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Flykt, Anders
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Frank, J., Johansson, M. & Flykt, A. (2015). Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology, 21(3), 122-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves
2015 (English)In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research on human fear of large carnivores has mainly been based on self-reports in which individual survey items and the objects of fear are measured, so whether a person fears attacks on humans or livestock and pets has not been identified. The objectives of this study were to differentiate between the objects of fear as well as capturing attitudes towards implementation of management actions and the potential for conflict index (PCI). These concern the implementation of a limited number of management actions currently used or discussed in Sweden that are aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears/wolves. 391 persons living in areas with either brown bear (n = 198) or wolf (n = 193) in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. The degree of self-reported fear varied between residents in brown bear areas and residents in wolf areas. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was stronger than fear of attacks on humans in both brown bear and wolf areas. In brown bear areas, fear was strongest for livestock, while in wolf areas fear was strongest for pets. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was significantly stronger in wolf areas, while the fear of attacks on humans was strongest in brown bear areas. In both brown bear and wolf areas, there was little acceptance of implementation of management actions that would allow people to carry pepper spray or a gun outdoors. Management actions aimed at setting a population cap for bear/wolf populations, information on how to act when encountering a bear/wolf, and providing information on local presence of bear/wolf had relatively high acceptability. This was especially true for respondents expressing high fear of attacks on humans. 

National Category
Psychology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-19417 (URN)10.2981/wlb.13116 (DOI)000354319400002 ()2-s2.0-84929313340 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Flykt, A., Johansson, M., Karlsson, J., Lindeberg, S. & Lipp, O. V. (2013). Fear of Wolves and Bears: Physiological Responses and Negative Associations in a Swedish Sample. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 18(6), 416-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear of Wolves and Bears: Physiological Responses and Negative Associations in a Swedish Sample
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2013 (English)In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 416-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human fear is important in wildlife management, but self-reported fear provides only partial information about fear reactions. Thus, eye movements, skin conductance, and changes in heart rate were assessed during picture viewing, visual search, and implicit evaluation tasks. Pictures of bears, wolves, moose, and hares were presented to participants who self-reported as fearful of bears (n = 8), fearful of bears and wolves (n = 15), or not fearful of bears or wolves (n = 14). The feared animal was expected to elicit strong physiological responses, be dwelled upon, and be associated with negative words. Independent of fearfulness, bear pictures elicited the strongest physiological responses, and wolf pictures showed the strongest negative associations. The bear-fearful group showed stronger physiological responses to bears. The bear- and wolf-fearful group showed more difficulty in associating bears with good words. Presence of a feared animal in the search task, resulted in prolonged response time. 

Keywords
bear, fear, heart rate, implicit association test, reaction times, skin conductance, visual search, wolf
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17939 (URN)10.1080/10871209.2013.810314 (DOI)2-s2.0-84887170346 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-11 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Bjärtå, A., Flykt, A. & Sundin, Ö. (2013). The effect of using different distractor sets in visual search with spiders and snakes on spider-sensitive and nonfearful participants. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 72(4), 171-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of using different distractor sets in visual search with spiders and snakes on spider-sensitive and nonfearful participants
2013 (English)In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two visual search experiments, we investigated the impact of distractor sets on fear-relevant stimuli by comparing a search set with spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms to one with spiders, snakes, rabbits, and turtles. We found speeded responses to spider and snake targets when flowers and mushrooms, but not when rabbits and turtles served as distractors. In Experiment 2, we compared spider-sensitive to nonfearful participants. Spider-sensitive participants responded faster than nonfearful participants to spider targets when we used flowers and mushrooms as distractors, but not when we used rabbit and turtle distractors. These results indicate that behavioral responses to the visual search task not only depend on the individual’s relationship to the stimuli included in the search set, but also on the context in which the feared or fear-relevant objects are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bern: Verlag Hans Huber, 2013
Keywords
distractor dependency, fear relevance, spider-sensitive participants, visual search, spiders, snakes, Arachnida, Distraction, Fear
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17730 (URN)10.1024/1421-0185/a000111 (DOI)000324375400001 ()2-s2.0-84885063782 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-09 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M., Karlsson, J., Pedersen, E. & Flykt, A. (2012). Factors governing human fear of brown bear and wolf. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 17(1), 58-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors governing human fear of brown bear and wolf
2012 (English)In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 58-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species.

Keywords
subjectively experienced fear, brown bear, wolf, cognitive vulnerability model, social trust, structural equation modeling
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-12875 (URN)10.1080/10871209.2012.619001 (DOI)2-s2.0-84857247013 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Flykt, A., Lindeberg, S. & Derakshan, N. (2012). Fear makes you stronger: Responding to feared animal targets in visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74(7), 1437-1445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear makes you stronger: Responding to feared animal targets in visual search
2012 (English)In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 1437-1445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2012
Keywords
Motor control – Visual search – Selective attention
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-12882 (URN)10.3758/s13414-012-0336-6 (DOI)000308949900007 ()2-s2.0-84866527429 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Esteves, F., Arriaga, P., Carneiro, P. & Flykt, A. (2010). Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli. Psicologia, 24(2), 89-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli
2010 (English)In: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

Keywords
Food stimuli, Psychophysiology, Emotions, Skin conductance
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-11215 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-05 Created: 2012-01-05 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Soares, S. C., Esteves, F. & Flykt, A. (2009). Fear, but not fear-relevance, modulates reaction times in visual search with animal distractors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(1), 136-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear, but not fear-relevance, modulates reaction times in visual search with animal distractors
2009 (English)In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research aimed at examining attentional selectivity in a visual search paradigm using pictures of animals that have provided a recurrent threat in an evolutionary perspective (i.e., snakes and spiders) and pictures of animals that have supposedly posed no such threat (i.e., cats and fish). Experiment 1 showed no advantage of fear-relevant stimuli over non-fear-relevant animal stimuli. However, an attentional capture seemed to emerge as a delay in the disengagement of attention, specifically when there was a massive presentation of fear-relevant stimuli in the array. The results from Experiment 2, where participants were selected based specifically on their fear of either snakes or spiders (but not both), showed a preferential processing of the congruent feared stimulus, when compared with non fearful participants, which strengthens the notion that fear significance may be an important factor drawing attention to a particular spatial location.

Keywords
Animal fear; Attentional capture; Visual search
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-1691 (URN)10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.05.002 (DOI)000262760400018 ()18565724 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-57349173926 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2008-05-15 Created: 2008-05-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Flykt, A., Dan, E. & Scherer, K. (2009). Using a Probe Detection Task to Assess the Timing of Intrinsic Pleasantness Appraisals. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 68(3), 161-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a Probe Detection Task to Assess the Timing of Intrinsic Pleasantness Appraisals
2009 (English)In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The occurrence and timing of emotion-antecedent appraisal checks are difficult to assess. We report an attempt to estimate the time window of the intrinsic pleasantness check using a dual-task probe paradigm. In three experiments, participants viewed negative and positive pictures. Their other task was speeded responding on a probe superimposed on the pictures with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Longer probe-reaction times were observed for negative than positive pictures. This effect appeared at SOA 300 or 350 ms, suggesting that the intrinsic pleasantness appraisal check yields a differential behavioral outcome around 300 ms after stimulus onset, and seems to continue unless attention to picture content is inhibited. This paradigm might be successfully used for the mental chronography of appraisal processes.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-4645 (URN)10.1024/1421-0185.68.3.161 (DOI)000269996400005 ()
Note
Anders Flykt även affilierad till University of Geneva & Mid Sweden UniversityAvailable from: 2009-06-10 Created: 2009-06-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Flykt, A., Bänziger, T. & Lindeberg, S. (2009). Voice parameters, heart rate changes, and skin conductance responses in animal fear. Paper presented at Poster 171. Meeting abstract. Society for Psychophysiological Research. Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Berliner Congress Center, Berlin, Germany October 21-24, 2009. Psychophysiology, 46(Special issue), S57-S57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voice parameters, heart rate changes, and skin conductance responses in animal fear
2009 (English)In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 46, no Special issue, p. S57-S57Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Keywords
fear, animals, voice
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-10281 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00920.x (DOI)000269744700313 ()
Conference
Poster 171. Meeting abstract. Society for Psychophysiological Research. Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Berliner Congress Center, Berlin, Germany October 21-24, 2009
Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2011-09-21 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Flykt, A. & Bjärtå, A. (2008). The time course of resource allocation in spider-fearful participants during fear reactions. Cognition & Emotion, 22(7), 1381-1400
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The time course of resource allocation in spider-fearful participants during fear reactions
2008 (English)In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1381-1400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamics of resource allocation to pictures of spiders and other animals in spider-fearful participants was investigated. The task of the participants was to respond rapidly and accurately to various probe stimuli superimposed on pictures of different animals. These were arguably fear relevant (spiders, snakes, and wolves) and fear irrelevant (beetles, turtles, and rabbits). The probes were shown with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) from picture onset to address the dynamics of resource allocation. A larger allocation of resources to spider pictures than to pictures of all other animals, with no difference between the latter regarding resource allocation was found. For the task that demanded more resources the fearrelated physiological responses decreased, suggesting that controlled processing modulates fear responses.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-1692 (URN)10.1080/02699930701799603 (DOI)000260052900009 ()
Note
Author note: Correspondence should be addressed to: Anders Flykt, Department of Education and Psychology, University of Ga¨vle, S-801 76 Ga¨vle, Sweden. E-mail: Anders.Flykt@hig.se This research was supported by an internal grant at the Mid Sweden University. Anders Flykt is now at the Psychology section at the University of Ga¨vle, Ga¨vle, Sweden.Available from: 2008-05-15 Created: 2008-05-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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