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Thollander, P., Rohde, C., Kimura, O., Helgerud, H.-E., Realini, A., Maggiore, S., . . . Johansson, I. (2019). A review of energy efficiency policies for small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises from around the world. In: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019: . Paper presented at ACEEE, Portland, USA, August 12-14 2019 (pp. 3-135-3-150).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of energy efficiency policies for small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises from around the world
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2019 (English)In: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019, 2019, p. 3-135-3-150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In most countries, small and medium-sized manufacturing (industrial) enterprises (SMEs) represent more than 99% of the number of companies and 60% of employment. Thus, this sector, apart from using energy, is a major driver in the economy with regard to innovations, GDP, investments and export. Despite the importance of SMEs in the economy, they have not received much attention in most countries' energy policy activities. Energy management in its various forms is regarded as one of the key drivers of industrial energy efficiency. While the term "energy management" is often associated with the ISO 50001 standard, there is a broad variety of different programs and schemes in place that do not strictly abide by the framework of the standard. Especially for SMEs, the standardized protocols of ISO 50001 are often too complex for cost-efficient implementation. The aim of this paper is to provide an international overview of existing energy efficiency policies with a focus on energy management practices in selected EU member states as well as Norway and Japan. Results indicate that different countries apply a broad variety of policy contexts in which the energy management practices are embedded.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30977 (URN)
Conference
ACEEE, Portland, USA, August 12-14 2019
Note

Funding: Högskolan i Gävle m.fl.

Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Lane, A.-L., Boork, M. & Thollander, P. (2019). Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture. Energies, 12(18), Article ID 3568.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity.

Keywords
barriers, drivers, photovoltaics (PV), agriculture, energy efficiency, battery storage, renewable energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30765 (URN)10.3390/en12183568 (DOI)000489101200164 ()2-s2.0-85072509921 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 44359-1
Note

Funding: This paper was carried out as a part of the research project Solbruket—Battery Storage for Increased Solar Electricity Production in Modern Agriculture, project number 44359-1. The research project was financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. This work has been carried out under the auspices of the industrial post-graduate school Reesbe+, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen).

Available from: 2019-10-10 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Johansson, I., Mardan, N., Cornelis, E., Kimura, O. & Thollander, P. (2019). Designing Policies and Programmes for Improved Energy Efficiency in Industrial SMEs. Energies, 12(7), Article ID 1338.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing Policies and Programmes for Improved Energy Efficiency in Industrial SMEs
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2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1338Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change, due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, is driving policymakers to make decisions to promote more efficient energy use. Improved industrial energy efficiency is said to play a key role in the transition to more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 95% or more of the total number of companies. Thus, SMEs, apart from using energy, are a major driver in the economy with regard to innovation, GDP growth, employment, investments, exports, etc. Despite this, research and policy activities related to SMEs have been scarce, calling for contributions in the field. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to critically assess how adequate energy efficiency policy programmes for industrial SMEs could be designed. Results show that scientific publications in the field differ in scope and origin, but a major emphasis of the scientific papers has been on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. Scientific contributions from studies of energy policy programmes primarily cover energy audit programmes and show that the major energy efficiency measures from industrial SMEs are found in support processes. The review further reveals an imbalance in geographic scope of the papers within the field, where a vast majority of the papers emanate from Europe, calling for scientific publications from other parts of the world. The study synthesizes the findings into a general method on how to design efficiency programs for the sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
industrial SMEs, energy efficiency, energy policy, barriers, drivers
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30507 (URN)10.3390/en12071338 (DOI)000465561400155 ()2-s2.0-85065481846 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Enhanced energy efficiency for strengthened competitiveness and increased sustainability among Gavleborg's SMEs through implementation of service and product innovations in industrial energy systems (ENERGIG)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Note

Funding: The research project is financed by the European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund, the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, Region Gavleborg and the University of Gavle. 

Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Monjurul Hasan, A. S., Rokonuzzaman, M., Tuhin, R. A., Salimullah, S. M., Ullah, M., Sakib, T. H. & Thollander, P. (2019). Drivers and barriers to industrial energy efficiency in textile industries of Bangladesh. Energies, 12(9), Article ID 1775.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and barriers to industrial energy efficiency in textile industries of Bangladesh
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2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1775Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3–4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Bangladesh, Energy management, Energy policy, Industrial energy efficiency, Textile industry, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Research and development management, Risk assessment, Textile mills, Textiles, Energy efficiency improvements, Energy management schemes, Energy service companies (ESCos), Energy service company, Primary energy demand, Research and development, Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30523 (URN)10.3390/en12091775 (DOI)000469761700191 ()2-s2.0-85065863696 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Hasan, A. S., Hossain, R., Tuhin, R. A., Sakib, T. H. & Thollander, P. (2019). Empirical investigation of barriers and driving forces for efficient energy management practices in non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries of Bangladesh. Sustainability, 11(9), Article ID 2671.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical investigation of barriers and driving forces for efficient energy management practices in non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries of Bangladesh
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved energy efficiency is being considered as one of the significant challenges to mitigating climate change all over the world. While developed countries have already adopted energy management and auditing practices to improve energy efficiency, the developing countries lag far behind. There are a limited number of studies which have been conducted in the context of developing countries, which mostly revolve around highly energy-intensive sectors. This study looks into the existence and importance of the challenges to and motivating forces for the adoption of energy management practices in Bangladesh, a developing country, focusing on the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Conducted as a multiple case study, the results indicate the existence of several barriers towards adopting and implementing the management of energy practices in the non-energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh, where among them, "other preferences for capital venture" and "inadequate capital expenditure" are the most dominant. This study also identified a number of driving forces that can accelerate the acceptance of energy efficiency practices, such as the demands from the owner, loans, subsidies, and a lowered cost-benefit ratio. Findings of this study could assist the concerned stakeholders to develop beneficial policies and a proper regulatory framework for the non-energy-intensive industries of developing countries like Bangladesh. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Energy management, Energy policy, Industrial energy efficiency, Sustainability
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30502 (URN)10.3390/su11092671 (DOI)000469518700219 ()2-s2.0-85067066715 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Thollander, P., Palm, J. & Hedbrant, J. (2019). Energy efficiency as a wicked problem. Sustainability, 11(6), Article ID 1569.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency as a wicked problem
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Together with increased shares of renewable energy supply, improved energy efficiency is the foremost means of mitigating climate change. However, the energy efficiency potential is far from being realized, which is commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. Initially mentioned by Churchman, the term wicked problems became established in the 1970s, meaning a kind of problem that has a resistance to resolution because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements. In the academic literature, wicked problems have later served as a critical model in the understanding of various challenges related to society, such as for example climate change mitigation. This aim of this paper is to analyze how the perspective of wicked problems can contribute to an enhanced understanding of improved energy efficiency. The paper draws examples from the manufacturing sector. Results indicate that standalone technology improvements as well as energy management and energy policy programs giving emphasis to standalone technology improvements may not represent a stronger form of a wicked problem as such. Rather, it seems to be the actual decision-making process involving values among the decision makers as well as the level of needed knowledge involved in decision-making that give rise to the wickedness. The analysis shows that wicked problems arise in socio-technical settings involving several components such as technology, systems, institutions, and people, which make post-normal science a needed approach.

Keywords
energy policy, energy management, wicked problem, energy management system, industry, energy efficiency
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31078 (URN)10.3390/su11061569 (DOI)000465613000064 ()2-s2.0-85063477107 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Johansson, I. & Thollander, P. (2019). Non-energy benefits in energy audit and energy efficiency network policy programs for industrial SMEs. In: Eceee 2019 Summer Study Proceedings: . Paper presented at Eceee 2019 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency, 3-8 June, Presqu'île de Giens, France (pp. 225-233).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-energy benefits in energy audit and energy efficiency network policy programs for industrial SMEs
2019 (English)In: Eceee 2019 Summer Study Proceedings, 2019, p. 225-233Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Improved energy efficiency is a key component towards sustainable and climate-neutral industrial energy systems. The potential for industrial energy efficiency varies between sectors and processes but is stated to be high. Implementation of energy efficiency measures and activities could also result in benefits in addition to energy cost savings, benefits that are more difficult to quantify in economic terms. Research shows that additional gains from investments are underestimated as non-energy benefits (NEBs) are often neglected when the financial attractiveness of energy efficiency investments are evaluated. In the literature, great attention has been given to realise industrial energy efficiency potential through industrial energy policies and programs, in order to promote investments and implementation of new, more efficient technologies and processes. The most internationally common industrial energy policies for industrial SMEs are energy audit programs, but energy efficiency networks have also received increased attention from policymakers. However, there is a scarcity of studies exploring NEBs in relation to industrial SME energy audits and energy efficiency network policy programs. The aim of this study was to identify and compare NEBs from two key energy efficiency policies: energy audit and energy efficiency network programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with executives at two groups of industrial companies: companies that participated in the regional Swedish energy efficiency network policy program, and participants from the national energy audit program, Swedish Energy Audit Program (SEAP). The overall most commonly mentioned NEBs were related to production, such as increased lifetime of equipment and more reliable production. However, while participants from the energy audit program related these NEBs mainly to technical installations, network participants also saw these types of NEBs from energy management practices. If NEBs were to be included in energy audit programs the benefit of the audits could be increased, but will then particularly affect the technical installations. NEBs in terms of network participation were shown to lead to an increase in the general benefits of the networks, and for network companies NEBs are also linked to measures related to operation and maintenance, i.e., energy management practices. One difference between the two groups was that NEB improved the company’s environmental image. Two of the companies participating in the network policy program had presented their participation on their public webpage perceiving this as a very important benefit, while respondents from the energy audit program could not relate their company image to their energy audit. One additional NEB that was found, not previously mentioned in the scientific literature on NEBs, was that among the network participants, establishing contacts with other companies in the region was considered of great importance, and further contacts that would not have been established outside of the network. Results even found new customer relationships as a result of the network. This finding is of a general nature, thus apart from the other commonly known NEBs, an additional NEB that primarily relates to participation in energy efficiency networks that this study found is establishing new relationships with other companies in the region.

Keywords
non-energy benefits (NEBs), networks, energy audit, industrial SME, policy programme
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30974 (URN)978-91-983878-5-8 (ISBN)978-91-983878-4-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Eceee 2019 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency, 3-8 June, Presqu'île de Giens, France
Projects
Enhanced energy efficiency for strengthened competitiveness and increased sustainability among Gavleborg's SMEs through implementation of service and product innovations in industrial energy systems (ENERGIG)
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Note

Funding: The research project is financed by the European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund, the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, Region Gavleborg and the University of Gavle

Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Johansson, I., Stenqvist, C. & Thollander, P. (2017). Energy Efficiency Networks for SMEs - Program Theory and Ongoing Evaluation. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 IEPPEC Asia-Pacific Conference on Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Programs and Policies, 1-7 November, Bangkok, Thailand.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficiency Networks for SMEs - Program Theory and Ongoing Evaluation
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is well known from literature and experienced by practitioners that various barriers are hindering energy management practices and energy efficiency improvements in (industrial) SMEs. With relatively low-cost shares for energy end-use and other priorities, energy management and energy efficiency measures seldom become an area for attention or investments. Consequently, large cost-effective energy efficiency potentials are left untapped. The situation is not pleasing given the European 2020 strategy for "smart, sustainable and inclusive growth", in which energy efficiency is to form a centerpiece with its abilities to provide multiple benefits that goes beyond energy cost savings.

There are good practice examples where SMEs take part in networks and thereby join forces and cooperate to build energy management capacities. For the first time formalized and applied, on a regional level in Sweden, an Industrial Energy Efficiency Network (IEEN) model currently operates with the aim to attract the participation of at least 80 SMEs in ten local networks. An ongoing evaluation approach has been initiated with the main intention to review key activities in project implementation and make proposals for improvements.

As a joint analysis between the project management and the external evaluator, this paper aims to outline characteristics of the particular IEEN model, present intermediate results from implementation and provide further insights from the evaluation. To our awareness, program theory and ongoing evaluation has so far not been applied to IEENs. Our results show that it clarifies the change process and helps to identify unique intermediate results and challenges faced in different phases of implementation. These are important lessons with potential to enhance understanding and improve knowledge dissemination within the community of industrial energy efficiency policy analysts, project developers and evaluators in the Asian-Pacific region.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26503 (URN)
Conference
2017 IEPPEC Asia-Pacific Conference on Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Programs and Policies, 1-7 November, Bangkok, Thailand
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Thollander, P. & Palm, J. (2015). Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: €”Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination. Energies, 8(6), 5694-5703
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: €”Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination
2015 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 5694-5703Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

Keywords
energy policy, energy management, energy management system, industry, energy efficiency, situated action, transaction analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20003 (URN)10.3390/en8065694 (DOI)000357489700053 ()2-s2.0-84933574839 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-07-09 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4823-9905

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