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Elm, Annika, UniversitetslektorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4696-4142
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Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Liljestrand, J., Elm, A., Johansson, U.-A. & Mårtensson, K. (2019). Introducing and exploring student teachers use of digital tools – preliminary results from a development project. In: : . Paper presented at ATEE Annual Conference 'Teacher Education in a changing global context', 13-16 August 2019, Bath, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing and exploring student teachers use of digital tools – preliminary results from a development project
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as well as in other countries, the digital revolution has impacted society profoundly (Brynjolfsson & MacAffe, 2015). The digital evolution, or revolution, has created a need of new digital competences for both teachers in preschools, elementary school, secondary school, upper secondary school and higher education (Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation, 2017). These digital competences both include technological and pedagogical knowledge in order to teach successfully in the digital society (e.g. Davies et al 1997; Granberg 2010; Instefjord & Munthe 2016).

There is a need to develop TE in order to meet this challenge. The aim of our development project, running during one semester (autumn 2018) was to contribute to innovation in teacher education through a conscious use of digital technology. The concept of TPACK is employed as a tool to explore the ways in which technology impacts on what is learned in TE. The following research questions are formulated: In what ways does the use of ICT contribute to student teachers planning and reflecting regarding their teaching in school? What added pedagogical values in teacher education practice can be discerned from the perspective of the student teachers in this project?   

Our theoretical framework is based on Koehler & Mishra’s (2009) concept of technological content knowledge, TPACK. The notion of TPACK is bringing together 1) content knowledge and 2) pedagogical content knowledge with the impact of technology on these two dimensions. Furthermore, TPACK-analysis involves consideration about the contextual conditions contributing to how these three key dimensions interacts.

The students were introduced to the project. Research ethical considerations were made in accordance with The Swedish Research Council’s guidelines. Data comprises anonymized course materials without any information about the students; course evaluations and course assignments, the former anonymized by origin and the latter anonymized in retrospect. In the surveys, data is collected through open-question, individual surveys distributed to student teachers in three different courses at different levels in the TE-program for primary school. The open questions are highlighting possible new experiences of using digital resources as a resource in teacher education and for teaching in school. We have also analysed TE-students course assignments in which students describe their lesson plans, including the digital design, involved in their teaching design. Both the course assignments and the course evaluations has been coded according to qualitative content analysis focussing on the dimension of TPACK. The written documents was read several times in order to discern recurrent themes. After this stage of qualitative analysis, overall patterns of frequencies will be taking into account in order to relate to earlier comparable studies.

Our preliminary results (further results will be presented in August 2019) shows that student teachers tend to focus on the tools themselves and their inherent qualities. However, there are also indications of how the digital technology enables representations that highlight spatial dimensions of teaching content such as the movement of animal bodies, or three-dimensional representations of planets. One contextual setting shaping these student approaches is related to the structure and progression of the TE-program, with both possibilities and limitations for digital learning.

Our results are pointing to the need of focussing on critical aspects, i.e. the framing of teaching content and added pedagogical values, through introducing the work with digital tools and their implications for teaching content, systematically and early in the TE-programme.  The TPACK-concept involves challenges but also provides an important resource for this purpose. Our exploration intend to shed light on how this could be done in TE as earlier research also seem to confirm this challenge (Voogt & McKenney 2017).   

National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29587 (URN)
ATEE Annual Conference 'Teacher Education in a changing global context', 13-16 August 2019, Bath, UK


Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Elm, A. & Liljestrand, J. (2019). Preschool Teachers´ Professional Development : Teachers and Researchers in Collaboration. In: ECER 2019: Abstracts. Paper presented at ECER 'Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future', 3-6 September, 2019, Hamburg, Germany. , Article ID 468.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool Teachers´ Professional Development : Teachers and Researchers in Collaboration
2019 (English)In: ECER 2019: Abstracts, 2019, article id 468Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As in many other European countries early childhood education, including preschool, includes teaching in the area of subject knowledge. In Sweden this is related to a changed policy in order to connect preschool with the school system. Since 2011, “teaching” has been established as a new aspect of the preschool’s mandate and, since 2010, subjects like maths, science have been added to the national syllabus. Earlier, subjects has also been part of a preschool tradition already present in Fröbel’s kindergarten. In this earlier approach the intention was not to prepare for the forthcoming school and its subject content. Today, the national preschool syllabus has subject goals that overlaps with those of the school, often stated in a rather detailed, academic form. In addition, the Swedish school inspectorate has also included the preschools in its evaluations. According to the Swedish education act, practice should be based on scientific knowledge and proven experience. These changed directives comes with increasing expectations and demands on the preschool teacher profession for implementing this assignment. In light of this background we aim to support the preschool teachers to develop a professional and inside-out based (Stanley & Stronach 2013) knowledge for acting as professionals in this changed context. In this contribution we will direct our interest on the subject area of science and technology.

Previous research has identified possibilities or lack of possibilities for science and technology learning in early childhood environments, with a tendency to a ‘diagnostic’ approach to preschool teacher knowledge. However, this research does not go far enough in investigating programs for developing preschool teachers´ science content knowledge (e.g. Nilsson, 2014; Fleer, 2009; Nilsson & Elm, 2017). Against the background of the need for including preschool teachers experiences and knowledge in a fair way (cf. Berry et al. 2008), while simultaneously recognize the need of further development in subject content, in the institutional frame of the preschool, we will address preschool teachers pedagogic content knowledge (PCK). The latter (PCK) refers to teachers´ understanding of the content and experiences and attitudes towards science. Our research question reads: In what ways can collaboration between preschool teachers´ and researchers contribute to preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development with special regard to preschool teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge?

Our methodological approach is guided by Participatory Action Research (PAR) highlighting the need of a democratic process, developing of practical knowledge related to issues that are of great concern for the participants (Reason & Bradbury 2001). Furthermore, PAR recognizes our partners’ knowledge and experiences as a vital element to be brought into the research process (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood & Maguire, 2003). Thus, an important factor is the interaction between the researcher and the interests within the educational field, in order to promote both researchers and the practitioners work and goals. From this starting point there is initially an explicitly stated drive to meet on equal terms and to support each other to develop.

The other leg, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) includes teachers’ understanding of how children learn, or fail to learn; in relation to this specific subject matter has been found to be an important matter. That is, a perspective on professional development that focus on preschool teachers´ understanding of the content, pedagogical content knowledge and attitudes towards science (cf. Schulman, 1987; Van Driel & Berry, 2012). Representation of teacher content knowledge (CoRe) by means of a commonly developed table, is systematically used as a tool to trigger preschool teachers´ ideas of both science and technology content as a tool for development and cooperation.

Methodology or Methods/ Research Instruments or Sources Used

9 preschool teachers during 1,5 year (currently ongoing) participates in the research project which includes both indoors- and outdoors activities focusing on technology and science content, paying attention to children’s perspectives. The teachers are meeting in reflective group sessions once a month. For this paper data was collected through a qualitative approach consisting of 23 + 29 hours recorded semi structured interviews with the participating preschool teachers from one preschool unit. The interviews were conducted after the first and third semester of participation. Data was then analysed out from thematic content analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

As Braun and Clarke (2006) argue, it is a method that requires researchers to be clear about what they do, why they do it and how the analysis is conducted. The analyses of the data in this study were part of an inductive process from a) transcription → b) identifying emergent initial codes → c) searching for themes → d) reviewing and revising themes → e) defining and naming themes → f) formulating the result (with the starting point in identified and named themes). First, the interviews were transcribed verbatim. Some of the statements made in the interviews that did not correspond to the subject were not transcribed. Second, the data was read, and assigned initial codes.

The third step involved searching for overall themes, based on the initial codes. In this step, the researchers sorted the data under each theme separately. In the fourth step themes were compared, data were reviewed the themes revised. In this process, similarities were identified in the themes that had emerged in the analysis of the interviews. Related examples of the participants’ learning were examined and refined until consensus was reached. Fifth, to establish the validity of the coding and identified themes, the authors worked to finally define and name the themes. The main data was then compared with the themes and provided a critical overview in terms of aspects being overemphasised, under represented, too vague or biased. The final step in the analysis, with a starting point in the themes, was to formulate the results.

Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

Our results from the interview data shows that the use of CoRe:s contribute to focus on the specific content in a more systematic way. Some of the preschool teachers expressed how the use of the CoRe:s and the formulation of ‘Big Ideas’ supported them to establish the fundamental ideas of the topic they were teaching. With documentation in CoRe preschool teachers have been able to make visible aspects of their own practice and to see the educational value of a current situation. In their collegial work, the documentation of CoRe contributes to the preschool teachers distancing themselves from their daily practices and makes them evaluate their actions and activities. Further, the use of CoRE seems to provide a different point for innovative change in the preschool development. In this way, the collective knowledge of a team becomes qualitatively different to that of a single individual. In addition, other themes also comprises: improved knowledge of processes for planning; visibility of different aspects in the daily practice and in children's learning processes; a broader view connected to international and national development in preschool and society, and a practice on scientific basis.

 Our research contributes with how “teachers and other professionals on the field of education learn and develop throughout their professional career” in the developing field of early childhood education and its rising expectation of subject knowledge. We also attempt to show how teacher development and the research process is dependent on their reciprocal development in order to be accomplished. In a time characterized by rapid policy changes in the educational systems in Europe, the need for practitioner-researcher collaborations supporting professionalism based on conscious professional agency is of great concern.


Berry, A., Loughran, J. & van Driel, J.H. (2008) Revisiting the Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30:10, 1271-1279.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3. (2). p. 77-101.

Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research? Action Research, vol. 1. (1). p. 9-28.

Fleer, M. (2009). Supporting scientific conceptual consciousness or learning in ‘a Roundabout Way’ in play-based contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 31(8), p. 1069–1089.

Nilsson, P. (2014). When Teaching Makes a Difference: Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study. International Journal of Science Education, 36(11), 1794-1814.

Nilsson, P. & Elm, A. (2016). Capturing and developing early childhood teachers´ science Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) through CoRes. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (5), 406-424.

Reason, P & Bradbury, H (2001). Introduction: Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration. Peter Reason & Hilary Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research. London: SAGE.

Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö98. www.skolverket.se

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

Stanley, E. and, & Stronach, I. (2013) Raising and doubling ‘standards' in professional discourse: a critical bid. Journal of Educational Policy, 28(3), pp. 291-305.

van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. K. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher, 41(1), 26 - 28.

National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29430 (URN)
ECER 'Education in an Era of Risk – the Role of Educational Research for the Future', 3-6 September, 2019, Hamburg, Germany
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Elm, A. & Nordqvist, I. (2019). The research circle - a tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(5), 621-633
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The research circle - a tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 621-633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article explores a professional learning programme, a research circle, in which preschool teachers and researchers collaborate on content relating to sustainable development, science and technology. It investigates how collaborations between preschool teachers and researchers can contribute to professional learning and preschool development. The research focuses on experiences of participation in research circles and makes use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). The data consists of twelve preschool teachers’ written documentation as preparation for seminars in the research circle and semi-structured interviews with eight preschool teachers. The analysis explores three bodies of social and educational change: individuals, teams and organisations. The overall conclusion is that participation in a research circle support preschool teachers to become more aware of their own practices, address issues and challenges and make improvements in a collaborative and reflective way, it is a useful tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development. 

Preschool teacher, professional learning, science, sustainable development, technology
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30575 (URN)10.1080/02619768.2019.1652899 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070519492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Elm, A. & Liljestrand, J. (2018). Documentation between local professionalism and accountability – a case from the Swedish preschool. In: ATEE, 2018, book of abstracts.: . Paper presented at ATEE Annual Conference 2018: A future for all – teaching for a sustainable society, 20th–22nd August 2018, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Documentation between local professionalism and accountability – a case from the Swedish preschool
2018 (English)In: ATEE, 2018, book of abstracts., 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Documentation of pedagogical practise has become a vibrant issue through its relationship with educational policy- and government in many national contexts. Documentation is also regularly used as a tool for local, collegial development, not necessarily driven by the external demands for accounting educational outcomes. Against this background, the practise of documentation could be related to different modes of teacher professionalism; outside-in-professionalism, characterized by teachers as responding to external and standardized demands, and inside-out-professionalism characterized by teachers  as responding to complexity and change, through qualified judgment.   

Although documentation is regularly employed as a tool for local, collegial development, the responsibility for documentation commissioned by educational authorities remains an assignment, coming with consequences for how to relate this self-initiated local documentation to the demands of the educational authorities. The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the tension, between documentation based in inside-out-professionalism and outside-in-professionalism, by means of a case study from the Swedish preschool.  Our research questions reads: how do external demands of documentation impact on the collegial conditions of documenting practise? How do professional conditions of documenting impact on the external demands of documentation?

Our analytical point of departure proceeds from the assumption that documentation is shaped from certain positions, interests and perspectives (Vallberg Roth 2012), including the crossing between different interests and logics within educational institutions.  A qualitative case study of one preschool setting in which a long term documentation has been performed, using CoRe (pedagogical content representation) has been adapted as an approach for teaching science, in a practice based research collaboration project, will be related to intentions from the municipality. The gathering of data includes participant observations in preschool and interviews with participating preschool teachers, at municipal briefings, interviews with responsible parties representing the local preschool as educational agency, and by collection of documents. 

The expected outcomes of our study indicate that preschool teachers are acting between norms of designing documentation from their professional and local interests and that of adapting to the interests of the educational agencies. The first norm is based in their collegial self-defined needs (in collaboration with the researchers) for teaching science in preschool, mainly by teaching science and technology themes, paying attention to preschool children’s responses to science and technology content.  The second norm is characterised by accounting for national goals in the national syllabus, in ways corresponding with the national school system.  The preschool teachers respond to this latter assignment through (professional) deliberations, aiming to deliver material from their everyday work to the agency, while simultaneously keeping the integrity of their own work as separated from the assignment of the agency. These local deliberations and decisions will further be analysed in terms of the dynamic between the two modes of professionalism mentioned above, in light of the local policy context.      

Our project shed light on conditions shared with several European countries regarding possibilities for sustainable teacher development within broader contexts of demands for accountability impacting on teachers professional work.   

National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26645 (URN)
ATEE Annual Conference 2018: A future for all – teaching for a sustainable society, 20th–22nd August 2018, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, P. & Elm, A. (2017). Capturing and Developing Early Childhood Teachers’ Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge Through CoRes. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 28(5), 406-424
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing and Developing Early Childhood Teachers’ Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge Through CoRes
2017 (English)In: Journal of Science Teacher Education, ISSN 1046-560X, E-ISSN 1573-1847, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 406-424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the past decade, early childhood teachers have been faced with new needs to develop their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for different science subject areas. In order to meet these challenges there is a strong need for professional learning programmes for early childhood teachers that focus on the development of knowledge, and skills to work with science activities in their own context. In this article, 46 early childhood teachers participated in a professional development programme aimed at helping teachers capture and further develop their content knowledge and PCK for teaching science through the use of content representations (CoRes). A CoRe is a holistic reflective tool for making explicit the different dimensions of, and links between, knowledge of content, teaching, and learning about a particular topic. The aim of the project was to investigate in what ways the use of the CoRe helped the teachers in planning and reflecting on their science teaching and in developing their PCK. Thus, the project was based on opportunities for teachers to develop and reframe their knowledge of science teaching in ways that stimulated children's curiosity for scientific phenomena. The result indicates that with its content-specific focus, the CoRe helped the teachers to highlight the science content in their activities, not only the general pedagogical knowledge. The use of the CoRes also helped the preschool teachers to establish the fundamental ideas of the topic they were teaching and to develop confidence in what they were teaching, why, and how.

content representation, early childhood, PCK, science
National Category
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24876 (URN)10.1080/1046560X.2017.1347980 (DOI)000424501700002 ()2-s2.0-85046254764 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Elm, A. (2017). "Det är något i luften!" - barns meningsskapande om luft (1ed.). In: Insulander, Eva; Kjällander, Susanne; Lindstrand, Fredrik; Åkerfeldt Anna (Ed.), Didaktik i omvandlingens tid: Text, representation och design (pp. 105-113). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Det är något i luften!" - barns meningsskapande om luft
2017 (Swedish)In: Didaktik i omvandlingens tid: Text, representation och design / [ed] Insulander, Eva; Kjällander, Susanne; Lindstrand, Fredrik; Åkerfeldt Anna, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 105-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Barns lärande i förskolan är nära förbundet med ett socialt sammanhang, med en tonvikt på resurser och barns riktande av sitt intresse. Det handlar om lärande som inte är mätbart utifrån universella jämförande måttstockar, men som kan påvisas. det handlar samtidigt om att som förskollärare synliggöra det lärande som hela tiden äger rum då barnen skapar mening om de företeelser som deras uppmärksamhet riktas emot. I kapitlet följer vi förskollärares arbete tillsammans med barnen på en förskoleavdelning då ett naturvetenskapligt innehållsområde om luft behandlas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2017 Edition: 1
Design för lärande, design i lärande, meningsskapande, naturvetenskap, tecken på lärande
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25508 (URN)9789147122523 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, J., Masoumi, D., Elm, A., Fransson, G., Westelius, C., Björkman, A., . . . Toratti-Lindgren, M. (2017). Teachers’ and students’ understanding and use of ICT for teaching and learning – Combining different perspectives and methodologies in research on technology-enhanced learning. In: : . Paper presented at European Distance and E-Learning Network Conference (EDEN), 13-16 June 2017, Jönköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ and students’ understanding and use of ICT for teaching and learning – Combining different perspectives and methodologies in research on technology-enhanced learning
Show others...
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

More than half of the 14,000 students currently studying at the University of Gävle (HiG) are enrolled in courses that are totally or partly online based.  In 2015, a university-wide project on technology enhanced learning (TEL) (Steffens et al 2015) was initiated. The project focuses on course and programme development and is divided into four sub-projects, all of which contribute to the overall goals of project.

AIMS of the project

The aims of the project are to: (a) restructure teaching facilities and integrate digital technologies, (b) develop technology supported teaching methods, (c) integrate campus and distance education, (d) enhance teachers' and students' digital skills and (f) increase collaboration with relevant external actors.

These aims are achieved through the work of four project groups.

The digital environment group's (1) main focus is on digital tools for learning and the physical arrangement of learning spaces. The collaboration group's (2) main focus is on the maintenance and development of collaborative relationships and connections with communities in higher education for e-learning. The education and professional development group (3) focuses on issues such as professional development, learning design and the implementation of ICT in different courses and subjects. The research group (4) focuses on different issues connected to TEL.

One of the main principles of the project is that the above areas are interlinked and interdependent and that the different experiences and skills of each group and its members contribute to a broader perspective of TEL.

This poster focuses on the research conducted by the project's research group. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the research focuses on issues and aspects of teaching and learning in higher education that contribute to multifaceted knowledge. The overall aim of the research is to generate knowledge about how conditions for teaching and learning change when the use of technology increases. The four research studies that are initiated are described below.

Study 1: Lecturers’ and students’ agency in encounters with digital media in higher education

This research study focus on issues related to lecturers’ digital teaching practices and students’ digital technological use in their everyday lives and for learning purposes.

Digital practices are defined as the different contexts in which lecturers teach and students participate in digital media (such as learning management systems, forums, communities etc.). Previous research shows that students’ own digital practices are not always made use of in higher education (Buzzard et al., 2011; Kelm, 2011).

A controversial issue in the Swedish higher education context is the discourse on students as customers. The perception of students as customers and “buyers” of ready-packaged content from lecturers is problematic. This view of what higher education stands for clashes with traditional academic views emphasizing critical thinking, reflection, self-directed learning, collaborative and individual learning etc.

In this study, the concept of agency is important in that it reflects “the capacity of actors to critically shape their own responsiveness to problematic situations” (Emirbayer & Mische, 1998, p. 971). In the different perceptions of students’ and lecturers’ tasks and roles in teaching and learning, especially in TEL, all the actors have to display agency in order to manoeuvre in the educational and digital contexts. Notably, agency is not something that people have, but is something that people achieve (Biesta & Tedder, 2006).


The aim of the research project is to study: (a) students’ use of digital technology in their everyday practices and in relation to teaching situations and (b) how lecturers’ agency is played out in teaching and learning when trying to facilitate TEL.


In spring 2017 an online survey involving up to 200 students will be conducted in order to generate knowledge about (a) students’ everyday experiences of digital practices and how these are utilized in higher education and (b) how higher education challenges and develops students’ digital skills and knowledge. In the same period, interviews with lecturers at the university will be conducted in order to generate knowledge about lecturers’ (c) everyday teaching practices with digital technologies and (d) the perceived challenges and development of teaching in relation to their use.

Study 2: Teachers’ understanding and enactment of practice in online and blended educational contexts

The knowledge that teachers need to develop is referred to as a ‘didaktik’ knowledge in the German/European tradition (cf. Kansanen 2009) and as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the Anglo-Saxon literature (Shulman 1986; 1987). However, in what Castells (2011) describes as a network society, teachers are faced with new challenges and opportunities. Koehler et al (2014) argue that teachers’ development and integration of a new knowledge domain is not simply a matter of adding this “technology knowledge” to existing knowledge, but involves a reframing and reconceptualization of their existing professional practices and knowledge. They refer to this amalgam knowledge as technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK framework has been widely accepted as a useful theoretical construct. However, there is a need for research on the development and manifestation of TPACK in different disciplinary contexts (Koehler et al 2014).


The aim of this sub-project is to study: a) how teachers reframe and reconceptualize their practices and the kind of knowledge that is needed in online contexts b) how teachers practices are manifested when ICT is used to create (intended) added pedagogical values in educational designs c) the characteristics of educational designs regarded as adding pedagogical value


Three higher education teachers of different courses and subjects in three different departments participate in the study. A design-based research approach is applied, where one of the participating researchers engages in so-called design conversations with the teachers. As is characteristic of DBR, this researcher does not only observe and interview, but also acts as a “co-designer” on the understanding that the teachers are the context experts and the final decision makers (McKenney & Reeves 2012; Plomp & Nieveen 2013).

The data consists of recorded design conversations, educational designs and the artefacts used in the educational designs, the researcher’s/co-designer’s field notes and recorded “field-note conversations” between the researcher/co-designer and the other researcher.

Expected outcomes

The study is expected to contribute knowledge about how teachers’ knowledge and practices are understood and manifested in online and mixed higher educational contexts.

Study 3: Researching and developing student nurses’ drug calculation skills in an explorative design comprising digital technologies

This study is partly experimental in nature. It focuses on the challenges involved in student nurses’ development of accurate drug calculation skills. Challenges like this are not specific to nurse education at the University of Gävle, but appear to be universal (cf. Wright, 2009). However, it has also been claimed that written drug calculation tests do not accurately evaluate the skills involved in drug calculation, in that they are decontextualized from healthcare settings (Wright, 2005; 2012). It has also been claimed that this problem is more imaginary than factual, given that in practice nurses have been shown to handle drug calculation well (Wright, 2009).


The aims of this sub-project are to: (a) deepen the understanding of the challenges and mistakes that student nurses make in drug calculation exams, why they occur and how they might be prevented, (b) explore how the teaching and examination of drug calculation can be made more effective and contextualized and whether digital technologies can help in this.


A multiple design method is employed using empirical data from written examinations, analyses of the set tasks and interviews with student nurses.

Expected outcomes

It is expected that the study will contribute knowledge about why (some) student nurses find it difficult to pass exams and that sufficient knowledge will be developed to facilitate the exploration of an experimental design for teaching and learning that includes digital technologies.

Study 4: Situating ICT in teacher education programmes at the University of Gävle

Integrating ICT as an integral part of teacher education programmes has been addressed as the most significant factor in determining the future level of ICT use in teaching and learning practices (Davis, 2010). According to the Swedish Higher Education Act, ICT should be embedded across entire educational practices in teacher education programmes (Government Bill, 2009/10:89). Numerous teacher educationprogrammes have made extensive efforts to prepare and empower teacher education students’ ICT competences so that ICT-based technologies are seamlessly woven into the teaching and learning process. Most schools try to enhance teachers’ digital competences by in-service education and expect newly qualified teachers to be adequately trained to use digital technologies in their educational practices. However, in reality it would seem that many newly qualified teachers do not have the necessary skills for this (see Chigona, 2015; Koehler, Mishra, Akcaoglu, & Rosenberg, 2013). 


This study focuses on understanding why a large number of the newly qualified teachers in teacher education institution remain underprepared to use digital technologies in their educational practices, despite an increased investment in the provision of digital technologies in these institutions.


In order to explore how digital technologies are integrated into teacher education in higher education institutions, a sequential explanatory multiple sources design consisting of two distinct phases will be implemented (Creswell, 2012). In this design, a number of course syllabi in a programme will be analyzed. Interviews with key actors, including students, teacher educators and gatekeepers, will be conducted in order to contextualize and deepen the analysis of the syllabi.

Expected outcomes

The study is expected to deepen the understanding of how student teachers are pedagogically trained in ICT in teacher education institutions.

Concluding remarks

The four research studies in the project investigate how students and teachers understand and use educational ICT. This is done by using different methodologies and from different perspectives. It is expected that the research studies will contribute to the broader and more inclusive project perspective by their specific aims and generate knowledge that will contribute to the multifaceted field of TEL.


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National Category
Educational Sciences Didactics
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25694 (URN)
European Distance and E-Learning Network Conference (EDEN), 13-16 June 2017, Jönköping, Sweden
Nätbaserat lärande
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-07-03Bibliographically approved
Elm Fristorp, A. (2016). Tecken på lärande - att fånga barns meningsskapande inom naturvetenskap (1ed.). In: Susanne Thulin (Ed.), Naturvetenskap i ett förskoleperspektiv: (pp. 171-184). Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tecken på lärande - att fånga barns meningsskapande inom naturvetenskap
2016 (Swedish)In: Naturvetenskap i ett förskoleperspektiv / [ed] Susanne Thulin, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Bokkapitlet är ett bidrag till att förstå barns lärande inom naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden i förskolan på ett sätt som kompletterar, och kanske utmanar, andra perspektiv. Det designorienterande perspektivet på lärande som presenteras i kapitlet innebär att lärande ses som en social, kommunikativ och teckenskapande aktivitet. Ett antagande i detta synsätt är att barn (och vuxna) hela tiden bearbetar och uttrycker sin förståelse kring naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden genom att skapa egna kombinationer av tecken - med hjälp av olika medier - i en omskapande (eller transformativ) process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016 Edition: 1
Design för lärande, förskola, meningsskapande, naturvetenskap, tecken på lärande
National Category
Educational Sciences Other Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25497 (URN)978-91-40-69466-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Elm Fristorp, A. & Johansson, I. (Eds.). (2015). Professionellt lärande i förskolan - med utgångspunkt i hållbar utveckling (1ed.). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professionellt lärande i förskolan - med utgångspunkt i hållbar utveckling
2015 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Boken handlar om deltagarorienterat och kollaborativt lärande för hållbar utveckling i förskolan. Efter en presentation av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna får läsaren ta del av konkreta exempel på aktiviteter i förskolan. Dessa har fokus på olika aspekter av hållbar utveckling och hur det går att använda såväl språk och kommunikation som IKT, matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik i arbetet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2015 Edition: 1
Förskolepedagogik, Hållbar utveckling, Naturkunskap
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20427 (URN)9789147114856 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Elm Fristorp, A. & Johansson, I. (2013). Hållbar utveckling i förskolan: Förskollärares professionella utveckling inom hållbar utveckling, energi och klimatfrågor. Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbar utveckling i förskolan: Förskollärares professionella utveckling inom hållbar utveckling, energi och klimatfrågor
2013 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle, 2013
RD-report, ISSN 1403-8749 ; 40
National Category
Educational Sciences
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18776 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4696-4142

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