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Odelstad, Jan
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Odelstad, J. (2019). Joining conceptual systems - three remarks on TJS. Filosofiska Notiser, 6(1), 77-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joining conceptual systems - three remarks on TJS
2019 (English)In: Filosofiska Notiser, E-ISSN 2002-0198, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 77-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Theory of Joining Systems, abbreviated TJS, is a general theory of representing for example legal and other normative systems as formal structures. It uses algebraic tools and a fundamental idea in this algebraic approach is the representation of a conditional norm as an ordered pair of concepts. Another fundamental idea is that the components in such a pair are concepts of different sorts. Conditional norms are thus links from for example descriptive to normative concepts and the result is the joining of two conceptual systems. However, there are often at least three kinds of concepts involved in many normative systems, viz. descriptive, normative and intermediate concepts. Intermediate concepts such as `being the owner' and `being a citizen' have descriptive grounds and normative consequences and can be said to be located intermediately between the system of grounds and the system of consequences. Intermediate concepts function as bridges (links, joinings) between concepts of different sorts. The aim of this paper is to further develop TJS and widen the range of application of the theory. It will be shown that the idea of norms as ordered pairs is flexible enough to handle nested implications and hypothetical consequences. Minimal joinings, which are important in TJS, are shown to be closely related to formal concepts in Formal Concept Analysis. TJS was developed for concepts of a special kind, namely conditions. In this paper a new model of TJS is developed, where the concepts are attributes and aspects, and the role of intermediate concepts in this model is discussed.

Keywords
Joining conceptual systems, TJS, hypothetical consequences, Formal Concept Analysis, relationals, aspect model
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29701 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-07 Created: 2019-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Odelstad, J. (2017). Likvärdigt arbete och teorin om mellanbegrepp.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Likvärdigt arbete och teorin om mellanbegrepp
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det är i många fall viktigt att skilja mellan deskriptiva begrepp som används för att uttrycka fakta och normativa begrepp som används för att formulera värderingar och normer. Men det gäller inte att alla begrepp antingen är enbart deskriptiva el. normativa. Istället kan många begrepp sägas vara både och, vilket innebär att de ”ligger mellan” de deskriptiva och de normativa. Dylika mellanbegrepp, också kallade kopplingstermer (på engelska intermediate concepts el. intermediaries), är vanligt förekommande i samband med många mänskliga aktiviteter, t.ex. vid utvärdering, beslutsfattande och regelstyrning. Det hävdas inte sällan att inom juridiken är huvuddelen av de intressanta begreppen mellanbegrepp och i Skandinavien fördes på 40- och 50-talen en djuplodande rättsfilosofisk diskussion om mellanbegreppens funktion vid utformningen av lagar och andra regelsystem. Inte minst diskuterades äganderättsbegreppet.

I denna rapport presenteras en teori om mellanbegrepp. Enligt denna har mellanbegrepp två sidor, en grundsida som vetter mot det deskriptiva och en följdsida som vetter mot det normativa. Dessa begrepp har därför funktionen att koppla ihop deskriptivt med normativt och har karaktären av en sorts mellanstationer i begreppsbildningen. Som grund för framställningen ligger en logisk och formaliserad teoribildning, men syftet med rapporten är beskriva teorin utan att förutsätta speciella logisk-matematiska förkunskaper. Framställningen fokuserar därför på tillämpning inom ett speciellt problemområde, nämligen arbetsvärdering med fokus på begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' och därmed sammanhängande begrepp. Rapporten är således avsedd att vara en introducerande framställning av teorin om mellanbegrepp exemplifierad med problemområdet arbetsvärdering. Läsaren kan sedan tillämpa teorin på andra problemområden. Ett tema som berörs i rapporten med relevans för diskussionen om mellanbegrepp är det ofta missförstådda förhållandet mellan mätning och värdering.

Om man förbiser att ett begrepp egentligen är ett mellanbegrepp så kan det leda till allvarliga begreppsliga och teoretiska oklarheter. När begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' missförstås i detta avseende leder det till missuppfattning av vad arbetsvärderingsmetoder egentligen är och hur de kan användas. Gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' föreligger inte bara en gängse uppfattning av likvärdigt arbete som är felaktig utan det tycks föreligga minst två vanliga uppfattningar av 'likvärdigt arbete' som är helt olika men båda felaktiga. Den ena uppfattningen skulle kunna kallas realism- el. deskriptivism-misstaget och den andra relativism- el. subjektivism-misstaget. Ett av syftena med denna rapport är att visa att vissa missförstånd gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' och många andra begrepp upplöses om man förstår dem som mellanbegrepp, dvs. begrepp som kopplar deskriptiva grunder till normativa följder.

Publisher
p. 51
Series
RD-report, ISSN 1403-8749 ; 46
Keywords
mellanbegrepp, likvärdigt arbete, teori
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24855 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Odelstad, J. (2017). Om beslutsteoretiska verktyg vid tillståndsprövning av vindkraft. Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Om beslutsteoretiska verktyg vid tillståndsprövning av vindkraft
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Tillståndsprövning av vindkraft är en omfattande process med många aktörer och ofta förekommer som en del av processen komplicerade avvägningar och sammanvägningar av olika intressen. I denna rapport presenteras några verktyg som kan användas vid avvägningar och sammanvägningar och vidare illustreras och diskuteras hur de kan användas i tillståndsprocesser. Verktygen är av teoretiskt slag, det är fråga om modeller, begreppssystem, formella metoder m.m. och har sin teoretiska grund inom begrepps- och beslutsanalys samt mätningsteori. Dessa discipliner har i sin tur en del av sin teoretiska grundval inom modern logik och diskret matematik, och det kommer alltså sekundärt att gälla också de här behandlade verktygen. Det är dock inte möjligt att inom ramen för denna rapport bygga en sådan rigorös matematisk-logisk grund som egentligen vore önskvärt utan framställningen får i detta avseende bli mer översiktlig oc hkompletteras med referenser till litteraturen. Förhoppningen är att framställningen ska kunna läsas utan förkunskaper i logik och diskret matematik, men en läsare som saknar sådana får räkna med att läsningen kräver tålamod och ansträngning.

I rapporten utvecklas och analyseras också bl.a. resonemangsmodeller för intresseavvägning. En av modellerna fokuserar på vad som är tillräckligt för att kunna acceptera en ansökan medan en annan fokuserar på vad som är nödvändigt för att acceptera denna. Den senare modellen utvecklas till en stegvis process där varje steg innebär att undersöka om det finns tillräckliga skäl att avslå ansökan. Om detta inte är fallet så bifalles den.

De verktyg som presenteras i rapporten kan, när de vidareutvecklats, systematiserats och strukturerats, utgöra grunden för ett beslutsanalytiskt datorstöd. Resultatet blir naturligtvis självt ett verktyg: den beslutsanalytiska teoribildningen uttryckt i en kraftfull logisk ram, datalogiskt implementerad och sedan slutligen formulerad med användarvänligt gränssnitt i ett lämpligt programmeringsspråk. Beslutsstödet kan hjälpa beslutsfattaren att hantera fakta och värderingar av relevans för beslutet på ett rationellt sätt. Syftet är inte att ersätta beslutsfattaren utan förse beslutsfattaren med metoder och verktyg som kan leda till mer genomtänkt och välgrundad hantering av beslutsfattandet. Den datavetenskapliga implementeringen av verktygen behandlas inte i denna rapport utan är ett tema för fortsatt forskning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2017. p. 73
Series
RD-report, ISSN 1403-8749 ; 47
Keywords
vindkraft, tillståndsprövning, beslutsteori
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25788 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Odelstad, J. & Lindahl, L. (2013). The Theory of Joining-Systems. In: Dov Gabbay, John Horty, Xavier Parent, Ron van der Meyden and Leendert van der Torre (Ed.), Handbook of Deontic Logic and Normative Systems: (pp. 545-634). London: College Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Theory of Joining-Systems
2013 (English)In: Handbook of Deontic Logic and Normative Systems / [ed] Dov Gabbay, John Horty, Xavier Parent, Ron van der Meyden and Leendert van der Torre, London: College Publications, 2013, p. 545-634Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: College Publications, 2013
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-10505 (URN)978-1-84890-132-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2011-09-28 Created: 2011-09-28 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, L. & Odelstad, J. (2011). Stratification of normative systems with intermediaries. Journal of Applied Logic, 9(2), 113-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stratification of normative systems with intermediaries
2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 113-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Writing a contract with a specific content is a ground for purchase, purchase is a ground for ownership, ownership is a ground for power to dispose. Also power to dispose is a consequence of ownership, ownership is a consequence of purchase, etc. The paper presents a continuation of the authors' previous work on the algebraic representation of ground-consequence chains in normative systems. The paper analyzes different kinds of "implicative closeness" between grounds and consequences in chains of legal concepts, in particular combinations of "weakest ground". "strongest consequence" and "minimal joining". The idea of a concept's being intermediate between concepts of two different sorts is captured by the technical notion of "intervenient", defined in terms of weakest ground and strongest consequence. Lattice theory is used for studying the links between different strata and the structure of intervenient strata. We focus on (1) intervenient minimality, (2) conjunctions and disjunctions of intervenients, (3) organic wholes of intervenients, and (4) a typology of different kinds of intervenients. Also (5), we pay attention to the properties of intervenients in a network of "strata". A legal example concerning grounds and consequences of "ownership" and "trust" is used to illustrate the application of the formal theory. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Normative system, Legal concept, Joining system, Intermediate concept, Intervenient, Weakest ground, Strongest consequence, Organic whole, Intervenient minimality, Ownership
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-10255 (URN)10.1016/j.jal.2010.01.002 (DOI)000290645100004 ()2-s2.0-79954588886 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-09-22 Created: 2011-09-21 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ahonen-Jonnarth, U. & Odelstad, J. (2010). Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments. In: Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris (Ed.), ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference: . Paper presented at 24th Annual European Simulation and Modelling Conference, ESM 2010, 25-27 October 2010, Hasselt, Belgium (pp. 426-433). Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments
2010 (English)In: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, p. 426-433Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI, 2010
Keywords
on-line algorithm, forest cleaning
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-7884 (URN)000305812900067 ()2-s2.0-84898654339 (Scopus ID)978-90-77381-57-1 (ISBN)
Conference
24th Annual European Simulation and Modelling Conference, ESM 2010, 25-27 October 2010, Hasselt, Belgium
Projects
Besluts-, risk- och policyanalys
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-01 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Odelstad, J. (2009). An essay on msic-systems. In: Normative Multi-Agent Systems: . Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An essay on msic-systems
2009 (English)In: Normative Multi-Agent Systems, Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is outlined. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In this essay, msic-systems are approached from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. In this essay, normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2009
Series
Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, ISSN 1862-4405
Keywords
Concept formation, Intermediary, Intermediate concept, Legal concept, Normative system, Normative position, Norm-regulated system, Agent architecture
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-3968 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Hjelmblom, M. & Odelstad, J. (2009). jDALMAS: A Java/Prolog Framework for Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent Systems. In: Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett and Lakhmi C. Jain (Ed.), Håkansson, Anne and Nguyen, Ngoc and Hartung, Ronald and Howlett, Robert and Jain, Lakhmi (Ed.), Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications. Paper presented at Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009 (pp. 110-119). Paper presented at Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>jDALMAS: A Java/Prolog Framework for Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent Systems
2009 (English)In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett and Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, p. 110-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A norm-regulated Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent System (DALMAS) is regulated by a normative system consisting of norms, which are expressed in an algebraic notation based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. A general-level Prolog implementation of the abstract DALMAS architecture makes it possible to implement specific systems in Prolog. This work describes jDALMAS, a Java library that may be used to create DALMAS applications in Java. A jDALMAS application has a client/server architecture, where a Prolog implementation of a specific system acts as a logic server. Together, the general-level Prolog implementation and the jDALMAS packages offer a framework for implementation of specific systems. Two examples of such implementations are presented here.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2009
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 5559
Keywords
deontic action-logic, normative positions, norm-regulated MAS, DALMAS, logic server
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-3963 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-01665-3_12 (DOI)000267705600012 ()3-642-01664-2 (ISBN)978-3-642-01664-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009
Projects
Advanced decision support systems: Theory and practice
Available from: 2013-02-13 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, L. & Odelstad, J. (2008). Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems. Journal of Applied Logic, 6(2), 229-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems
2008 (English)In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 229-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many concepts in legal texts are "intermediaries", in the sense that they serve as links between statements of legal grounds, on one hand, and of legal consequences, on the other. In our paper, an algebraic representation of normative systems is used for distinguishing between different kinds of intermediaries and making the idea of a joining between grounds and consequences more precise. In Section 1, the idea of intermediaries is presented and earlier discussions of the subjects are outlined. In Section 2, we introduce the algebraic framework and develop the formal theory. After introducing our approach to the representation of a normative system, we here present a theory of "intervenients", seen as a tool for analysing intermediaries. In Section 3, dealing with applications, after presenting a model of the formal theory, suited for the analysis of concepts in normative systems, we apply the theory to a number of examples, introduced in the first part. Finally, in Section 4, we make some remarks on the methodology of intermediate concepts.

Keywords
Intermediary; Intermediate concept; Intervenient; Normative system; Legal concept; Concept formation; Dummett; Counts-as
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2000 (URN)10.1016/j.jal.2007.06.010 (DOI)2-s2.0-42649113073 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2008-06-15 Created: 2008-06-15 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Odelstad, J. (2008). Many-Sorted Implicative Conceptual Systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Many-Sorted Implicative Conceptual Systems
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is presented. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In the thesis, msic-systems are studied from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. Normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from. Technical results inlude a characterization of an msic-system in terms of the most narrow joinings between different strata, characterization of the structure of the most narrow joinings between two strata, conditions for the extendability of intermediate concepts, and finally, a specification of the conditions such that the Boolean operations on intermediate concepts will result in intermediate concepts and characterization of most narrow joinings in terms of weakest grounds and strongest consequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology, 2008. p. xiv, 61
Series
Report series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 08-012
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-3967 (URN)978-91-7415-141-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-03, Hall C,KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Teknologie doktorsexamenAvailable from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations

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