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Johansson, Andreas, Universitetsadjunkt
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Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Johansson, U.-A. (2019). Queer/ed or Questioning Refugee Youth’s Negotiations of Safe Spaces and Places in the Nordics.. In: NERA 2019 - 47th Congress: Education in a Globalized World: . Paper presented at Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA)2019, 6-8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Queer/ed or Questioning Refugee Youth’s Negotiations of Safe Spaces and Places in the Nordics.
2019 (English)In: NERA 2019 - 47th Congress: Education in a Globalized World, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research topicDuring the last couple of years, Sweden, the other Nordics countries as well as many others have welcomed refugees due to a global refugee crisis (The UN Refugee Agency, 2018). Many of these refugees flee due to war but some of them flee due to e.g. persecution, oppression and violence. This pilot study is a part of an international project which focuses on how to better understand queer/ed or questioning refugee youth and how they negotiate their communities. It is a community-oriented examination of the spaces and places that these youth value and feel as though they are valued. The purpose of the pilot study is to more deeply understand how marginalized youth positively negotiate everyday oppressions and vulnerabilities in their communities in Sweden.

Theoretical frameworkThe theoretical framework stems from scholars on space and place, where these concepts are understood not only as physical characteristics and markers but also the inherently messy sets of ideas, ideals, histories, peoples, practices, and contexts that combine to characterize their particularities (Cresswell, 2004; Massey, 1995). The framework also includes queer geography theory which is the theorization on of how space and sexuality has been studied with reference to what sexualities and what activities are accepted in which places (e.g. Brown, 2000). This theorization also includes concepts of heteronormativity, homonormativity, queer spaces and queering places.

Methodological designThe multimodal approach of this pilot study consists of both focus group interviews and visual ethnographies. Interviews offer an insight on participants’ perceptions, experiences, narratives or interpretations on the issues stressed in this paper. Visual ethnography draws upon audiovisual media’s unique ability to share insights about people and places on multiple registers –discursive, embodied, spatial etc. (e.g. Pink, 2013). The visual ethnographies where the participants will use available technologies (mobile devices) to create video recordings of the spaces and places they value in their communities. These recordings together with the interviews will thus help us in how to better understand refugee youth and queer/ed or questioning refugee youth and how they negotiate their communities within Nordic contexts.

Expected findingsAnalyses are still in the initial phase, but some preliminary findings point to the significance that the 262informants assign to visual markers such as rainbow-colored flags. Another finding made were complexities of “being out” in Sweden versus in their native country, where although they faced more discrimination there they experience themselves as more closeted in their new communities compared to their former ones.

ReferencesBrown, M.P. (2000). Closet Space: Geographies of Metaphor from the Body to the Globe. London: Routledge.

Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A Short Introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Massey, D. (1995). Imagining the World. In: Allen, J. & Massey, D. (ed.), The Shape of the Worl: Explorations in Human Geography. Vol. 1, Geographical Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pink, S. (2013). Doing Visual Ethnography. Washington DC: SAGE Publication.

The UN Refugee Agency (2018). Overview Northern Europe. From: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29373 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA)2019, 6-8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U.-A. & Mølstad, C. E. (2018). School Certification: Marketing Schools by their Appearance. In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress : Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts. Paper presented at Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA)2018, 8-10 Mars 2018, Oslo, Norway (pp. 110).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School Certification: Marketing Schools by their Appearance
2018 (English)In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress : Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 110-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Since the mid-1990’s the Swedish School system, as well as others, has developed a closer connection between education, economy and the market as a consequence of neoliberal reforms (Fernández, 2012; Dahlstedt, 2007). Coming with neoliberal reforms is a movement of decentralisation of school systems making marketing and concurrence a natural part of the educational landscape which can be seen in most OECD countries. However, Sweden as a case makes an especially interesting example because of the intensity of this development. Today in Sweden, this can even be seen in discussing education in terms of a ‘local school market’ (Lundahl, 2002; 2010). In this new educational logic students’ have been given the role of customers enabling them to choose between schools, at the same time forcing schools to compete against each other to attract students’ (Lund, 2006; Norén, 2003). To do so, schools has developed different marketing technologies to illuminate themselves as the best option on the market or to ‘sell themselves by appearance’. These technologies are manifold such as websites, specific bonuses if choosing a school e.g. computers or summer camps, promises of a successful future due to grade rate at the schools, but also a practice of selling the schools by various certifications has appeared. Certifications are constructed in different ways and highlight different aspects with an outspoken purpose of attracting the youths of today. ‘Green certifications’ have been around for a while and the latest observed are certifications saying that the school and all the personnel are certified for knowing e.g. gender- and gay-rights. The purpose of certifications is often marketed as a way for illustrating that the school is modern and keeping up with societal developments. In order to analyse the new technology of certification as part of a new educational logic the paper historicise on institutional speech acts and different ‘styles of reasoning’ (Hacking, 1992) evident in the school contexts of today. Even though the case is Sweden with its specific characteristics, the analysis show that a lot of the trajectories have importance on a global scale. What is especially elaborated on is how appearance as a market logic with its specific technologies is directed towards individuals and as such come to play a part of educational governance. By elaborating on the phenomenon of appearance, in terms of certifications, some changes in the educational landscape can be highlighted, where marketing for individuals is more emphasized than marketing for groups and by that changes traditional historical reasoning on schooling.

Keywords
school market, certifications, LGBTQ
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26909 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA)2018, 8-10 Mars 2018, Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U.-A. (2016). Once upon a threshold: A narrative study of three men in their twenties and their experiences of violating the norms of a heteronormative school environment. In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at NERA 2016, Nordic Educational Research Association, 44th Congress, 9-11 March 2016, Helsinki, Finland (pp. 98-98).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Once upon a threshold: A narrative study of three men in their twenties and their experiences of violating the norms of a heteronormative school environment
2016 (English)In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 98-98Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The school takes part in reproducing societal norms and values, something that is seen as a natural part of its culture-transferring mission. Some of these norms and values ​​can be explained by the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity, which aims to elucidate the norms and structures that emphasize heterosexuality as normal, making other sexual orientations deviant. Discrimination of non-heterosexual people in school as a place has slowly decreased in recent years (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2014). However, that does not mean that the discrimination has been reduced in school as an environment, yet instead it has found expression through new ways such as through the Internet and through telephone/texting. This study aims to elucidate the experiences of students who commit norm violations of heteronormativity and thus exposed to the risk of discrimination due to non-heterosexuality, this is to increase the understanding of students’ experiences of a heteronormative school environment.

The study was conducted through a narrative approach and narratives as method (Johansson, 2006). Three interviews were conducted with males identifying as non-heterosexuals. The theoretical framework that built the analysis consisted of the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity as part of the environment and as an influencing factor in students ' socialization (Ambjörnsson, 2006). The students’ produces and reproduces norms about gender identity through socialization, making certain kinds of masculinity normal thus leads other masculinities to become deviant. The narratives have also been analyzed through Connell's (2008) concept of hegemonic masculinity, which intends to describe the power structures nature and function within and between different masculinities.

The result shows that discrimination does not need to depend on actual homosexuality but also even suspected, or materialized, homosexuality. The results also indicates something that I have chosen to call homo-hatred, where hatred is displayed by non- heterosexuals towards others who identify as or are suspected of being non-heterosexual, despite the own sexual orientation.It has been interpreted as them kicking sideways instead of kicking upwards within the power structures of masculinities, which may be a natural reaction for the students ‘survival’. Sports seem to function as a marker of heterosexuality, where the distinctions between masculinities are made visible and the violations of heteronormativity becomes tense. Conclusions drawn from these interpretations were that the consequences or meaning of norm violations may shift over time and doesn’t necessarily need to be negative for the student, even if they were perceived as negative when they occurred.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21323 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2016, Nordic Educational Research Association, 44th Congress, 9-11 March 2016, Helsinki, Finland
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U.-A. (2016). The risk of nonperformativity of LGBT-certifications of Swedish schools. In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at NERA 2016, Nordic Educational Research Association, 44th Congress, 9-11 March 2016, Helsinki, Finland (pp. 99-100).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The risk of nonperformativity of LGBT-certifications of Swedish schools
2016 (English)In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 99-100Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are several different regulating documents that are supposed to control Swedish schools in an anti-discriminating way, such as the Discrimination Act and policies for Equal Opportunities and Fair treatment, but discrimination of LGBTQ-students is still a part of school environments (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2015). There has been a lot of research done that has tried to draw upon the daily struggles of these students within school environments in Sweden, my master thesis included (Johansson, 2015). In the middle of November 2015, Sweden obtained its first LGTBQ-certified upper secondary school, a kind of certification that has become more and more popular during the last decade in other types of organizations. It’s a 16 hour education spread throughout 1 year to withhold the certification, where the entire school staff is educated in anti-oppressive methods both through the organization of the school and the interaction with students (RFSL, 2015). Since this certification is a relatively new part of the discourse of anti-discrimination within school, I find it interesting to examine. I ask myself why we need this. Shouldn’t the current regulating documents be enough? Why do the schools feel the need to do it? What may the motif behind the certification be? Why now? The issue has been a school issue for a long time, the certification of other organizations has been done the last decade. The aim of this study is to elucidate and analyze the speech of LBGTQ-certifications of Swedish schools and also investigate its possible consequences. To attempt in straightening my question marks, I want to try to answer another set of questions, namely; i) How is the LGBTQ-certification expressed? ii) What meaning is given these certifications? and iii) What may the consequences be?

The approach to these questions will be a critical discourse analysis. Critical discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice. Linguistic practice and social practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. The study object will be the anti-discriminating discourse with a focus on the speech of the LGBTQ-certifications, both the documents from the certifiers and the speech of the certified schools. Using Faircloughs (1992) model of critical discourse analysis, I want to elucidate and analyze the texts creating the certifications, the anti-discriminating discourse practices used through the certification and also try to problematize and discuss their possible consequences in the social practices within Swedish schools. The analysis will be conducted through concepts of performativity and nonperformativity which is aimed to show how repetition and a practice within discourses do or do not produce what they’re actually speaking of. When speech of for example anti-discrimination circulates within an institution it can create an illusion that the speech follows or is followed by action. Sometimes these speech acts may hide the fact that the speech, in this case “we are LGBT-certified”, doesn’t necessarily result in any action what so ever.

The discourse of LGBT-certification, as a part of the anti-discriminating discourse, is written and expressed through the framework of social justice and equality and equity for all. To be LGBT-certified is something that schools of Sweden is supposed to be proud over. The institutional speech act of “We’re LGBT-certified” though is something that could be suspected becoming a non-performative, expressed but not followed by action and therefore not handling the issues constituting the very existence of these certifications. However, it is fair to say that the certification will lead to some sort of action, since its’ supposed to give the staff of the school a new approach. If so, the action due to the certification is also interesting to explore. What possible consequences could this new approach lead to?

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21324 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2016, Nordic Educational Research Association, 44th Congress, 9-11 March 2016, Helsinki, Finland
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
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