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Gill, Peter
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Publications (10 of 29) Show all publications
Hellfeldt, K., Gill, P. E. & Johansson, B. (2018). Longitudinal Analysis of Links Between Bullying Victimization and Psychosomatic Maladjustment in Swedish Schoolchildren. Journal of School Violence, 17(1), 86-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal Analysis of Links Between Bullying Victimization and Psychosomatic Maladjustment in Swedish Schoolchildren
2018 (English)In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-sectional studies of bullying mask variability in categories of and persistence of bullying victimization. Longitudinal, individual-level data offers a greater insight into schoolchildren’s psychosomatic maladjustment as a consequence of bullying. Swedish schoolchildren (n = 3,349), with unique identifiers, in 44 schools (4th–9th grade), answered a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Longitudinal trends for nonvictims (88%), ceased victims (4.7%), new victims (5.7%), and continuing victims (1.6%) revealed that new victims had the largest decrease in well-being; continuing victims had a smaller though not significant decrease; while ceased victims showed a small, (nonsignificant) increase in well-being over the measurement period. It was also discovered that children not bullied at baseline but bullied subsequently, differed, at baseline, from their never-bullied peers through lower levels of overall well-being. It is argued that this finding has implications for prevention strategies.

Keywords
Bullying, individual-level longitudinal data, peer victimization, somatic and emotional maladjustment, well-being
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25764 (URN)10.1080/15388220.2016.1222498 (DOI)000429503700007 ()2-s2.0-84988447806 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. (2017). A Case Study Of How An Irish Island School Contributes To Community Sustainability, Viability And Vitality. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 27(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study Of How An Irish Island School Contributes To Community Sustainability, Viability And Vitality
2017 (English)In: Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, ISSN 1036-0026, Vol. 27, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Island studies have rarely focused on the role of small schools on offshore islands. Island schools are often impacted by the decisions of national, regional and local educational authorities, particularly in today’s world where diseconomic and disbenefit arguments highlight the non-viability of small schools. Such schools are seen as unable to provide an adequate curriculum, socially disadvantageous and generally inefficient. This raises an important question: How does a small island school promote the participation and engagement of families and the community? This paper reports a bounded case to illustrate the characteristics intrinsic to a single small rural school as a communal hub on one of Ireland’s Atlantic islands. A narrative about the school in past and present times, along with vulnerability mapping, is used to explore the social dynamics of the island school within its community. The findings show how the modern diaspora is different from that of earlier generations. The case also illustrates the differences in vulnerabilities between a perceived attractive environment, supported by a viable school potentially driving in-migration, and communities where the absence of a primary school or the risk of its closure would diminish the attractiveness of an island as a place for young families.

Keywords
small rural schools, communal viability, case study, social vulnerability
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25458 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E., Simonsson, B.-E. & Matton, P. (2017). Consequences for prevention strategies of reduced prevalence of bullying at school-class and school level in a Swedish Municipality. In: ECER 2017: . Paper presented at ECER2017, Network 5: Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education, 22-25 August 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences for prevention strategies of reduced prevalence of bullying at school-class and school level in a Swedish Municipality
2017 (English)In: ECER 2017, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A crucial feature of school classes, as intact social entities, is that members share certain values (Boehnke & Schiefer, 2016). Saarento, Garandeau and Salmivalli (2015), argue that the influence of classroom- and school-level factors on bullying involves demographic, structural, peer contextual and teacher-related dimensions. Swearer et al. (2014) use a theory of “homophily and bullying” to argue for a homophily hypothesis where within group similarity leads to bullies physically or relationally rejecting those who are different and withdrawing any social support for victims.  However, Saarento, Garandeau and Salmivalli’s conclusion (op.cit.) was that the contributions of demographic, school structural and school-class characteristics remain inconsistent.  On the other hand, recent Swedish research (Thornberg et al., 2015 & Thornberg et al., 2016), after controlling for factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, school-class size and gender composition, found that relational climate and experience of moral disengagement within school-classes was a significant predictor of between-class variation in victimisation.  Victimisation was less likely in classes characterised by supportive relational patterns and lower levels of moral disengagement in the classroom, a result confirmed by Grundherr (et al., 2016). The research reported here builds on a presentation at ECER 2016 (Gill, Larsson, Matton, Simonsson & Levin, 2016) that explored some consequences of systematic reductions of prevalence of bullying at school. It was argued that Swedish anti-bullying programs are being delivered at the later phases of an implementation research continuum (Chalamandaris &  Piette, 2015).   Uncovering new or persistent cases of bullying becomes more difficult as prevalence of bullying reduces (successful implementation). Being bullied at least 2 to 3 times a month between 2009–2015, among 200,000 children in 1500 Finnish schools (grades 1–9) decreased from 17.2% at baseline to 12.6% after six years of implementation of the KiVa program (Herkama & Salmivalli, 2016). Even though creating reliable measures of bullying prevalence is difficult (Vivolo-Kantor et al., 2014), Finnish prevalence is considerably higher than in Sweden, national average is about 7/8%, which in turn, is higher than the average in the municipality where this research has been carried out (4.9%, Spring 2016).  With prevalence rates at this level it is possible to envisage realistic “zero-vision” and “zero-tolerance” strategies. (For a critical review of zero-tolerance, see Borgwald & Theixos, 2013 and James & Freeze, 2006). Any goal of reducing a low prevalence of bullying in Sweden, even lower, is mediated by the discovery, from individual-level, longitudinal data, where successful cases of ceased victims are regularly replaced by new victims (Flygare, Gill & Johansson, 2013: Hellstedt, Johansson & Gill, 2016), revealing a cyclical replacement of victims. While up to 75% of victims at one time will self-report not being victimized at one-year follow-up, rates at cross-sectional measurement may remain the same (typically 7/8% in Swedish schools, op.cit.).  The Norwegian “Zero Program” (Strohmeier and Noam, 2012) is based on a “zero-vision” manifesto. Köhler (2006) in outlining health indicators for Swedish children argues that while some ideal zero-outcomes might not stand up as credible operational targets, using “zero vision” as a reference point may be reasonable in some cases. In the municipality that is the focus here, evidence is emerging that some schools and school classes are coming closer to a zero-vision reference point.  In a school with 200 children, in 8 or 9 classes, a point prevalence rate of 3% would indicate that at least two, possibly three classes in that school had no victims of bullying.  It is argued that this circumstance creates new challenges for prevention strategies.  Therefore, it is important to delve deeper into changes in “the picture of bullying”.  That is the goal of this research.

Method

Since the initiation of the rolling intervention (2011/12), where participation was voluntary, 6 schools have become 29 (including independent academy schools).  Since Autumn 2016, all 4th to 9th graders, in these schools, have participated in the municipality’s web-based “School Care Questionnaire”.  Included in this questionnaire is the instrument used by the National Agency for Education in estimating prevalence of bullying (see Flygare, Gill & Johansson, 2013, for details).  The questionnaire is delivered twice during the school year (October and April).  These measurements will allow for follow-up comparisons for 6000 children distributed between 300 school classes in 29 schools. Descriptive statistics will be used to establish realistic estimates of prevalence of bullying victimization. Rates for individuals categorised as “bullied” will be matched by a global index of “no involvement” (that is, no self-reported “incidents” of any kind, including events we refer to as “fun-like rough and tumble).

Expected Outcomes

Fluctuations in point prevalence estimates, at classroom level, will be revealed.  These will be examined with reference to indicated cases (school classes) where bullying is recurring (at follow-up) or is seen to be exceptionally high.  Statistical patterns will be tested against practitioners, responsible teachers, head-teachers, schools anti-bullying teams and municipal supervisor’s hands-on experiences of the school year in question (2016/17).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25461 (URN)
Conference
ECER2017, Network 5: Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education, 22-25 August 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. & Kelly, G. (2016). Case-study of how an island school contributes to communal sustainability, viability and vitality. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 22-26 August 2016, Dublin, Ireland. , Article ID 2769.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Case-study of how an island school contributes to communal sustainability, viability and vitality
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Island studies, important in the history of science, have rarely focused on the role of small schools on offshore islands, not least because there is no agreed definition of a ‘small school’. Demographic trends and rationalization principles put increasing pressure on national, regional and local authorities to make consolidation choices about school size policies.  In these considerations, diseconomic and disbenefit arguments are made pertaining to the retention of small schools. In Norway and Sweden, due to the geographical dispersion of the population, policy makers have accepted that in maintaining communities in sparsely populated areas higher costs associated with maintaining education in rural and remote areas are inevitable and acceptable, while Iceland views schooling in rural areas as a national responsibility. There is little information available about pupil outcomes in small multi-grade classes in the Irish context. Small schools are frequently objected to as being non-viable, being unable to provide an adequate curriculum, being socially disadvantageous and by being generally inefficient. While smaller schools face economies of scale there is evidence that small size yields some achievement advantages. How does a small island school promote the participation and engagement of families and the community?  The present study examines the role played by the single primary school on one of Ireland’s offshore islands. While a process of “learning and leaving” is not an uncommon island experience, some studies have suggested that small rural schools can have integrative benefits for the local community helping to promote local vibrancy and community viability. In this descriptive case-study vulnerability mapping is used to expose threats to the island school. The dynamics of diaspora (dis)engagement and (dis)affection are examined through the curricula vitae of alumni. It is argued that the modern diaspora is uniquely different from the diaspora of earlier generations. The island school nurturing of local memories and histories is explored through the example of the schoolchildren’s annual Christmas concert. Demographic drivers such as birth rates and ageing population are examined. This island’s experience is as an example of the ‘new mosaic of rural regions’ in Europe, where communal sustainability, viability and vitality often hinges on the attractiveness of a particular living space. While perceived “attractive” environments may drive in-migration, the absence of a primary school would diminish the attractiveness of an island as a place for young families.  The symbolic capital of island life is examined. Headship, local management and multi-grade teaching challenges are explored.

Keywords
island school, case-study, communal viability, sustainability
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23061 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 22-26 August 2016, Dublin, Ireland
Note

14 SES 04 B, Rural Schools as Hubs for the Socio-educational Development of the Community (Part 1)

Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E., Larsson, P., Matton, P., Simonsson, B.-E. & Levin, E. (2016). Research to Practice: Rolling Implementation of Evidence-Based Anti-Bullying Strategies in a Swedish Municipality. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 22-26 August 2016, Dublin, Ireland. , Article ID 305.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research to Practice: Rolling Implementation of Evidence-Based Anti-Bullying Strategies in a Swedish Municipality
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a dearth of research into the consequences of systematic reductions of prevalence of target behaviors, such as bullying, in school-based prevention science.  Reducing prevalence may also result in making bullying more difficult to uncover (Cunningham et al., 2015). Preventing bullying at school is a much researched field (Ttofi & Farrington, 2011).  In international comparisons, prevalence of bullying at school varies widely, with rates for Swedish schools regularly being lowest (e.g., among 66 countries, Due & Holstein, 2008).  Conditions influencing program efficacy are likely to vary as prevalence of target behavior is reducing.  School-wide prevention strategies, in schools with one or more victims in every class, present a very different challenge compared to schools where victims are found in every second of third class.  Recent longitudinal data from Sweden (Swedish Agency for Education, 2011; Hellstedt, Johansson & Gill, 2016 forthcoming) has revealed a cyclical replacement of victims, after successful intervention, showing that while rates at cross-sectional measurement intervals may remain the same (typically 6/7% in Swedish schools), up to 75% of victims at one time will self-report not being victimized at one-year follow-up (op.cit.).  Low rates of bullying in Sweden are the result intervention strategies based on a wide variety of ‘standard’ (International, Scandinavian & National) prevention programs, at least 21 according to Skolverket (2003).  A national evaluation revealed extensive program cross-contamination, proving the unviability of “gold standard” evaluation practices. “What works” conclusions were described in terms of program components.  When “promising” evidence for effective program components is produced, there is an inevitable momentum to package components into replicable “programs”.  We argue that this momentum may hamper response flexibility, particularly when program providers, in seeking to be “evidence based” may place more importance on implementation functions such as program fidelity and dosage rather than individual outcomes. We argue that considerations such as dosage and program fidelity are less relevant when anti-bullying initiatives are being adapted to variations in school contexts and climates (Gregory, Henry & Schoeny, 2007).  Component efficacy and effectiveness may also be masked by confidentiality requirements in program evaluations and outcome assessments that are based on follow-up, cross-sectional, cohort statistics.  What works in Sweden, for example, found by Frisén, Hasselblad & Holmqvist (2012), based on evidence from former victims, in descending order of importance: Support from school personnel; Transition to new school level; Change of coping strategies; Support from parents; Change of appearance or way of being; Change of school or class as a deliberate attempt to make the bullying stop; New friends; The bullies changed their attitude; No particular reason; and Support from peers, may not translate to other cultures, school systems and traditions.  With observed low prevalence, extensive program implementation, research evidence on effective components and extensive judicial obligations, it is likely, that in most Swedish municipalities, active anti-bullying programs may, theoretically, be located at the later phases of an implementation research continuum (Chalamandaris &  Piette, 2015, after Flay,1986, & Flay et al., 2005).  This, late stage program/component developemt, also has an impact on schools’ potential capacity to improve (Oterkiil & Ertesvåg, 2012).  Given these contexts, it is important to research the present state of evidence based anti-bullying strategies in Sweden.  Using best practice in program implementation evaluation a descriptive case study of scaled-up, school district-wide (Rhoades, Bumbarger & Moore 2012), research-to-action (Guhn et al., 2012) anti-bullying strategies in a Swedish municipality is presented. The goal is to investigate conditions, participants, hindrances, responses and outcomes at different stages of a rolling implementation process.  This Swedish example may be of value in other European school systems where prevalence is reducing toward Swedish levels.

Keywords
rolling implementation, research-to-practice, anti-bullying
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23062 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 22-26 August 2016, Dublin, Ireland
Note

Network 5: Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education

Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. & Larsson, P. (2015). Incident-Level Analysis of 703 Retrospective Self-Reports of Ordinary Violence Recalled by 334 Swedes Aged 6 to 45 Years. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(12), 2129-2150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incident-Level Analysis of 703 Retrospective Self-Reports of Ordinary Violence Recalled by 334 Swedes Aged 6 to 45 Years
2015 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2129-2150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos.

Keywords
event-recall interviews, ordinary violence, Swedes, gender differences
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17686 (URN)10.1177/0886260514552270 (DOI)000355264900007 ()25304671 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84930335736 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. & Persson, M. (2014). A shared responsibility model for the professional, interdisciplinary and scientific development of student teachers, practicum supervisors and teacher educators. In: : . Paper presented at Teachers matter – but how?, October 23-24, 2014, Växjö, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A shared responsibility model for the professional, interdisciplinary and scientific development of student teachers, practicum supervisors and teacher educators
2014 (English)In: , 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
shared-responsibility-model, teacher training, practicum supervision
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18059 (URN)
Conference
Teachers matter – but how?, October 23-24, 2014, Växjö, Sweden
Available from: 2014-11-22 Created: 2014-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. (2014). Naiva förväntningar och kreativa lösningar kring "nätet" som examinationsverktyg. In: : . Paper presented at Digital examination i högskolan, 26 - 27 November 2014, Solna, Sverige.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naiva förväntningar och kreativa lösningar kring "nätet" som examinationsverktyg
2014 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
digital examination, examinationsverktyg
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18060 (URN)
Conference
Digital examination i högskolan, 26 - 27 November 2014, Solna, Sverige
Available from: 2014-11-22 Created: 2014-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. E. (2014). Om elever som kränker eller mobbar andra : Om mobbning och kränkningar på nätet. In: : . Paper presented at Föredrag om Gävlemodellen mot mobbning, 15 augusti 2014, arrangerad av Utbildning Gävle, BIG och Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sverige.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Om elever som kränker eller mobbar andra : Om mobbning och kränkningar på nätet
2014 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
mobbningsförebyggande, Gävlemodellen, kränkningar på nätet
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18061 (URN)
Conference
Föredrag om Gävlemodellen mot mobbning, 15 augusti 2014, arrangerad av Utbildning Gävle, BIG och Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sverige
Available from: 2014-11-22 Created: 2014-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gill, P. (2013). Elever som kränker och mobbar andra (1ed.). In: Kränkningar i skolan – analyser av problem och lösningar: (pp. 112-133). Stockholm: Skolverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elever som kränker och mobbar andra
2013 (Swedish)In: Kränkningar i skolan – analyser av problem och lösningar, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2013, 1, p. 112-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vad som särskiljer elever som kränker och mobbar andra undersöks och analyseras i kapitlet. Där berättas om olika roller i mobbningen och begreppen kulturell och strukturell mobbning beskrivs. Utifrån detta analyseras möjligheterna att motverka mobbning med fokus på de som utsätter andra.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Skolverket, 2013 Edition: 1
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15993 (URN)978-91-7559-075-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
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