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Marsh, John E.
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Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
Marsh, J. (2018). Can intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues shield against distraction in problem solving?. Journal of cognition, 1(1), Article ID 15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues shield against distraction in problem solving?
2018 (English)In: Journal of cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the capacity for two different forms of metacognitive cue to shield against auditory distraction in problem solving with Compound Remote Associates Tasks (CRATs). Experiment 1 demonstrated that an intrinsic metacognitive cue in the form of processing disfluency (manipulated using an easy-to-read vs. difficult-to-read font) could increase focal task engagement so as to mitigate the detrimental impact of distraction on solution rates for CRATs. Experiment 2 showed that an extrinsic metacognitive cue that took the form of an incentive for good task performance (i.e., 80% or better CRAT solutions) could likewise eliminate the negative impact of distraction on CRAT solution rates. Overall, these findings support the view that both intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues have remarkably similar effects. This suggests that metacognitive cues operate via a common underlying mechanism whereby a participant applies increased focal attention to the primary task so as to ensure more steadfast task engagement that is not so easily diverted by task-irrelevant stimuli.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25728 (URN)10.5334/joc.9 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Campbell, T. A. & Marsh, J. E. (2018). Commentary: Donepezil enhances understanding of degraded speech in Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 10, Article ID 197.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commentary: Donepezil enhances understanding of degraded speech in Alzheimer's disease
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 10, article id 197Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
Alzheimer's dementia (AD), Cognitive hearing science, Donepezil (aricept), New early filter model, Sinewave speech perception
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27646 (URN)10.3389/fnagi.2018.00197 (DOI)000438521700001 ()30057546 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050195136 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Note

A commentary on Donepezil enhances understanding of degraded speech in Alzheimer’s disease by Hardy, C. J. D., Hwang, Y. T., Bond, R. L., Marshall, C. R., Ridha, B. H., Crutch, S. J., et al. (2017). Ann. Clin. Transl. Neurol. 4, 835–840. doi: 10.1002/acn3.471.

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Joseph, T., Hughes, R., Sörqvist, P. & Marsh, J. (2018). Differences in auditory distraction between adults and children: A duplex-mechanism approach. Journal of Cognition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in auditory distraction between adults and children: A duplex-mechanism approach
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Differences in the impact of irrelevant sound on recall performance in children (aged 7-9 years old; N = 89) compared to adults (aged 18-22 years old; N = 89) were examined. Tasks that required serial rehearsal (serial and probed-order recall tasks) were contrasted with one that did not (the missing-item task) in the presence of irrelevant sound that was either steady-state (a repeated speech token), changing-state (two alternating speech tokens) and, for the first time with a child sample, could also contain a deviant token (a male-voice token embedded in a sequence otherwise spoken in a female voice). Participants either completed tasks in which the to-be-remembered list-length was adjusted to individual digit span or was fixed at one item greater than the average span we observed for the age-group. The disruptive effects of irrelevant sound did not vary across the two methods of determining list-length. We found that tasks encouraging serial rehearsal were especially affected by changing-state sequences for both age-groups (i.e., the changing-state effect) and there were no group differences in relation to this effect. In contrast, disruption by a deviant sound—generally assumed to be the result of attentional diversion—was evident among children in all three tasks while adults were less susceptible to this effect. This pattern of results suggests that developmental differences in distraction are due to differences in attentional control rather than serial rehearsal efficiency.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26075 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J., Yang, J., Qualter, P., Richardson, C., Perham, N., Vachon, F. & Hughes, R. W. (2018). Post-Categorical Auditory Distraction in Serial Short-Term Memory: Insights from Increased Task-Load and Task-Type. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 44(6), 882-897
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-Categorical Auditory Distraction in Serial Short-Term Memory: Insights from Increased Task-Load and Task-Type
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 882-897Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Task-irrelevant speech impairs short-term serial recall appreciably. On the interference-by-process account, the processing of physical (i.e., precategorical) changes in speech yields order cues that conflict with the serial-ordering process deployed to perform the serial recall task. In this view, the postcategorical properties (e.g., phonology, meaning) of speech play no role. The present study reassessed the implications of recent demonstrations of auditory postcategorical distraction in serial recall that have been taken as support for an alternative, attentional-diversion, account of the irrelevant speech effect. Focusing on the disruptive effect of emotionally valent compared with neutral words on serial recall, we show that the distracter-valence effect is eliminated under conditions—high task-encoding load—thought to shield against attentional diversion whereas the general effect of speech (neutral words compared with quiet) remains unaffected (Experiment 1). Furthermore, the distracter-valence effect generalizes to a task that does not require the processing of serial order—the missing-item task—whereas the effect of speech per se is attenuated in this task (Experiment 2). We conclude that postcategorical auditory distraction phenomena in serial short-term memory (STM) are incidental: they are observable in such a setting but, unlike the acoustically driven irrelevant speech effect, are not integral to it. As such, the findings support a duplex-mechanism account over a unitary view of auditory distraction.

Keywords
irrelevant speech, serial STM, serial recall, auditory distraction, emotional valence
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24846 (URN)10.1037/xlm0000492 (DOI)000433984000003 ()29389192 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041192033 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Richter, H., Forsman, M., Elcadi, G. H., Brautaset, R., Marsh, J. E. & Zetterberg, C. (2018). Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article ID 298.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
Visual fatigue, Accommodation, Compensatory effort, Convergence, Disparity, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Time series analysis, Visual ergonomics
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25766 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2018.00298 (DOI)000440216100002 ()30104967 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054772976 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Note

Corrigendum: Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation Evoked by Convergence Load Under Conflicting Stimulus-to-Accommodation and Stimulus-to-Vergence Eye-Movements Measured by NIRS DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00384. ScopusId: 2-s2.0-85054817559

Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ball, L. J., Threadgold, E., Marsh, J. E. & Christensen, B. T. (2018). The effects of stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency on aesthetic judgments of abstract art: Evidence for a default–interventionist account. Metaphor and Symbol, 33(3), 235-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency on aesthetic judgments of abstract art: Evidence for a default–interventionist account
2018 (English)In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report an experiment investigating how stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency (i.e., the ease of deriving meaning) influence aesthetic liking judgments for abstract artworks. We presented participants with paintings at two levels of complexity (high vs. low) and five levels of conceptual fluency (determined from a prior norming study) and requested separate ratings of beauty and creativity. Our predictions were derived from the PIA Model (Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking), which views aesthetic preferences as being formed by two, distinct fluency-based processes: an initial, automatic, stimulus-driven, default process and a subsequent, perceiver-driven deliberative process. A key trigger for deliberative processing is assumed to be disfluency at the default stage, as caused by factors such as visual complexity. We predicted that complexity and conceptual fluency would interact in determining aesthetic liking, with people preferring complex stimuli, but only when these are relatively easy to process conceptually. Our results supported this prediction for beauty judgments, although creativity judgments showed a curiously uniform profile. Nevertheless, the predictive capacity of the PIA Model in relation to beauty judgments attests to the explanatory strength of this default?interventionist theory of aesthetic liking. We conclude by noting important parallels between the PIA Model and the Revised Optimal Innovation Hypothesis, which likewise has broad reach in explaining how defaultness and non-defaultness affect pleasure across a range of linguistic and pictorial stimuli.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27842 (URN)10.1080/10926488.2018.1481255 (DOI)000440605900008 ()2-s2.0-85050965818 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Kabanshi, A., Marsh, J. E. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). When A+B < A: Cognitive bias in experts' judgment of environmental impact. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 823.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When A+B < A: Cognitive bias in experts' judgment of environmental impact
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When ‘environmentally friendly’ items are added to a set of conventional items, people report that the total set will have a lower environmental impact even though the actual impact increases. One hypothesis is that this “negative footprint illusion” arises because people, who are susceptible to the illusion, lack necessary knowledge of the item’s actual environmental impact, perhaps coupled with a lack of mathematical skills. The study reported here addressed this hypothesis by recruiting participants (‘experts’) from a master’s program in energy systems, who thus have bachelor degrees in energy-related fields including academic training in mathematics. They were asked to estimate the number of trees needed to compensate for the environmental burden of two sets of buildings: One set of 150 buildings with conventional energy ratings and one set including the same 150 buildings but also 50 ‘green’ (energy-efficient) buildings. The experts reported that less trees were needed to compensate for the set with 150 conventional and 50 ‘green’ buildings compared to the set with only the 150 conventional buildings. This negative footprint illusion was as large in magnitude for the experts as it was for a group of novices without academic training in energy-related fields. We conclude that people are not immune to the negative footprint illusion even when they have the knowledge necessary to make accurate judgments.

Keywords
averaging bias, Climate Change, Environmental impact, Judgment, Negative footprint illusion
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26530 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00823 (DOI)000433393500002 ()29896142 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047665372 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Ljung, R., Jahncke, H., MacCutcheon, D., Pausch, F., Ball, L. J. & Vachon, F. (2018). Why are background telephone conversations distracting?. Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, 24(2), 222-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why are background telephone conversations distracting?
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2018 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control. In Experiment 1, participants performed an office-related task in quiet or in the presence of halfalogue and dialogue background speech. Irrelevant speech was either meaningful or meaningless speech. The halfalogue effect was only present for the meaningful speech condition. Experiment 2 addressed whether higher task-engagement could shield against the halfalogue effect by manipulating the font of the to-be-read material. Although the halfalogue effect was found with an easy-to-read font (fluent text), the use of a difficult-to-read font (disfluent text) eliminated the effect. The halfalogue effect is thus attributable to the semantic (un)predictability, not the acoustic unexpectedness, of background telephone conversation and can be prevented by simple means such as increasing the level of engagement required by the focal task. 

Keywords
Office noise, distraction, halfalogue, predictability, task-engagement, disfluency
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27351 (URN)10.1037/xap0000170 (DOI)000434353200007 ()29878842 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048218505 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, ITN FP7-607139
Note

Funding agencies:

- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) grant no: 418623-2013

Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Vachon, F., Labonte, K. & Marsh, J. E. (2017). Attentional capture by deviant sounds: a noncontingent form of auditory distraction?. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 43(4), 622-634
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attentional capture by deviant sounds: a noncontingent form of auditory distraction?
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 622-634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The occurrence of an unexpected, infrequent sound in an otherwise homogeneous auditory background tends to disrupt the ongoing cognitive task. This "deviation effect" is typically explained in terms of attentional capture whereby the deviant sound draws attention away from the focal activity, regardless of the nature of this activity. Yet, there is theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the attention-capture mechanism underlying this form of distraction could rather be triggered in a task-contingent fashion. The present study aimed at determining whether the auditory deviation effect reflects the action of either a stimulus-driven or a task-contingent orienting mechanism. To do so, we conducted a systematic investigation whereby the impact of verbal deviants-a letter embedded in the repetition of another letter-and spatial deviants-a sound presented contralaterally to the other sounds-on verbal and spatial short-term memory (STM) was assessed. This study established that both verbal and spatial deviants can hinder both verbal and spatial order-reconstruction (Experiment 1) and missing-item tasks (Experiment 2). Such results demonstrate that the deviation effect reflects a general form of auditory distraction as interference took place both within and across domains and regardless of the processes engaged in the focal task.

Keywords
auditory distraction, attentional capture, auditory deviation, cross-domain interference, attentional set
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24242 (URN)10.1037/xlm0000330 (DOI)000398941500011 ()27656870 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Labonté, K., Skelton, F. C., Patel, K., Threadgold, E., Fodarella, C., . . . Vachon, F. (2017). Chatting in the Face of the Eyewitness: The Impact of Extraneous Cell-Phone Conversation on Memory for a Perpetrator. Canadian journal of experimental psychology, 71(3), 183-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chatting in the Face of the Eyewitness: The Impact of Extraneous Cell-Phone Conversation on Memory for a Perpetrator
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2017 (English)In: Canadian journal of experimental psychology, ISSN 1196-1961, E-ISSN 1878-7290, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 183-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup. Further, participants rated the likeness of the composites to the perpetrator. Face recall and lineup identification were impaired when participants witnessed the staged crime in the presence of a meaningful halfalogue compared to a meaningless halfalogue, meaningful dialogue, or quiet. Moreover, likeness ratings showed that the composites constructed after ignoring the meaningful halfalogue resembled the perpetrator less than did those constructed after experiencing quiet or ignoring a meaningless halfalogue or a meaningful dialogue. The unpredictability of the meaningful content of the halfalogue, rather than its acoustic unexpectedness, produces distraction. The results are novel in that they suggest that an everyday distraction, even when presented in a different modality to target information, can impair the long-term memory of an eyewitness.

Abstract [fr]

Les conversations par téléphone cellulaire sont omniprésentes dans les espaces publics. La présente étude examine si le fait d'ignorer une conversation par téléphone cellulaire altère la mémoire d'un témoin oculaire par rapport au visage d'un malfaiteur. Les participants ont visionné une mise en scène de crime, sur vidéo, où l'on y présentait un côté d'une conversation par téléphone cellulaire compréhensible (milogue sensé), les deux côtés d'une conversation par téléphone cellulaire compréhensible (dialogue sensé), un côté d'une conversation par téléphone cellulaire incompréhensible (milogue insensé), ou le silence. Entre 24 et 48 heures plus tard, les participants décrivaient librement le visage du malfaiteur, construisaient une image composite du malfaiteur a partir de leur mémoire et tentaient d'identifier le malfaiteur dans une séance d'identification. Par la suite, les participants devaient évaluer dans quelle mesure leur image composite ressemblait au malfaiteur. Le rappel du visage et l'identification lors de la séance d'identification étaient altérés chez les participants qui avaient été témoins de la scène de crime en présence d'un milogue sensé comparativement a ceux qui étaient en présence d'un milogue insensé, d'un dialogue sensé ou du silence. De plus, les évaluations en termes de similarité ont montré que les composites construits après avoir ignoré les milogues sensés ressemblaient moins au malfaiteur que les composites construits par les participants en présence de silence, de milogue insensé ou de dialogue sensé. Le caractère imprévisible du contenu sensé du milogue, plutôt que son imprévisibilité acoustique, engendre de la distraction. Les résultats sont innovateurs en ce sens qu'ils suggèrent qu'une distraction de tous les jours, même si présentée sous une modalité différente pour cibler l'information, peut altérer la mémoire a long terme d'un témoin oculaire.

Keywords
Distraction, (psychology), dialogue, distraction, eyewitness memory, halfalogue, mémoire d'un témoin oculaire, milogue, téléphones cellulaires
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25138 (URN)10.1037/cep0000101 (DOI)000417308400001 ()28604030 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020678932 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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