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Nöstl, Anatole
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Marsh, J. E., Ljung, R., Nöstl, A., Threadgold, E. & Campbell, T. A. (2015). Failing to get the gist of what’s being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article ID 548.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failing to get the gist of what’s being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing
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2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords
Noise, Elaborative Processing, False Recall, Semantic Clustering, Speech Intelligibility
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19279 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00548 (DOI)000355488200001 ()26052289 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957411812 (Scopus ID)
Note

Corrigendum: Failing to get the gist of what's being said: Background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing" [Front. Psychol., 6 (2015) (548)]. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00548 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00390

ScopusId: 2-s2.0-85016333369

Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Nöstl, A. (2015). Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?
2015 (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20090 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Nöstl, A. (2015). How memory of the past, a predictable present and expectations of the future underpin adaptation to the sound environment. (Doctoral dissertation). Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How memory of the past, a predictable present and expectations of the future underpin adaptation to the sound environment
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By using auditory distraction as a tool, the main focus of the present thesis is to investigate the role of memory systems in human adaptation processes towards changes in the built environment. Report I and Report II focus on the question of whether memory for regularities in the auditory environment is used to form predictions and expectations of future sound events, and if violations of these expectations capture attention. Collectively the results indicate that once a stable neural model of the sound environment is created, violations of the formed expectations can capture attention. Furthermore, the magnitude of attentional capture is a function of the pitch difference between the expected tone and the presented tone.

The second part of the thesis is concerned with, (a) the nature (i.e. the specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment and, (b) whether complex cognition in terms of working memory capacity modulates habituation rate. The results in Report III show that the disruptive effect of the deviation effect diminishes with the number of exposures over time, and also as a function of working memory capacity. The aim of Report IV was to investigate the nature (and specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment. If the neural model is fashioned around a specific stimulus then an observable increase of response latency should occur in conjunction with the deviant change. The results in Experiment 1 in Report IV, however, show that the habituation rate remained the same throughout the experiment. To further test the specificity of the neural model the modalityof the deviant event was switched (from auditory to visual and vice versa) in Experiment 3 in Report IV. The collective findings indicate that the formed neural model may be of a more general nature than previously suggested. The aim of Experiment 2 in Report IV was to investigate what properties of the sound environment underpin habituation rate, more specifically if predictability of a deviant trial facilitates the habituation process. The finding that the habituation rate was similar whether there was a fixed temporal interval between the deviant trials or a random interval suggests that the amount of occurrences (i.e. number of deviant trials) determines habituation rate, not the predictability of a deviant trial.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling undersöker vilken roll minnessystem har i anpassningen till förändringar i den byggda miljön. Delrapport I och Delrapport II fokuserar på frågan om regelbundenheter i den auditiva miljön används för att skapa förväntningar och prediktioner gällande framtida händelser, och vidare, om avvikelser från dessa förväntningar fångar uppmärksamheten. Sammantaget tyder resultaten på att uppmärksamheten fångas om nämnda förväntningar inte infrias. Vidare visar resultaten att magnituden av den fångade uppmärksamheten är en funktion av skillnaden mellan den förväntade tonen och den presenterade tonen.

Den andra delen av avhandlingen undersöker (a) karaktären (dvs. specificiteten) av den neurala modellen och (b) om komplex kognition i termer av arbetsminneskapacitet påverkar habituation. Resultaten i Delrapport III visar att den störande effekten av den avvikande tonen minskar dels med antalet exponeringar och dels som en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet. Syftet med Delrapport IV var att undersöka hur specifik den skapade neurala modellen är. Resultaten i Experiment 1 i Delrapport IV visar att habituationstakten förblev densamma under hela experimentet även om den avvikande tonen byttes ut under experimentets gång. Detta tillsammans med resultaten i Experiment 3 i Delrapport IV, där habituation kunde påvisas även om modaliteten av den avvikande händelsen byttes från auditiv till visuell och vice versa, indikerar att den neurala modellen är av en mer allmän karaktär än vad man tidigare trott. Syftet med Experiment 2 i Delrapport IV var att undersöka vilka egenskaper i ljudmiljön som påverkar habituationstakten. Upptäckten att takten var likvärdig oavsett om det fanns ett fast eller ett slumpmässigt intervall mellan de avvikande tonerna tyder på att det är mängden förekomster (dvs. antalet avvikande toner), snarare än predicerbarhet, som avgör habituationstakten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2015. p. 28
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Doctoral thesis ; 1
Keywords
Memory, Expectations, Adaptation, Habituation, Predictions, Attentional capture, Auditory distraction, Minne, förväntningar, anpassning, habituation, prediktioner, fångad uppmärksamhet, auditiv distraktion
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20082 (URN)978-91-88145-00-0 (ISBN)978-91-88145-01-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-09-30, Biblioteket, sal 23:213, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A. & Nöstl, A. (2015). Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article ID 1390.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and English were assessed in two signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (+3 and +12 dB), with and without half of the heard words being repeated back orally directly after presentation [shadowing, speech intelligibility (SI)]. A total of 24 word lists with 12 words each were presented in English and in Swedish to Swedish speaking college students. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (operation span, OSPAN) were taken. A basic hypothesis was that the recall of the words would be impaired when the encoding of the words required more processing resources, thereby depleting working memory resources. This would be the case when the SNR was low or when the language was English. A low SNR was also expected to impair SI, but we wanted to compare the sizes of the SNR-effects on SI and recall. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further add to the negative effects of SNR and language on both SI and recall. The results indicated that SNR had strong effects on both SI and recall, but also that the effect size was larger for recall than for SI. Language had a main effect on recall, but not on SI. The shadowing procedure had different effects on recall of the early and late parts of the word lists. Working memory capacity was unimportant for the effect on SI and recall. Thus, recall appear to be a more sensitive indicator than SI for the acoustics of learning, which has implications for building codes and recommendations concerning classrooms and other workplaces, where both hearing and learning is important.

Keywords
noise, recall, speech intelligibility, word lists, signal-to-noise ratio, working memory, working memory capacity
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20420 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01390 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Sörqvist, P., Haga, A., Langeborg, L., Holmgren, M., Wallinder, M., Nöstl, A., . . . Marsh, J. (2015). The green halo: Mechanisms and limits of the eco-label effect. Food Quality and Preference, 43, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The green halo: Mechanisms and limits of the eco-label effect
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2015 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 43, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consumers believe that “eco-labeled” products taste better, which, at least in part, may be an effect of the label. The purpose of the current series of experiments was to examine some mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. In Experiment 1, an eco-label effect of similar magnitude was found for taste ratings of both conventional and organic bananas. Experiment 2 showed eco-label effects for a wider range of judgmental dimensions (i.e., health, calories, vitamins/minerals, mental performance, and willingness to pay) and the effect was about the same in magnitude for judgments of grapes and raisins. Experiment 3, with water as the tasted product, found no eco-label effect on judgments of taste, calories and vitamins/minerals, but an effect on willingness to pay, judgments of health benefits and judgments of mental performance benefits. Experiments 2 and 3 also included questionnaires on social desirability traits, schizotypal traits and pro-environmental consumer traits. The last was the strongest predictor of the eco-label effect amongst the three. In all, the eco-label effect is a robust phenomenon, but depends on interactions between product type and judgmental dimension. Implications for several accounts of the effect are discussed.

Keywords
Eco-label effect; Organic; Eco-friendly; Social desirability; Schizotypy; Pro-environmental consumer behavior
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18902 (URN)10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.02.001 (DOI)000353736300001 ()2-s2.0-84923055710 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-02-02 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hurtig, A., Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A., Nöstl, A., Keus van de Poll, M., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2014). Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014: . Paper presented at 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
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2014 (English)In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17207 (URN)
Conference
11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Nöstl, A., Hurtig, A., Haga, A. & Holmgren, M. (2014). Recall of spoken word lists in English and native Swedish presented at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: A comparison between children aged 10-11 years and college students. In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014: . Paper presented at 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recall of spoken word lists in English and native Swedish presented at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: A comparison between children aged 10-11 years and college students
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2014 (English)In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: +3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation times (RT: 0.3 and 1.2 s). All participants encountered these eight experimental conditions (Language*SNR*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48), who were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run as a group in their regular classrooms.

Twelve wordlists in English and twelve wordlists in Swedish were generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for children in Grade 4. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks (Blocks). To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17208 (URN)
Conference
11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Nöstl, A., Hurtig, A., Haga, A. & Holmgren, M. (2014). Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: Children aged 10-11 years and college students. In: 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014: Abstracts. Paper presented at 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: Children aged 10-11 years and college students
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2014 (English)In: 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014: Abstracts, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (SN) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation time (RT, .3 and 1.2 sec). All participants encountered all eight experimental conditions (Language*SN*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48) and they were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run in the regular classrooms.

Twelve wordlists in Swedish and twelve wordlists in English generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for grade four. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks. Within each block order of S/N and RT was also counterbalanced. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were also taken.

The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SN-ratio was low and the RT was long, and that SN and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Age-group.

To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

Keywords
Children and adults, Memory and learning, Noise, Signal-to-noise ratios and reverberation time
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17205 (URN)
Conference
28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Nöstl, A., Marsh, J. & Sörqvist, P. (2014). What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111997
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e111997-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture - rather than violated expectations - in complex sound environments.

Keywords
specific-stimulus hypotheses, auditory attentional capture, pitch differences
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17675 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0111997 (DOI)000347709300027 ()25393298 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84911861505 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-2042
Available from: 2014-10-12 Created: 2014-10-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A., Nöstl, A., Keus, M., Hurtig, A., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2013). Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life: . Paper presented at InterNoise 2013, Innsbruck, Sept 15-18, 2013 (invited speaker) (pp. 5091-5098).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
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2013 (English)In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15064 (URN)2-s2.0-84904489293 (Scopus ID)
Conference
InterNoise 2013, Innsbruck, Sept 15-18, 2013 (invited speaker)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 7555
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-23 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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