. The study focuses on what the children are doing in the play activities and how they express their everyday mathematics. Play can be a mathematical activity (Bishop, 1992) and children’s mathematical formation in play shows their everyday mathematics (Ginsburg, 2006). This paper discusses play and everyday mathematics from a sociocultural perspective (Vygotskij, 1990) and in relation to curriculum (National Agency, 2010, 2012). The empirical data is drawn from a larger study in Sweden (Bäckman, 2015) and video observation is used as a method to explore 4 year old children’s play and everyday mathematics. The examples used in this paper were chosen because they are common play situations in the participating preschools. The ethical considerations follow the rules from The Swedish Research Council (2011). The parents have given permission for the video observations and research to be conducted. The results of the analysis of children’s mathematical formation show two main categories: Exploring mathematics through play and children comparing mathematical experiences. Exploring mathematics through play consists of five sub-categories: experiencing volume, exploring geometrical shapes, discerning weight, discerning quantity and acting for positioning. The category children comparing mathematical experiences consists of four sub-categories: experiencing and comparing size, creating and comparing patterns, comparing proportions and counting and pair production. Implications for practice is that the preschool teachers should have knowledge to design a learning environment that support children’s mathematical exploring and learning through play.

Keywords
preschool, play, everyday mathematics, learning mathematics, preschool curriculum
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20756 (URN)
Conference
25th EECERA Annual Conference, 'Innovation, Experimentation and Adventure in Early Childhood', 7–10 September 2015, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K., Hammarberg, A. & Eriksson, A. (2015). Preschool teachers and their professional knowledge: teaching mathematics in preschool. In: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book: . Paper presented at 25th EECERA Annual Conference, 7-10 September 2015, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 272-272).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool teachers and their professional knowledge: teaching mathematics in preschool
2015 (English)In: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book, 2015, p. 272-272Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to discuss the knowledge preschool teachers need when they teach mathematics. The study focuses on how the knowledge from curriculum affect and is transmitted to teaching and how content is selected, valued and organised when they work with mathematics and documentation. Earlier research shows that the official curricula are important and have impact on how teachers organise the practice (Carr, 2007; Clements & Sarama, 2007). This paper is discussing preschool teacher’s professional knowledge in relation to mathematics and documentation and curriculum. Curriculum theory is used as frame factor in the analysis (Dahlberg et al., 2005; Lundgren, 1972; National Agency, 2010 & 2012). The empirical data drawn from a larger study in Sweden (Bäckman, 2015) include interviews with 19 Swedish preschool teachers. Focus was on their understanding of knowledge and strategies in teaching mathematics. Analyses also consist of frame factors like policy documents and the national preschool curriculum. The ethical considerations follow the rules from The Swedish Research Council (2011). The main findings of the analyses concerning preschool teachers' professional knowledge in relation to teaching mathematics are that policy documents and the national curriculum are strong frame factors and also support different educational strategies. The teachers want to design learning environments that supports children’s mathematical exploring and learning. In that work they used documentation as a strategy to organise the teaching. Children’s teachers need knowledge of the frame factors, both international and national, when they create participatory practice and learning opportunities for children.

Keywords
preschool, mathematics, preschool curriculum, documentation, professional knowledge
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20755 (URN)
Conference
25th EECERA Annual Conference, 7-10 September 2015, Barcelona, Spain
Projects
Barns lärare-antologi
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. (2014). Children´s Play as a Starting Point for Teaching Mathematics in Preschool. In: POEM: Online Proceedings. Paper presented at A Mathematics Education Perspective on early Mathematics Learning between the Poles of Instruction and Construction (POEM, Research symposium, 16-17 June 2014, Malmö, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children´s Play as a Starting Point for Teaching Mathematics in Preschool
2014 (English)In: POEM: Online Proceedings, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation contributes to the knowledge about how children learn about and explore mathematics in their everyday activities. Children´s mathematical encounters in play activities give them experiences as a base for education. The understanding of children’s mathematical encounters in play and teachers’ teaching is presented as teachable and learnable moments in ‘here-and-now’ situations. The data used for this study consists of video recordings of young children’s play in four Swedish preschools. In the presentation I use two examples to illustrate and discuss how children’s play can be a starting point for teachers’ teaching.  The results display that a teacher’s questions in play can support children’s explorations if the teacher observes, recognizes the mathematical content and asks questions.

Keywords
play, mathematics, ‘here-and-now’ situations, teachable and learnable moments
National Category
Mathematics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17632 (URN)
Conference
A Mathematics Education Perspective on early Mathematics Learning between the Poles of Instruction and Construction (POEM, Research symposium, 16-17 June 2014, Malmö, Sweden
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. (2014). Teaching Mathematics in Swedish Preschool - Didactic Situations. In: 24th EECERA Conference : ‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book. Paper presented at 24th EECERA annual conference,‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes', 7-10 September 2014, Crete, Greece (pp. 94).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching Mathematics in Swedish Preschool - Didactic Situations
2014 (English)In: 24th EECERA Conference : ‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book, 2014, p. 94-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim with this paper is to present research about teaching in preschool and the meaning of education in the preschool context within the perspective of quality. More specific the research focus on teaching mathematics and didactical considerations.Teaching mathematics always consists of several components with teacher, children and the mathematical content as three major parts. One of these basic components includes preschool teachers' intentions, choices and actions in which the goal is to create opportunities for children's learning in mathematics. Another component is the children, with their own experiences, intentions and their own choices. A third component is the mathematical content of the teaching situation (Brousseau, 1997). Play is a keyconcept in mathematical activities (Bishop, 1992) and in teaching of a mathematical content (Brousseau, 1997).The research focus is on didactic situations and more specifically the social interaction in teaching so-called didactic contract (Brousseau, 1997). Didactic contract can be understood as the dilemma between the educational goals and the participants’ intentions. A case study illustrates didactic situations in one Swedish preschool.Permissions has been gathered from the parents. The ethical rules for researcher in Sweden have been followed.The findings show the teachers use of play aspects in didactic situations expands the learning opportunities. The didactic contract in teaching give learning opportunities for children. Preschool teachers use of play in didactic situations make the teacher's aware of the mathematical and didactic considerations in relation to context and thereby improve the teaching of mathematical content.

Keywords
mathematics, preschool, teaching/learning, play, didactic contract
National Category
Mathematics Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17631 (URN)
Conference
24th EECERA annual conference,‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes', 7-10 September 2014, Crete, Greece
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, K. & Hammarberg, A. (2014). The importance of preschool teachers’ knowledge for quality in early childhood education. In: 24th EECERA annual conference ’Us, Them and Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book. Paper presented at 24th EECERA annual conference,‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes', 7-10 September 2014, Crete, Greece (pp. 54-54).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of preschool teachers’ knowledge for quality in early childhood education
2014 (English)In: 24th EECERA annual conference ’Us, Them and Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book, 2014, p. 54-54Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research objective is to explore the knowledge teachers in Botswana and Sweden, which is important and/or necessary when they teach mathematics and science in Early Childhood Education (ECE). The aim is to discern the basic teacher knowledge that might be global and knowledge shaped by culture. Previous research shows that Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in early childhood includes didactical considerations in relation to culture and children’s experiences (e.g. Clements & Sarama, 2009). According to Shulman (1986) and later Grossman (1990) teachers’ subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge both influence teaching. The study involves one survey in Sweden with 64 preschool teachers and one survey in Botswana with 65 preschool educators.  We have also used focus groups interviews to gain deeper knowledge of certain issues.

We follow the ethical rules for researchers in both countries. The considerations include informed consent and confidentiality. The knowledge base teachers need in preschool include pedagogical and didactical knowledge together with subject knowledge. Data shows that there is basic knowledge that is similar and maybe global when it comes to mathematics and science. However, some knowledge is shaped by culture, local traditions and expectations. To ensure quality education for the youngest children educated teachers with knowledge about content like mathematics and science is needed. Teachers also need knowledge about children and of the learning strategies they are using. Teacher knowledge also includes curriculum goals and how to implement curriculum in daily activities and play.

Keywords
Mathematics, Science, Preschool, Teaching, Pedagogical Content Knowledge
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17628 (URN)
Conference
24th EECERA annual conference,‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes', 7-10 September 2014, Crete, Greece
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-01 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0776-3110

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