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Masud, Nauman
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Masud, N., Rafique, S., Smith, C. & Isaksson, M. (2023). Design control and actuator selection of a lower body assistive exoskeleton with 3-D passive compliant supports. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 45(12), Article ID 611.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design control and actuator selection of a lower body assistive exoskeleton with 3-D passive compliant supports
2023 (English)In: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 45, no 12, article id 611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physical human–robotic interaction is a crucial area of concern for robotic exoskeletons. Lower weight requirement for the worn exoskeletons limits the number and size of joint actuators, resulting in a low active degree of freedom for the exoskeletons with joint actuators having limited power and bandwidth. This limitation invariably results in reduced physical human–robotic interaction performance for the exoskeleton. Recently several techniques have been proposed for the low active degree of freedom exoskeletons with improved physical human–robotic interaction performance using better load torque compensators and improved active compliance. However, effective practical implementation of these techniques requires special hardware and software design considerations. A detailed design of a new lower body exoskeleton is proposed in this paper that can apply these recently developed techniques to practically improve the physical human–robotic interaction performance of the worn exoskeletons. The design presented includes the exoskeleton's structural design, new joint assemblies and the design of novel 3-D passive, compliant supports. A methodology of selecting and verifying the joint actuators and estimating the desired assistive forces at the contact supports based on human user joint torque requirements and the degree of assistance is also thoroughly presented. A new CAN-based master–slave control architecture that supports the implementation of recent techniques for improved physical human–robotic interaction is also fully presented. A new control strategy capable of imparting simultaneous impedance-based force tracking control of the exoskeleton in task space using DOB-based-DLTC at joint space is also thoroughly presented. Simulation verification of the proposed strategy based on the actual gait data of elderly is presented lastly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Design; Exoskeleton; Lower body; Master–slave control; Physical human–robotic interaction
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43249 (URN)10.1007/s40430-023-04480-8 (DOI)001093313100001 ()2-s2.0-85175719993 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Masud, N., Senkic, D., Smith, C. & Isaksson, M. (2021). Modeling and control of a 4-ADOF upper-body exoskeleton with mechanically decoupled 3-D compliant arm-supports for improved-pHRI. Mechatronics (Oxford), 73, Article ID 102406.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and control of a 4-ADOF upper-body exoskeleton with mechanically decoupled 3-D compliant arm-supports for improved-pHRI
2021 (English)In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 73, article id 102406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Safe physical human-robotic interaction is a crucial concern for worn exoskeletons where lower weight requirement limits the number and size of actuators to be used. A novel control strategy is suggested in this paper for the low degree of freedom exoskeletons, by combining proposed mechanically decoupled passive-compliant arm-supports with active compliance, to achieve an improved and safer physical-human-robotic-interaction performance, while considering the practical limitations of low-power actuators. The approach is further improved with a novel vectoral-form of disturbance observer-based dynamic load-torque compensator, proposed to linearize and decouple the nonlinear human-machine dynamics effectively. The design of a four-degree of freedom exoskeleton test-rig that can assure the implementation of the proposed strategy is also shortly presented. It is shown through simulation and experimentation, that the use of proposed strategy results in an improved and safer physical human-robotic interaction, for the exoskeletons using limited-power actuators. It is also shown both through simulation and experimentation, that the proposed vectoral-form of disturbance based dynamic load-toque compensator, effectively outperforms the other traditional compensators in compensating the load-torques at the joints of the exoskeleton.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Assistive exoskeleton, Compliant supports, Serial manipulator, Upper-body, pHRI, Modeling and control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35249 (URN)10.1016/j.mechatronics.2020.102406 (DOI)000621215800010 ()2-s2.0-85100047112 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-10 Created: 2021-02-10 Last updated: 2021-03-18Bibliographically approved
Masud, N., Mattsson, P., Smith, C. & Isaksson, M. (2020). On stability and performance of disturbance observer-based-dynamic load torque compensator for assistive exoskeleton: A hybrid approach. Mechatronics (Oxford), 69, Article ID 102373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On stability and performance of disturbance observer-based-dynamic load torque compensator for assistive exoskeleton: A hybrid approach
2020 (English)In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 69, article id 102373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A disturbance observer-based-dynamic load-torque compensator for current-controlled DC-drives, as joint actuator of assistive exoskeletons, has been recently proposed. It has been shown that this compensator can effectively linearize and decouple the coupled nonlinear dynamics of the human-exoskeleton system, by more effectively compensating the associated nonlinear load-torques of the exoskeleton at the joint level. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the current controlled DC drive-servo system using the said compensator, with respect to performance and stability is presented, highlighting the key factors and considerations affecting both the stability and performance of the compensated servo system. It is shown both theoretically and through simulation results that the stability of the compensated servo system is compromised as performance is increased and vice-versa. Based on the saturation state of the servo system, a new hybrid switching control strategy is then proposed to select stability or performance-based compensator and controller optimally. The strategy is then experimentally verified both at the joint and task space level by using the developed four active-degree of freedom exoskeleton test rig.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Assistive-exoskeleton, Performance, Stability, Disturbance observer, Load-torque
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-33337 (URN)10.1016/j.mechatronics.2020.102373 (DOI)000571817900010 ()2-s2.0-85087201583 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported in part by the Ambient Assistance Living (AL) Program under Grant AAL-2013-6-042

Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2020-10-16Bibliographically approved
Bai, S., Christensen, S., Islam, M., Rafique, S., Masud, N., Mattsson, P., . . . Power, V. (2019). Development and testing of full-body exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for physical assistance of the elderly. In: Maria Chiara Carrozza, Silvestro Micera, José L. Pons (Ed.), Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy. Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy (pp. 180-184). Cham: Springer, 22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and testing of full-body exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for physical assistance of the elderly
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2019 (English)In: Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy / [ed] Maria Chiara Carrozza, Silvestro Micera, José L. Pons, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 22, p. 180-184Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and preliminary testing of a full-body assistive exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for older adults. AXO-SUIT is a system of modular exoskeletons consisting of lower-body and upper-body modules, and their combination as full body as well to provide flexible physical assistance as needed. The full-body exoskeleton comprises 27 degrees of freedom, of which 17 are passive and 10 active, which is able to assist people in walking, standing, carrying and handling tasks. In the paper, design of the AXO-SUIT is described. End-user testing results are presented to show the effectiveness of the exoskeleton in providing flexible physical assistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Biosystems & Biorobotics (BIOSYSROB), ISSN 2195-3562, E-ISSN 2195-3570 ; 22
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28664 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-01887-0_35 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055055913 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-01886-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-01887-0 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-05953
Note

The work reported here is supported by the EU AAL Programme, Innovation Fund Denmark, Vinnova, Agentschap Innoveren & Ondernemen and Enterprise Ireland.

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2020-10-28Bibliographically approved
Masud, N., Smith, C. & Isaksson, M. (2018). Disturbance observer based dynamic load torque compensator for assistive exoskeletons. Mechatronics (Oxford), 54, 78-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disturbance observer based dynamic load torque compensator for assistive exoskeletons
2018 (English)In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 54, p. 78-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In assistive robotics applications, the human limb is attached intimately to the robotic exoskeleton. The coupled dynamics of the human-exoskeleton system are highly nonlinear and uncertain, and effectively appear as uncertain load-torques at the joint actuators of the exoskeleton. This uncertainty makes the application of standard computed torque techniques quite challenging. Furthermore, the need for safe human interaction severely limits the gear ratio of the actuators. With small gear ratios, the uncertain joint load-torques cannot be ignored and need to be effectively compensated. A novel disturbance observer based dynamic load-torque compensator is hereby proposed and analysed for the current controlled DC-drive actuators of the exoskeleton, to effectively compensate the said uncertain load-torques at the joint level. The feedforward dynamic load-torque compensator is proposed based on the higher order dynamic model of the current controlled DC-drive. The dynamic load-torque compensator based current controlled DC-drive is then combined with a tailored feedback disturbance observer to further improve the compensation performance in the presence of drive parametric uncertainty. The proposed compensator structure is shown both theoretically and practically to give significantly improved performance w.r.t disturbance observer compensator alone and classical static load-torque compensator, for rated load-torque frequencies up to 1.6 Hz, which is a typical joint frequency bound for normal daily activities for elderly. It is also shown theoretically that the proposed compensator achieves the improved performance with comparable reference current requirement for the current controlled DC-drive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Disturbance observer, Exoskeleton, Load torque compensator, Serial manipulator, Actuators, DC motors, Dynamic loads, Electric machine control, Electric machine theory, Joints (anatomy), Manipulators, Robotics, Torque, Torque measurement, Application of standards, Compensation performance, Compensator structure, Higher-order dynamics, Load torques, Parametric uncertainties, Serial manipulators, Exoskeleton (Robotics)
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27633 (URN)10.1016/j.mechatronics.2018.07.003 (DOI)000446949100007 ()2-s2.0-85050674987 (Scopus ID)
Note

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Program  Grant no: AAL-2013-6-042

Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Haider, U., Nyoman, I. I., Kim, C., Masud, N., Virk, G. S. & Coronado, J. L. (2017). Modular EXO-LEGS for mobility of elderly persons. In: Advances in Cooperative Robotics: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference in CLAWAR 2016. Paper presented at 19th International Conference series on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR), 12-14 September 2016, London, UK (pp. 851-859). Singapore: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular EXO-LEGS for mobility of elderly persons
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2017 (English)In: Advances in Cooperative Robotics: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference in CLAWAR 2016, Singapore: World Scientific, 2017, p. 851-859Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents details of the AAL Call 4 EXO-LEGS project aimed at developing and testing lower body assistive exoskeletons to help elderly persons perform daily living activities independently such as stable standing, sit-to-stand transfers and straight walking. The key components needed have been realized using mobility requirements and design preferences provided by an end user group comprising 118 members via 5 surveys. Modular human-centric concepts are followed for mechanical design, sensing and actuation, system integration, etc., to realize a BASIC exoskeleton prototype able to provide up to 30% power to assist the human perform the intended motions. Two ethical approvals have been obtained to involve end users in the research, development and test phases of the project. To date, 5 test subjects have tested the exoskeleton prototype in walking and the sit-to-stand test; summary results are presented in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: World Scientific, 2017
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22835 (URN)10.1142/9789813149137_0099 (DOI)000386326300099 ()2-s2.0-84999806599 (Scopus ID)978-981-3149-12-0 (ISBN)978-981-3149-14-4 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference series on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR), 12-14 September 2016, London, UK
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020Vinnova, 2012-03255
Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-25 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Virk, G. S., Haider, U., Nyoman, I. I., Masud, N., Mamaev, I., Hopfgarten, P. & Hein, B. (2016). Design of EXO-LEGS exoskeletons. In: Assistive Robotics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 6-9 September 2015, HangZhou, China (pp. 59-66).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of EXO-LEGS exoskeletons
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2016 (English)In: Assistive Robotics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 2016, p. 59-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper describes the design details for realising the EXO-LEGS assistive exoskeletons for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications based on modelling and simulation studies performed for key mobility functionalities in activities for daily living such as stable standing in open space and straight walking. The results provide the basis for selecting sensors and actuators to develop the needed assistive exoskeletons to help the elderly to stay active and independent for as long as possible.

Keywords
Mobile robots; Walking aids, Ambient assisted living (AAL); Assistive; Daily living; Modelling and simulations; Sensors and actuators, Exoskeleton (Robotics)
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23261 (URN)000391656500011 ()2-s2.0-84999837795 (Scopus ID)978-981-4725-23-1 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 6-9 September 2015, HangZhou, China
Funder
Vinnova, 2012-03255
Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
O’Sullivan, L., Power, V., Virk, G. S., Masud, N., Haider, U., Christensen, S., . . . Voncke, K. (2015). End user needs elicitation for a full-body exoskeleton to assist the elderly. In: Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. and Schmorrow, D. (Ed.), 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the  affiliated conferences: . Paper presented at 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015), 26-30 July 2015, Las Vegas, Neevada, USA (pp. 1403-1409). Amsterdam: Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End user needs elicitation for a full-body exoskeleton to assist the elderly
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2015 (English)In: 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the  affiliated conferences / [ed] Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. and Schmorrow, D., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015, p. 1403-1409Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For ageing individuals, declining physical functional capacity can lead to loss of independence, decreased engagement in the community and reductions in quality of life. As such, solutions that can effectively and affordably supplement older adults’ diminishing functional capacity, and thus facilitate maintained independence and social participation over time are urgently required. The AXO-SUIT project - funded by the European Commission under the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme is developing assistive exoskeleton devices for older adults with impaired mobility and/or difficulties in performingactivities of daily living. This paper will report on-going research which aims to identify end user needs, and thus provide inputs to specify the design requirements of the AXO-SUIT exoskeletons. The objectives of this initial questionnaire study are to identify the functional assistance requirements of potential end users of the AXO-SUIT in terms of mobility, reaching and handling, and full-body support for performing activities of daily livingat home and in the wider community. The end user requirements identified will be used to formulate functional specifications for the AXO-SUIT lower-body and upper-body sub-systems, which will ensure that the AXO-SUIT prototypes will provide for the specific mobility, reaching and handling needs of end users, and also to provide useful insights into the perspectives and needs of end users in relation to assistive exoskeletons in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Assitive exoskeleton; Elderly; End user needs
National Category
Medical Engineering Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22872 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.302 (DOI)000383740301068 ()2-s2.0-85009948889 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015), 26-30 July 2015, Las Vegas, Neevada, USA
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-05953
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Virk, G. S., Haider, U., Indrawibawa, I. N., Thekkeparanipumadom, R. K. & Masud, N. (2014). Exo-legs for elderly persons. In: Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O. Tokhi, Gurvinder S. Virk (Ed.), Mobile service robotics: . Paper presented at 17th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR), JUL 21-23, 2014, Poznan, Poland (pp. 85-92). Singapore: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exo-legs for elderly persons
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2014 (English)In: Mobile service robotics / [ed] Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O. Tokhi, Gurvinder S. Virk, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014, p. 85-92Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a research update on the AAL Call 4 EXO-LEGS project aimed at developing lower-body mobility exoskeletons to assist elderly persons to stay independent in their normal daily living activities for as long as possible. The important movement functionalities and key design issues to be included in the process are identified via specifically developed questionnaires and responses from a pan-European end user group set up as part of the project. The user requirements are used together with the recently published ISO safety requirements for personal care robots to perform targeted technical research in the areas of human gait analysis, modelling and simulation, mechanical engineering, embedded system design, and ergonomic user interfacing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: World Scientific, 2014
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18313 (URN)000342693100011 ()2-s2.0-84991754640 (Scopus ID)978-981-4623-34-6 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR), JUL 21-23, 2014, Poznan, Poland
Funder
Vinnova, 2012-03255
Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Projects
Exoskeleton legs for elderly persons (EXO-LEGS) [2012-03255_Vinnova]; University of Gävle; Publications
Singh Rupal, B., Rafique, S., Singla, A., Singla, E., Isaksson, M. & Singh Virk, G. (2017). Lower-limb exoskeletons: Research trends and regulatory guidelines in medical and non-medical applications. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 14(6), 1-27Haider, U., Nyoman, I. I., Kim, C., Masud, N., Virk, G. S. & Coronado, J. L. (2017). Modular EXO-LEGS for mobility of elderly persons. In: Advances in Cooperative Robotics: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference in CLAWAR 2016. Paper presented at 19th International Conference series on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR), 12-14 September 2016, London, UK (pp. 851-859). Singapore: World ScientificVirk, G. S., Haider, U., Nyoman, I. I., Masud, N., Mamaev, I., Hopfgarten, P. & Hein, B. (2016). Design of EXO-LEGS exoskeletons. In: Assistive Robotics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 6-9 September 2015, HangZhou, China (pp. 59-66). Virk, G. S., Haider, U., Indrawibawa, I. N., Thekkeparanipumadom, R. K. & Masud, N. (2014). Exo-legs for elderly persons. In: Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O. Tokhi, Gurvinder S. Virk (Ed.), Mobile service robotics: . Paper presented at 17th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR), JUL 21-23, 2014, Poznan, Poland (pp. 85-92). Singapore: World ScientificIndrawibawa, I. N. & Virk, G. S. (2013). Exoskeleton for assisting human walking. In: Kenneth J Waldron, Mohammad O Tokhi and Gurvinder S Virk (Ed.), Nature-Inspired Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2013. Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2013, 14-17 July 2013, Sydney, NSW (pp. 117-124). World Scientific Publishing Co.
Assistive exoskeleton suitable for elderly persons [2014-05953_Vinnova]; University of Gävle; Publications
Christensen, S., Bai, S., Rafique, S., Isaksson, M., O'Sullivan, L., Power, V. & Virk, G. S. (2019). AXO-SUIT: A Modular Full-Body Exoskeleton for Physical Assistance. In: Alessandro Gasparetto and Marco Ceccarelli (Ed.), Alessandro Gasparetto and Marco Ceccarelli (Ed.), Mechanism Design for Robotics: Proceedings of the 4th IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics. Paper presented at MEDER: IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics,11-13 September 2018, Udine, Italy (pp. 443-450). Paper presented at MEDER: IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics,11-13 September 2018, Udine, Italy. Cham: Springer Netherlands, 66Bai, S., Christensen, S., Islam, M., Rafique, S., Masud, N., Mattsson, P., . . . Power, V. (2019). Development and testing of full-body exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for physical assistance of the elderly. In: Maria Chiara Carrozza, Silvestro Micera, José L. Pons (Ed.), Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy. Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy (pp. 180-184). Cham: Springer, 22Krishnan, R., Björsell, N. & Smith, C. (2017). Segmenting humeral submovements using invariant geometric signatures. In: Bicchi, A., Okamura, A. (Ed.), 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (Iros): . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2017), 24–28 September 2017, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 6951-6958). IEEE, Article ID 8206619. Krishnan, R., Björsell, N. & Smith, C. (2016). Invariant Spatial Parametrization of Human Thoracohumeral Kinematics: A Feasibility Study. In: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS): . Paper presented at IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2016), 9-14 October 2016, Daejeon, Korea (pp. 4469-4476). IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, Article ID 7759658. Haider, U., Nyoman, I. I., Coronado, J. L., Kim, C. & Virk, G. S. (2016). User-centric Harmonized Control for Single Joint Assistive Exoskeletons. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 13(3), Article ID 115. O’Sullivan, L., Power, V., Virk, G. S., Masud, N., Haider, U., Christensen, S., . . . Voncke, K. (2015). End user needs elicitation for a full-body exoskeleton to assist the elderly. In: Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. and Schmorrow, D. (Ed.), 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the  affiliated conferences: . Paper presented at 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015), 26-30 July 2015, Las Vegas, Neevada, USA (pp. 1403-1409). Amsterdam: Elsevier
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