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Petrovic, B., Eriksson, O. & Zhang, X. (2023). Carbon assessment of a wooden single-family building – A novel deep green design and elaborating on assessment parameters. Building and Environment, 233, Article ID 110093.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon assessment of a wooden single-family building – A novel deep green design and elaborating on assessment parameters
2023 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 233, article id 110093Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate how the carbon accounting of a wooden single-family house is affected by (1) decreasing the carbon footprint by changes in building design, (2) differentiating biogenic carbon from fossil carbon and (3) including external benefits beyond the state-of-the-art system boundaries. The motivation of exploring different system boundaries, improved building design and investigating benefits aside of system boundaries rely on the fact of having the “full” picture of GHG emissions of building products. Changes in building design were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while the costs were assessed by using lice cycle cost (LCC). The findings showed that by including positive and negative emissions from the production phase for an improved building design within scenario 4 ‘Cradle to Gate + Biogenic Carbon + D module’ has the lowest embodied GHG emissions when compared to other approaches with −3.5 kg CO2e/m2/y50. Considering the impacts of the whole building, the lowest GHG emissions are within the scenario 8 ‘Cradle to Grave + Biogenic Carbon + D module‘ for the improved building design with −0.7 kg CO2e/m2/y50. The results suggest that a change to sustainable alternatives for building components that makes the whole building to be constructed by wood, could lead to significant reduction of GHG emissions compared to conventional material choices. Economically, testing sustainable solutions, the highlighted results are the construction costs that are almost double higher for CLT elements for the foundation compared to concrete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biogenic carbon, Greenhouse gas (GHG), Life cycle assessment (LCA), Life cycle cost (LCC), Wood
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41234 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2023.110093 (DOI)000946735400001 ()2-s2.0-85150344074 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2023-04-02Bibliographically approved
Arfan, M., Eriksson, O., Wang, Z. & Soam, S. (2023). Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of hydrogen production from biowaste and biomass in Sweden. Energy Conversion and Management, 291, Article ID 117262.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of hydrogen production from biowaste and biomass in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 291, article id 117262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, an environmental and economic assessment of hydrogen production from biowaste and biomass is performed from a life cycle perspective, with a high degree of primary life cycle inventory data on materials, energy, and investment flows. Using SimaPro LCA software and CML-IA, 2001 impact assessment method, ten environmental impact categories are analyzed for environmental analysis. Economic analysis includes capital and operational expenditures and monetization cost of life cycle environmental impacts. The hydrogen production from biowaste has a high climate impact, photochemical oxidant, and freshwater eutrophication than biomass while it performs far better in ozone depletion, terrestrial ecotoxicity, abiotic depletion-fossil, abiotic depletion, human toxicity, and freshwater ecotoxicity. The sensitivity analysis of LCA results indicates that feedstock to biogas/pyrolysis-oil yields ratio and the type of energy source for the reforming process can significantly influence the results, particularly climate change, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of 1 kg hydrogen production has been accounted as 0.45–2.76 € with biowaste and 0.54–3.31 € with biomass over the plant's lifetime of 20 years. From the environmental impacts of climate change, photochemical oxidant, and freshwater eutrophication hydrogen production from biomass is a better option than biowaste while from other included impact categories and LCC perspectives it’s biowaste. This research contributes to bioresources to hydrogen literature with some new findings that can be generalized in Europe and even globally as it is in line with and endorse existing theoretical and simulation software-based studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Hydrogen, Biowaste, Biomass, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle cost, Fast pyrolysis, Anaerobic digestion
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42521 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2023.117262 (DOI)001024612500001 ()2-s2.0-85162099378 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-07-27Bibliographically approved
Danevad, D., Sapounas, A., Hillman, K. & Eriksson, O. (2023). Life cycle assessment of greenhouse tomatoes for the Swedish market. Journal of Cleaner Production, 431, Article ID 139819.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of greenhouse tomatoes for the Swedish market
2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 431, article id 139819Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The food supply chain is responsible for a large share of the anthropogenic contribution to global warming, as well as being a major contributor to several other impact categories such as acidification and eutrophication. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways of limiting the impact from food production and the food supply chain. Many crops are not adapted to growing in regions with cold climate, which creates the need to either import them or to use production methods such as greenhouses to artificially create good conditions for the crops. Sweden is currently reliant on imports for many different crops, including tomatoes where most of the consumption is covered by import from the Netherlands. This study uses life cycle assessment to analyze the potential environmental impact of Swedish tomato consumption, by comparing several year-round domestic production scenarios with scenarios representing import from the Netherlands. This is done by using a greenhouse simulation software to simulate a theoretical greenhouse placed in both countries, and then using the simulation results in combination with data from the database EcoInvent to perform a life cycle assessment. The results showed that Swedish domestic production has the potential to decrease the environmental impact of tomatoes consumed in Sweden, when compared to import from the Netherlands. There were a couple of combinations of production scenarios and impact categories where the Dutch production performed better, but the Swedish production scenarios performed better in general. The results also clearly showed that scenarios using LED lighting systems consistently had a lower impact than similar production scenarios using high-pressure sodium lighting systems. The choice of energy sources was identified as a crucial factor when it comes to the environmental impact of the studied systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Greenhouse, Life cycle assessment, Tomato, Import, Simulations, Lighting
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43362 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.139819 (DOI)001123630700001 ()2-s2.0-85177883073 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-03 Created: 2023-12-03 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Brändström, J. & Eriksson, O. (2022). How circular is a value chain? Proposing a Material Efficiency Metric to evaluate business models. Journal of Cleaner Production, 342, Article ID 130973.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How circular is a value chain? Proposing a Material Efficiency Metric to evaluate business models
2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 342, article id 130973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of Circular Economy is a principle aiming to improve sustainable development by reducing resource use and impact on ecological systems. An increasing number of companies are applying this theory on design strategies and business models in order to close, slow and narrow material loops. To highlight the importance, guide practitioners, and evaluate the progress of circular economy, a high number of circularity metrics (C-metrics) have been developed. However, little attention has been given to creating a connection between quantification of circularity and environmental performance. Existing metrics also do not highlight the interplay between micro (product), meso (industrial symbiosis), and macro (regional) level circularity. Moreover, existing metrics do not capture all material loops and do not adopt a value chain perspective on material flows. To improve the connection between C-metrics and environmental performance, a framework connecting circular economy strategies and material flows was developed. Based on this framework, a material flow-based C-metric was designed aimed at converting mechanisms of closing, narrowing and slowing material loops into a single-point value. To evaluate its feasibility, the metric was tested on three circular business models that represent all three mechanisms in a value chain perspective. The results showed that the metric is feasible in more situations than existing metrics and that the circularity value is highly dependent on assumptions. In future studies, the metric should be tested and compared to Life Cycle Assessments on multiple system levels to ensure that it generates valid results. Furthermore, user input assumptions should be standardized to ensure metric reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Circular business model; Circular economy; Circularity metric; Material flow visualization; System analysis; Value chain
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-38026 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.130973 (DOI)000773052700001 ()2-s2.0-85124873993 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-28 Created: 2022-02-28 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Arfan, M., Wang, Z., Soam, S. & Eriksson, O. (2021). Biogas as a transport fuel—a system analysis of value chain development in a Swedish context. Sustainability, 13(8), Article ID 4560.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas as a transport fuel—a system analysis of value chain development in a Swedish context
2021 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 8, article id 4560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuels policy instruments are important in the development and diffusion of biogas as a transport fuel in Sweden. Their effectiveness with links to geodemographic conditions has not been analysed systematically in studying biogas development in a less urbanised regions, with high potential and primitive gas infrastructure. One such region identified is Gävleborg in Sweden. By using value chain statistics, interviews with related actors, and studying biofuels policy instruments and implications for biogas development, it is found that the policy measures have not been as effective in the region as in the rest of Sweden due to different geodemographic characteristics of the region, which has resulted in impeded biogas development. In addition to factors found in previous studies, the less-developed biogas value chain in this region can be attributed particularly to undefined rules of the game, which is lack of consensus on trade-off of resources and services, unnecessary competition among several fuel alternatives, as well as the ambiguity of municipalities’ prioritization, and regional cultural differences. To strengthen the regional biogas sector, system actors need a strategy to eliminate blocking effects of identified local factors, and national policy instruments should provide mechanisms to process geographical conditions in regulatory, economic support, and market formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Biogas, Policy instruments, System analysis, Transport, Value chain
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35814 (URN)10.3390/su13084560 (DOI)000645367500001 ()2-s2.0-85105173915 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-17 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2023-06-27Bibliographically approved
Petrovic, B., Zhang, X., Eriksson, O. & Wallhagen, M. (2021). Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Single-Family House in Sweden. Buildings, 11(5), Article ID 215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Single-Family House in Sweden
2021 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper was to explore long-term costs for a single-family house in Sweden during its entire lifetime. In order to estimate the total costs, considering construction, replacement, operation, and end-of-life costs over the long term, the life cycle cost (LCC) method was applied. Different cost solutions were analysed including various economic parameters in a sensitivity analysis. Economic parameters used in the analysis include various nominal discount rates (7%, 5%, and 3%), an inflation rate of 2%, and energy escalation rates (2-6%). The study includes two lifespans (100 and 50 years). The discounting scheme was used in the calculations. Additionally, carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) emissions were considered and systematically analysed with costs. Findings show that when the discount rate is decreased from 7% to 3%, the total costs are increased significantly, by 44% for a 100-year lifespan, while for a 50 years lifespan the total costs show a minor increase by 18%. The construction costs represent a major part of total LCC, with labor costs making up half of them. Considering costs and emissions together, a full correlation was not found, while a partial relationship was investigated. Results can be useful for decision-makers in the building sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
building, discount rate, house, life cycle cost, lifespan
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36098 (URN)10.3390/buildings11050215 (DOI)000653576100001 ()2-s2.0-85107208000 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-10 Created: 2021-06-10 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Ramirez Villegas, R., Eriksson, O. & Olofsson, T. (2020). Environmental payback of renovation strategies in a northern climate - the impact of nuclear power and fossil fuels in the electricity supply. Energies, 13(1), Article ID 80.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental payback of renovation strategies in a northern climate - the impact of nuclear power and fossil fuels in the electricity supply
2020 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to assess how the use of fossil and nuclear power in different renovation scenarios affects the environmental impacts of a multi-family dwelling in Sweden, and how changes in the electricity production with different energy carriers affect the environmental impact. In line with the Paris Agreement, the European Union has set an agenda to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of energy efficiency in buildings. It is estimated that by the year 2050, 80% of Europe's population will be living in buildings that already exist. This means it is important for the European Union to renovate buildings to improve energy efficiency. In this study, eight renovation scenarios, using six different Northern European electricity mixes, were analyzed using the standard of the European Committee for Standardization for life cycle assessment of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation, and improvement of the building envelope. The results show that while in some electricity mixes a reduction in the global warming potential can be achieved, it can be at the expense of an increase in radioactive waste production, and, in mixes with a high share of fossil fuels, the global warming potential of the scenarios increases with time, compared with that of the original building. It also shows that in most electricity mixes, scenarios that reduce the active heat demand of the building end up in reducing both the global warming potential and radioactive waste, making them less sensitive to changes in the energy system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
Building renovation, District heating, Electricity production, Greenhouse gasses, Life cycle assessment, Radioactive waste, Buildings, Electric power generation, Energy efficiency, Fossil fuels, Gas emissions, Geothermal energy, Geothermal heat pumps, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Nuclear energy, Nuclear fuels, Radioactive wastes, Radioactivity, Waste heat, Electricity supply, Energy efficiency in buildings, European committee for standardizations, Global warming potential, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Multi-family dwelling, Life cycle
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31399 (URN)10.3390/en13010080 (DOI)000520425800080 ()2-s2.0-85077301830 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was carried out under the auspices of the industrial post-graduate school Reesbe, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and Byggpartner i Dalarna AB.

Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
Blom, L., Hillman, K., Zandén Kjellén, P. & Eriksson, O. (2020). Havsbaserad vindkraft - beskrivning av samhällsnytta: Uppdragsforskningsrapport. Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Havsbaserad vindkraft - beskrivning av samhällsnytta: Uppdragsforskningsrapport
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the biggest challenges of our time is the climate crisis. If we humans are unable to cope with the climate crisis, we risk to not fulfilling many of the 17 global sustainability goals. The climate crisis is a consequence of carbon dioxide emissions, which are largely due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels globally account for over 60 % of the fuel supply for electricity. In Sweden, the domestic electricity supply is almost fossil-free, but electricity is both exported and imported that marginally affects the use of fossil fuels. A change of energy supply in the industry and transport sectors points to an increasing need for electricity in the future. In order for Sweden to meet its climate commitments and achieve the goal of having no territorial emissions of carbon dioxide by 2045, more renewable electricity needs to be supplied. Wind power is one of the types of power needed in the transition to a fossil-free society. To build wind power on a large scale, an environ-mental assessment is required according to the Environmental Code. The permit application to the environmental court describes the impact on the local environment through an environmental impact assessment (miljökonsekvensbeskrivning) with associated investigations. However, offshore wind power must also be examined as a water activity, in which case the societal benefits must also be described.The purpose of this report has been to make a general compilation of existing knowledge about offshore wind power with regard to the societal benefits it constitutes or may constitute from a local, regional and national perspective. The report is based on a literature study based on scientific papers as well as reports, statistics and other facts from authorities and industry organisations. The results are reported in five different areas: energy systems; energy and environmental assessment; business; public activities and civil society. Svea Vind Offshore's offshore wind power projects Utposten 1, Utposten 2 and Greta's klackar 2 have been mentioned as examples. They can generate almost 5 TWh of electricity, which corresponds to the target for 2030 in the County Administrative Board's Gävleborg's energy and climate strategy. For comparison, electricity supply in the county was 4,617 GWh and electricity use 5,034 GWh in 2017 according to the same source.The study shows that more electricity supply capacity is needed and electricity supply from offshore wind power largely follows the need for electricity. Offshore wind power can assist in meeting the power demand and can also be part of a hydrogen expansion. The energy payback period for wind power is about 1 year (comparable to solar cells) and has a lower total environmental impact than the alternatives (comparable to hydropower).Green energy and power from offshore wind power can attract business start-ups. Reef effects and a ban on bottom trawling at an offshore wind farm are positive for the fishing environment. Offshore wind power can contribute to a stronger hospitality industry and related business and can provide both direct and indirect increase in jobs. Annual income arises at local, regional and national level during design, construction, operation and maintenance of wind farms. Establishment of wind power contributes to technical learning and often leads to improved infrastructure. Anchoring, dialogue and distribution of income from offshore wind power can lead to a positive development in the ci-rest society.

Abstract [sv]

En av vår tids största utmaningar är klimatkrisen. Om vi människor inte klarar av att hantera klimat-krisen så riskerar vi att inte heller nå många av de 17 globala hållbarhetsmålen. Klimatkrisen är en följd av koldioxidutsläpp som till stor del härrör från förbränning av fossila bränslen. Fossila bräns-len utgör globalt över 60 % av bränsletillförseln för elektricitet. I Sverige är den inhemska elförsörj-ningen näst intill fossilfri men vi både exporterar och importerar el som på marginalen påverkar användning av fossila bränslen. En omställning inom industrin och transportsektorn talar för ett ökande elbehov i framtiden. För att Sverige ska klara sina klimatåtaganden och nå målet att inte ha några territoriella utsläpp av koldioxid år 2045 behöver mer förnybar el tillföras. Vindkraft är ett av de kraftslag som behövs i omställningen till ett fossilfritt samhälle. För att bygga vindkraft storska-ligt krävs en miljöprövning enligt miljöbalken. I tillståndsansökan till miljödomstolen beskrivs in-verkan på närmiljön genom en s.k. miljökonsekvensbeskrivning med tillhörande utredningar. Havs-baserad vindkraft ska emellertid även prövas som vattenverksamhet varvid även samhällsnyttan ska beskrivas.Syftet med denna rapport har varit att göra en generell sammanställning över existerande kunskap om havsbaserad vindkraft med avseende på vilken samhällsnytta den utgör eller kan utgöra utifrån ett lokalt, regionalt och nationellt perspektiv. Rapporten bygger på en litteraturstudie baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar samt rapporter, statistik och annan fakta från myndigheter och branschorga-nisationer. Resultatet redovisas inom fem olika områden: energisystem; energi- och miljövärdering; näringsliv; offentlig verksamhet och civilsamhälle. Svea Vind Offshores havsbaserade vindkrafts-projekt Utposten 1, Utposten 2 och Gretas klackar 2 har tagits upp som exempel. De kan producera närmare 5 TWh el vilket motsvarar målet för 2030 i länsstyrelsen Gävleborgs energi- och klimat-strategi. Som jämförelse var elproduktionen i länet 4 617 GWh och elanvändningen 5 034 GWh år 2017 enligt samma källa.Studien visar att mer elproduktion behövs och eltillförsel från havsbaserad vindkraft följer i stor utsträckning elbehovet. Havsbaserad vindkraft kan bidra till att fylla effektbehovet där efterfrågan finns och kan även vara en del i en vätgasutbyggnad. Energiåterbetalningstiden för vindkraft är om-kring 1 år (jämförbart med solceller) och har en lägre total miljöpåverkan än alternativen (jämförbar med vattenkraft).Grön energi och effekt från havsbaserad vindkraft kan attrahera företagsetableringar. Rev-effekter och förbud mot bottentrålning vid en havsbaserad vindkraftspark är positivt för fiskemiljön. Havs-baserad vindkraft kan bidra till stärkt besöksnäring och relaterat näringsliv och kan ge både direkt och indirekt ökning av arbetstillfällen. Årliga inkomster uppkommer på lokal, regional och nationell nivå under projektering, byggnation samt drift och underhåll av vindkraftsparker. Etablering av vindkraft bidrar till tekniskt lärande och leder ofta till att infrastrukturen förbättras. Förankring, di-alog och utdelning av inkomster från havsbaserad vindkraft kan leda till en positiv utveckling i ci-vilsamhället.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2020. p. 18
Series
RD-report, ISSN 1403-8749 ; 51
Keywords
offshore wind power, societal benefits, climate crisis, Gävleborg, energy systems, busi-ness, electricity, job creation, Havsbaserad vindkraft, samhällsnytta, klimatkris, Gävleborg, energisystem, näringsliv, elektricitet, arbetstillfällen
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-34501 (URN)
Available from: 2021-02-15 Created: 2021-02-15 Last updated: 2021-02-15
Carlos-Pinedo, S., Wang, Z., Eriksson, O. & Soam, S. (2020). Study of the digestion process at a full-scale solid-state biogas plant by using ORWARE: Model modification and implementation. Waste Management, 107, 133-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the digestion process at a full-scale solid-state biogas plant by using ORWARE: Model modification and implementation
2020 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 107, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The configuration of the reactor influences the digestion process and thus the product yields; other factors such as the rate of biogas production or biogas loss also affect the process specifically with high solid configuration. With these in mind, the ORganic WAste REsearch (ORWARE) anaerobic digestion sub-model was modified to be able to study solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) (using plug-flow reactor). The simulation results from the updated model agreed with the operational data with respect to methane yield, digestate yield and energy turnover. The model was found to be sensitive to changes in feedstock composition but to a lesser extent to changes in process temperature and retention time. By applying the model on several cases of liquid anaerobic digestion (L-AD), it was noticed that L-AD at mesophilic condition with 25 retention days seemed to be superior to other cases of L-AD with regard to energy turnover. However, even if similar methane production were observed for L-AD and SS-AD, the model suggested higher energy turnover for the case of SS-AD at thermophilic condition, being 10% more in average in comparison with cases of L-AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
System assessment model, Solid-state anaerobic digestion, Full-scale, Methane production, Feedstock
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32177 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2020.03.036 (DOI)000536511400015 ()32283487 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082933758 (Scopus ID)
Note

The financial support from the Gästrike Återvinnare Utveckling AB and the research foundation Gästrikeregionens miljö is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2023-12-15Bibliographically approved
Ramírez-Villegas, R., Eriksson, O. & Olofsson, T. (2019). Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building. Energies, 12(13), Article ID 2484.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building
2019 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to assess how different renovation scenarios affect the environmental and economic impacts of a multi-dwelling building in a Nordic climate, how these aspects are correlated and how different energy carriers affect different environmental impact categories. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union has set an agenda in order to reduce energy use in buildings. New buildings on the European market have a low replacement rate, which makes building renovation an important factor for achieving the European Union goals. In this study, eight renovation strategies were analyzed following the European Committee for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment and life cycle costs of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation and improved building envelopes. Results show that, depending on the energy carrier, reductions in global warming potential can be achieved at the expense of an increased nuclear waste disposal. It also shows that for the investigated renovation strategies in Sweden there is no correlation between the economic and the environmental performance of the building. Changing energy carriers in Sweden in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be a good alternative, but it makes the system more dependent on nuclear power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
life cycle assessment; life cycle costs; electricity production; greenhouse gasses; building renovation; nuclear waste
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30561 (URN)10.3390/en12132484 (DOI)000477034700028 ()2-s2.0-85068478769 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding agency:

- The industrial post-graduate school Reesbe- Byggpartner i Dalarna AB

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5661-2917

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