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Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Hang, J., Lin, Y., Mattsson, M., Sandberg, M., . . . Wang, K. (2020). Integrated assessment of indoor and outdoor ventilation in street canyons with naturally-ventilated buildings by various ventilation indexes. Building and Environment, 169, Article ID 106528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated assessment of indoor and outdoor ventilation in street canyons with naturally-ventilated buildings by various ventilation indexes
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2020 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 169, article id 106528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integrated assessments of indoor and outdoor ventilation are still rare so far. As a novelty, this paper aims to quantify the influence of street aspect ratios (building height/street width, H/W = 0.5–5) and window sizes (1 m × 1 m, 1.5 m × 1.5 m) on indoor-outdoor ventilation in two-dimensional streets with single-sided naturally-ventilated buildings. Numerical simulations with RNG k-ε model are validated against experimental data and the grid independence are tested as well. Air change rates per hour (ACH, h−1) are adopted for assessing indoor-outdoor ventilation by mean flows (ACHmean) and turbulent fluctuations (ACHturb) respectively. Age of air(τ), purging flow rate (PFR) and its corresponding ACHPFR are used to evaluate overall ventilation capacities.

Shallower streets experience better indoor-outdoor ventilation. Outdoor ACHPFR drop from 14.69 to 17.55 h−1 to 3.96–3.97 h−1 as H/W rises from 0.5 to 3. In extremely deep canyon (H/W = 5), two-counter-rotating vortices produce much smaller velocity at low-level regions (U/Uref~10−3-10−5), resulting in small ACHPFR for outdoor (~0.76–0.91 h−1) and indoor in 1–13th floors (~0.03–0.61 h−1). When H/W = 0.5–1, leeward 5–6th floors experience smaller ACHPFR(e.g.~1.13–1.40 h−1 as H/W = 1) than the other floors (e.g. ~1.54–9.52 h−1 as H/W = 1). Particularly, as H/W = 2–3, leeward-side indoor ACHPFR in the middle floors (except the first and top two floors) are nearly constants (~1.02–1.69 h−1) and much smaller than windward-side ACHPFR(~1.41–4.35 h−1) which increase toward upper floors. Besides, the smaller window size reduces indoor ACHPFR by 19.38%~88.28%, but hardly influences outdoor ventilation. Moreover, both outdoor and indoor ACHPFR are greater than ACHmean but smaller than ACHmean + ACHturb. Although further investigations are still required, this paper provides an insight and scientific foundation on integrated indoor-outdoor ventilation evaluation with various effective ventilation indexes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Urban ventilation, Building natural ventilation, Air change rate per hour (ACH), Age of air, Purging flow rate (PFR)
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31206 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106528 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075610964 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-13Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Chen, T., Lin, Y., Buccolieri, R., Mattsson, M., Zhang, M., . . . Wang, Q. (2020). Integrated impacts of tree planting and street aspect ratios on CO dispersion and personal exposure in full-scale street canyons. Building and Environment, 169, Article ID 106529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated impacts of tree planting and street aspect ratios on CO dispersion and personal exposure in full-scale street canyons
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2020 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 169, article id 106529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Validated by experimental data, this paper performs computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the influence of tree plantings on urban airflow and vehicular CO exposure in two-dimensional (2D) street canyons with various aspect ratios (building height/street width, AR = H/W = 0.5, 1, 3, 5) and ground-level source. The impacts of tree canopy bottom height (Htb = 2 m, 6 m), tree stand density (y-density = 0.33, 0.67, 1) and leaf area density (LAD = 0.5, 1, 2 m2/m3) are considered. Personal intake fraction (P_IF) and its spatial mean value in leeward and windward sides (<P_IF>lee, <P_IF>wind) and for entire streets (street intake fraction, <P_IF>) are adopted to assess overall pollutant exposure. For cases without trees, only one main vortex exists in shallow streets with AR = 0.5-3 and <P_IF> as AR = 3 (5.80 ppm) slightly exceeds AR = 0.5-1 (3.98-3.84 ppm). However, two counter-rotating vortexes appear in deep streets (AR = 5), inducing 1-2 orders smaller pedestrian-level velocity (U/Uref~10−4-10−3) and one-order greater <P_IF> (46.80 ppm) than shallow streets. Trees always weaken wind in streets and raise <P_IF> more in shallower streets by 46.0% as AR = 0.5 (3.98 ppm-5.81 ppm), 26.0-45.9% as AR = 1 (3.84 ppm to 4.84-5.60 ppm), 16.2-50.3% as AR = 3 (5.80 ppm to 6.74-8.72 ppm), but only 8.5-23.4% as AR = 5 (46.80 ppm to 50.78-57.73 ppm). Particularly, as AR = 1, trees raise <P_IF>lee (5.87 ppm) by 27.1-57.2%, while <P_IF>wind (1.80 ppm) only by 0%-23.3%. Higher Htb, smaller y-density or LAD produce less increase of <P_IF>. As AR = 3, vegetation increases <P_IF>lee (8.84 ppm) by 21.2%-66.4% but little affects <P_IF>wind (2.76 ppm). Lower Htb produces smaller <P_IF> differing from AR = 1. As AR = 5, vegetation increases <P_IF>wind (63.97 ppm) by 15.1-36.6% but reduces <P_IF>lee (29.63 ppm) by 5.2-8.5%. Although further investigations are still required for design purpose, this paper provides effective methodologies to quantify how vegetation influences street-scale pollutant exposure.

Keywords
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, Personal intake fraction (P_IF), Pollutant dispersion, Porous medium, Street aspect ratio (H/W, AR), Urban vegetation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31170 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106529 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075528720 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hongyu, Y., Chen, T., Lin, Y., Buccolieri, R., Mattsson, M., Zhang, M., . . . Wang, Q. (2020). Integrated impacts of tree planting and street aspect ratios on CO dispersion and personal exposure in full-scale street canyons. Building and Environment, 169, Article ID 106529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated impacts of tree planting and street aspect ratios on CO dispersion and personal exposure in full-scale street canyons
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 169, article id 106529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Validated by experimental data, this paper performs computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the influence of tree plantings on urban airflow and vehicular CO exposure in two-dimensional (2D) street canyons with various aspect ratios (building height/street width, AR = H/W = 0.5, 1, 3, 5) and ground-level source. The impacts of tree canopy bottom height (Htb = 2 m, 6 m), tree stand density (y-density = 0.33, 0.67, 1) and leaf area density (LAD = 0.5, 1, 2 m2/m3) are considered. Personal intake fraction (P_IF) and its spatial mean value in leeward and windward sides (<P_IF>lee, <P_IF>wind) and for entire streets (street intake fraction, <P_IF>) are adopted to assess overall pollutant exposure.

For cases without trees, only one main vortex exists in shallow streets with AR = 0.5-3 and <P_IF> as AR = 3 (5.80 ppm) slightly exceeds AR = 0.5-1 (3.98-3.84 ppm). However, two counter-rotating vortexes appear in deep streets (AR = 5), inducing 1-2 orders smaller pedestrian-level velocity (U/Uref~10−4-10−3) and one-order greater <P_IF> (46.80 ppm) than shallow streets. Trees always weaken wind in streets and raise <P_IF> more in shallower streets by 46.0% as AR = 0.5 (3.98 ppm-5.81 ppm), 26.0-45.9% as AR = 1 (3.84 ppm to 4.84-5.60 ppm), 16.2-50.3% as AR = 3 (5.80 ppm to 6.74-8.72 ppm), but only 8.5-23.4% as AR = 5 (46.80 ppm to 50.78-57.73 ppm). Particularly, as AR = 1, trees raise <P_IF>lee (5.87 ppm) by 27.1-57.2%, while <P_IF>wind (1.80 ppm) only by 0%-23.3%. Higher Htb, smaller y-density or LAD produce less increase of <P_IF>. As AR = 3, vegetation increases <P_IF>lee (8.84 ppm) by 21.2%-66.4% but little affects <P_IF>wind (2.76 ppm). Lower Htb produces smaller <P_IF> differing from AR = 1. As AR = 5, vegetation increases <P_IF>wind (63.97 ppm) by 15.1-36.6% but reduces <P_IF>lee (29.63 ppm) by 5.2-8.5%. Although further investigations are still required for design purpose, this paper provides effective methodologies to quantify how vegetation influences street-scale pollutant exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Urban vegetation, Street aspect ratio (H/W, AR), Pollutant dispersion, Personal intake fraction (P_IF), Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, Porous medium
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31207 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106529 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Hayati, A., Mattsson, M. & Sandberg, M. (2019). A wind tunnel study of wind-driven airing through open doors. The International Journal of Ventilation, 18(2), 113-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A wind tunnel study of wind-driven airing through open doors
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 113-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporarily enhanced natural ventilation of indoor environments can be achieved by opening windows and/or doors, i.e. airing. In this study, wind driven airing rate through doors was measured by tracer gas at a building model in a wind tunnel. Both single opening and cross flow airing was investigated, with doors placed in centrally on the long side of an elongated building model. It was found that cross flow airing yielded 4–20 times higher airing rate than single opening airing; lowest value occurring with opening surfaces perpendicular to wind direction. At single opening airing, windward positioned door yielded about 53% higher airing rate than leeward positioned. Inclusion of a draught lobby (extended entrance space) lowered airing rate by 27%, while higher wind turbulence increased it by 38%. Advection through turbulence appeared a more important airing mechanism than pumping. At cross flow, however, turbulence and draught lobby had practically no effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Wind-driven flow, Single-sided ventilation, Cross flow, Tracer gas decay method, Wind turbulence, Churches
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25112 (URN)10.1080/14733315.2018.1435027 (DOI)000469880200003 ()2-s2.0-85042108561 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Church project
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2011-002440
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Hayati, A., Akander, J. & Mattsson, M. (2019). Simulation of Ventilation Rates and Heat Losses during Airing in Large Single Zone Buildings in Cold Climates. In: Johansson, D., Bagge, H., Wahlström, Å. (Ed.), Cold Climate HVAC 2018: Sustainable Buildings in Cold Climates. Paper presented at Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates, Kiruna, Sweden, 12-15 March 2018. Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Ventilation Rates and Heat Losses during Airing in Large Single Zone Buildings in Cold Climates
2019 (English)In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018: Sustainable Buildings in Cold Climates / [ed] Johansson, D., Bagge, H., Wahlström, Å., Springer, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Airing can be a solution to introduce extra ventilation in large single zone buildings, especially where there are large aggregations of people such as churches or atriums. In naturally ventilated domestic and ancient buildings, opening of a window or door can introduce extra fresh air and remove particles and other contaminants emitted from people and other sources such as lit candles in churches. However, the energy use might be an issue in cold climates, where airing might lead to waste of heated air, at the same time as indoor air temperatures can be uncomfortably low. In the present study, the energy loss and ventilation rate due to airing in a large single zone (church) building is investigated via IDA-ICE simulation on annual basis in cold weather conditions. The results can be used in order to prepare airing guidelines for large single zone buildings such as atriums, churches, industry halls and large sport halls. According to the results, one-hour of airing in the studied church building resulted in 40-50 % of exchanged room air and, if practiced once a week, an increase of around 1 % in heating energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Series
Springer Proceedings in Energy, ISSN 2352-2534
Keywords
Airing (single-sided ventilation), IDA-ICE simulation, Large single zones.
National Category
Building Technologies Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26260 (URN)978-3-030-00661-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-00662-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates, Kiruna, Sweden, 12-15 March 2018
Note

Forthcomming March 2019

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Björling, M., Mattsson, M. & Akander, J. (2018). Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions. In: Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne (Ed.), Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation. Paper presented at Roomvent & Ventilation 2018 'Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation', 2-5 June, 2018, Espoo, Finland (pp. 1079-1084). Helsinki, Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions
2018 (English)In: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, p. 1079-1084Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki, Finland: , 2018
Keywords
World Heritage, preservation, moisture, relative humidity, air infiltration, PFT tracer
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28778 (URN)978-952-5236-48-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Roomvent & Ventilation 2018 'Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation', 2-5 June, 2018, Espoo, Finland
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Falk, A. B., Lindström, S., Mattsson, M. & Wright, S. A. I. (2018). Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack. In: Proceedings 2018: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Organic Fruit Growing; University of Hohenheim, Germany; 19-21 February 2018 (pp. 124-127).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack
2018 (English)In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

Keywords
sun, temperature, apple, Botyris cinerea, prediction
National Category
Food Science Biological Sciences Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28730 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Organic Fruit Growing; University of Hohenheim, Germany; 19-21 February 2018
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Hayati, A., Mattsson, M. & Sandberg, M. (2017). Single-sided ventilation through external doors: measurements and model evaluation in five historical churches. Energy and Buildings, 141, 114-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-sided ventilation through external doors: measurements and model evaluation in five historical churches
2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 141, p. 114-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ventilation through open doors is a simple way to temporarily enhance ventilation of indoor spaces, with the purpose to evacuate indoor air pollutants or to adjust the indoor temperature. In churches and other historical buildings, which otherwise are ventilated only through air infiltration, temporarily enhanced ventilation through open doors or windows may be a prudent deed after e.g. services involving large congregations and burning of candles or incense. In the present study, the air exchange occurring at single-sided ventilation through the external doors of five historical churches is measured by tracer gas decay method. Further, air velocity measurements and smoke visualization in a doorway are performed. Measurement results are compared with predictions attained from four previously developed models for single‐sided ventilation. Models that include terms for wind turbulence yielded somewhat better predictions. According to the performed measurements, the magnitude of one hour single-sided open-door airing in a church is typically around 50% air exchange, indicating that this is a workable ventilation method, also for such large building volumes. A practical diagram to facilitate estimation of a suitable airing period is also presented. The study adds particularly knowledge to the issue of airing through doors, in large single zones.

Keywords
Natural ventilation, Single-sided ventilation, Historical buildings, Tracer gas field measurements, Model evaluation, Airing
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23675 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.02.034 (DOI)000400212400009 ()2-s2.0-85013648580 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Church project
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2011-002440
Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hayati, A., Mattsson, M. & Sandberg, M. (2016). A Study on Airing Through the Porches of a Historical Church – Measurements and IDA-ICE Modelling. In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 - Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016. Paper presented at ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 12–14 September 2016, Alexandria, Virginia, USA (pp. 216-223). ASHRAE, Article ID C029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study on Airing Through the Porches of a Historical Church – Measurements and IDA-ICE Modelling
2016 (English)In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 - Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016, ASHRAE, 2016, p. 216-223, article id C029Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In churches, intentional airing may be a measure to evacuate temporarily high levels of contaminants that are emitted during services and other occasions. Crucial contaminants include moisture and other emissions that may deteriorate and/or soil painted surfaces and other precious artefacts. Most old churches do not have any mechanical ventilation system or any purpose provided openings for natural ventilation, but the ventilation is governed by air infiltration. Enhanced airing may be achieved by opening external windows or doors. Thus, models provided in energy simulation programs should predict this kind of air flows correctly, also in order to get a proper estimation of the total energy use. IDA-ICE is examined here and the model for air flow through a large vertical opening used in the program is investigated. In the present study, field measurements were performed for airing rate in a historical church. In comparison with measured air flow rates, the simulated results were of the same magnitude, but the effect of wind direction was less considered by the simulation program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASHRAE, 2016
Keywords
Airing, Single-sided ventiltion, Simulation, IDA-ICE, Churches.
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22747 (URN)978-1-939200-48-8 (ISBN)
Conference
ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 12–14 September 2016, Alexandria, Virginia, USA
Projects
Church project
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2011-002440
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hayati, A., Akander, J. & Mattsson, M. (2016). Development of a Numerical Air Infiltration Model Based On Pressurization Test Applied On a Church. In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016. Paper presented at ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 12–14 September 2016, Alexandria, Virginia (pp. 224-231). ASHRAE, Article ID C030.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Numerical Air Infiltration Model Based On Pressurization Test Applied On a Church
2016 (English)In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016, ASHRAE, 2016, p. 224-231, article id C030Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pressurization (blower door) test is a well-established standardized method, performed in order to quantify the total leakage in a building envelope. However, blower door results are not adequate to use when air leakage through the building envelope during natural conditions (non-pressurized) is to be estimated. A common assumption made when estimating air leakage during natural conditions, is that air leakage paths are evenly distributed in the areas of the building envelope. This assumption gives quite poor calculation results since different leakage configurations are often situated unevenly in the envelope. In order to improve the correspondence between Blower door and air leakage model results, more information on the types and locations of the leakage paths are required as input to simulation models. 

This paper investigates if additional information from visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at site can increase the precision when simulating air change rates due to air leakage in natural conditions.  A numerical model is developed in this study by allocating leakage in various parts of the building envelope. The leakage allocation is based on visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at the site during the blower door test.

This procedure is tested in the case study of a large single zone church. Blower door, neutral pressure level measurement and leakage allocation results are used as input in the numerical model. Model results are compared with tracer gas measurements and result accuracy is compared with results from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory model (LBL) and the Alberta Air Infiltration Model (AIM-2) for the same church. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASHRAE, 2016
Keywords
Air infiltration, Air leakage, Modeling, Churches.
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22734 (URN)978-1-939200-48-8 (ISBN)
Conference
ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 12–14 September 2016, Alexandria, Virginia
Projects
Church project
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2011-002440
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0337-8004

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