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Ramírez-Villegas, R., Eriksson, O. & Olofsson, T. (2019). Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building. Energies, 12(13), Article ID 2484.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to assess how different renovation scenarios affect the environmental and economic impacts of a multi-dwelling building in a Nordic climate, how these aspects are correlated and how different energy carriers affect different environmental impact categories. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union has set an agenda in order to reduce energy use in buildings. New buildings on the European market have a low replacement rate, which makes building renovation an important factor for achieving the European Union goals. In this study, eight renovation strategies were analyzed following the European Committee for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment and life cycle costs of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation and improved building envelopes. Results show that, depending on the energy carrier, reductions in global warming potential can be achieved at the expense of an increased nuclear waste disposal. It also shows that for the investigated renovation strategies in Sweden there is no correlation between the economic and the environmental performance of the building. Changing energy carriers in Sweden in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be a good alternative, but it makes the system more dependent on nuclear power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
life cycle assessment; life cycle costs; electricity production; greenhouse gasses; building renovation; nuclear waste
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30561 (URN)10.3390/en12132484 (DOI)000477034700028 ()2-s2.0-85068478769 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding agency:

- The industrial post-graduate school Reesbe- Byggpartner i Dalarna AB

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, M., Kabanshi, A., Langeborg, L., Barthel, S., Colding, J., Eriksson, O. & Sörqvist, P. (2019). Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 64, 48-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Climate change; Global warming; Averaging bias; Negative footprint illusion
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29596 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2019.05.005 (DOI)000484869600006 ()2-s2.0-85066452463 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Guven, H., Wang, Z. & Eriksson, O. (2019). Evaluation of future food waste management alternatives in Istanbul from the life cycle assessment perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, Article ID 117999.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of future food waste management alternatives in Istanbul from the life cycle assessment perspective
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 239, article id 117999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In developing countries like Turkey, food waste has the highest share compared to other municipal solid waste components. A detailed life cycle assessment has been performed to evaluate different food waste management options (i.e., landfilling, anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment, co-treatment with municipal wastewater) for Istanbul which is the largest city of Turkey and Europe. The current waste management has the worst environmental performance compared to proposed waste management scenarios as follows: Anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment and co-treatment with municipal wastewater. The thermal treatment scenario has been found to have the best environmental performance in most of the impact categories including climate change. The anaerobic digestion scenario ranks in the first place only in freshwater eutrophication, which is attributed to avoided fertilizer use in this scenario. A drastic improvement with 866% has been found in this category if the anaerobic digestion scenario was followed. Co-treatment with municipal wastewater refers to use of food waste disposers at households and provides improvements especially in marine eutrophication and ecotoxicity. Lower effluent emissions by means of biological wastewater treatment in the co-treatment scenario compared to other proposed scenarios lead to better performance in these categories. Various sub-scenarios have also been investigated such as using biogas as vehicle fuel, replacing a combined heat and power with a condensing plant and increasing food waste addition to sewer lines. Important improvements are not achievable in the first two sub-scenarios; however, increasing food waste addition to sewer lines reduces various environmental impact categories by −41% and −60%. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Food waste, Incineration, Landfilling, Life cycle assessment, Biological water treatment, Climate change, Cogeneration plants, Developing countries, Effluent treatment, Effluents, Environmental management, Eutrophication, Fuels, Heat treatment, Heating, Lead removal (water treatment), Life cycle, Municipal solid waste, Sewers, Waste incineration, Wastewater treatment, Biological waste water treatment, Combined heat and power, Environmental performance, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Management scenarios, Municipal wastewaters
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30584 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117999 (DOI)000487237100073 ()2-s2.0-85070610467 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Petrovic, B., Myhren, J. A., Zhang, X., Wallhagen, M. & Eriksson, O. (2019). Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden. Applied Energy, 251, Article ID 113253.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, article id 113253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand the reasons behind the large environmental impact from buildings the whole life cycle needs to be considered. Therefore, this study evaluates the carbon dioxide emissions in all stages of a single-family house in Sweden from the production of building materials, followed by construction and user stages until the end-of-life of the building in a life cycle assessment (LCA). The methodology applied is attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) based on ‘One Click LCA’ tool and a calculated life span of 100 years. Global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy (PE) are calculated by using specific data from the case study, furthermore the data regarding building materials are based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The results show that the selection of wood-based materials has a significantly lower impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in comparison with non-wood based materials. The total emissions for this single-family house in Sweden are 6 kg CO 2 e/m 2 /year. The production stage of building materials, including building systems and installations represent 30% of the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, while the maintenance and replacement part represents 37%. However, energy use during the in-use stage of the house recorded lower environmental impact (21%) due to the Swedish electricity mix that is mostly based on energy sources with low carbon dioxide emissions. The water consumption, construction and the end-of-life stages have shown minor contribution to the buildings total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (12%). The primary energy indicator shows the largest share in the operational phase of the house. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Carbon dioxide equivalent emission, Environmental product declaration, Global warming potential, Life cycle assessment, Primary energy, Single-family house
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29904 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.056 (DOI)000471031703144 ()2-s2.0-85065788114 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Ramirez Villegas, R., Eriksson, O. & Olofsson, T. (2019). Life Cycle Assessment of Building Renovation Measures: Trade-off between Building Materials and Energy. Energies, 12(3), Article ID 344.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of Building Renovation Measures: Trade-off between Building Materials and Energy
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scope of this study is to assess how different energy efficient renovation strategies affect the environmental impacts of a multi-family house in a Nordic climate within district heating systems. The European Union has set ambitious targets to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2030. There is special attention on reducing the life cycle emissions in the buildings sector. However, the focus has often been on new buildings, although existing buildings represent great potential within the building stock in Europe. In this study, four different renovation scenarios were analyzed with the commercially available life cycle assessment software that follows the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) standard. This study covers all life cycle steps from the cradle to the grave for a residential building in Borlange, Sweden, where renewable energy dominates. The four scenarios included reduced indoor temperature, improved thermal properties of building material components and heat recovery for the ventilation system. One finding is that changing installations gives an environmental impact comparable to renovations that include both ventilation and building facilities. In addition, the life cycle steps that have the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios are the operational energy use and the building and installation processes. Renovation measures had a major impact on energy use due to the cold climate and low solar irradiation in the heating season. An interesting aspect, however, is that the building materials and the construction processes gave a significant amount of environmental impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
life cycle assessment, building renovation, district heating, environmental impacts, energy efficiency, climate change, energy directive, building materials
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29919 (URN)10.3390/en12030344 (DOI)000460666200012 ()2-s2.0-85060915288 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Carlos-Pinedo, S., Wang, Z. & Eriksson, O. (2019). Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale. Biomass and Bioenergy, 127, Article ID 105270.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale
2019 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, article id 105270Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) takes place when solid content of the substrate is higher than 15%. Some advantages of this technology have been recognized as e.g., less required water added to raw feedstock and consequently minimized digester size and cost, higher volumetric organic loading rates (OLR) that may lead to higher efficiency methane yield and better acceptance of a wide range of feedstocks. However, scientific studies of SS-AD at pilot- and full-scale are very few and difficulties have been reported in operating SS-AD, especially when the system undergoes a scale-up, where methane production is the purpose. As a result, this review gives a summary of scientific studies for SS-AD processes at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale, where a great diversity of substrate composition, reactor design and operational parameters have been categorized, and their performances in terms of methane yield have been analyzed. This, in turn, helps to identify that factors affecting methane yields at different scales arise mainly from operational conditions as well as the characteristic of feedstocks. This review even contributes to suggest several strategies for improvement of methane yield at full-scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Solid-state anaerobic digestion, Methane yield, Improvement
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30037 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.105270 (DOI)000478564300033 ()2-s2.0-85067212403 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency:

University of GävleResearch foundation Gästrikeregionens miljö Gästrike Återvinnare Utveckling AB 

Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Wallhagen, M., Eriksson, O. & Sörqvist, P. (2018). Gender Differences in Environmental Perspectives among Urban Design Professionals. Buildings, 8(4), Article ID 59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Differences in Environmental Perspectives among Urban Design Professionals
2018 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban design professionals are key actors in early design phases and have the possibility to influence urban development and direct it in a more sustainable direction. Therefore, gender differences in environmental perspectives among urban design professionals may have a marked effect on urban development and the environment. This study identified gender differences in environment-related attitudes among urban design professionals involved in the international architectural competition 'A New City Centre for Kiruna' in northern Sweden. Participants' self-rated possibility to influence environmental aspects was higher for males than for females. Conversely, the importance placed on environmental aspects had higher ratings among females, although the differences regarding the rating of personal responsibilitywere small. The gap between the participants' self-rated belief in their ability to influence and rated importance of environmental aspects was larger among female participants. Females placed great importance on environmental aspects even though they felt that their possibility to influence these was rather low. Conversely, male participants felt that they had the greatest possibility to influence, although some males rated the importance of environmental aspects thelowest. The gender differences identified are important froman equality and environmental perspective as they may influence pro-environmental behavior among urban design professionals and ultimately influence the environmental performance of the built environment.

Keywords
Architects, Architectural competition, Environmental aspects, Environmental impact, Gender, Possibility to influence, Pro-environmental behavior, Responsibility, Urban design, Urban planners
National Category
Applied Psychology Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26529 (URN)10.3390/buildings8040059 (DOI)000430894400013 ()2-s2.0-85045747862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Guven, H., Eriksson, O., Wang, Z. & Ozturk, I. (2018). Life cycle assessment of upgrading options of a preliminary wastewater treatment plant including food waste addition. Water Research, 145, 518-530
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of upgrading options of a preliminary wastewater treatment plant including food waste addition
2018 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 145, p. 518-530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a beneficial tool to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to compare different upgrading options. The main objective of this study is to investigate the environmental impact of upgrading options of a preliminary WWTP in Istanbul, Turkey. The preliminary plant currently consists of mechanical treatment units and various upgrading options including primary treatment and high-rate activated sludge system (HRAS) process as well as the addition of food waste to wastewater were compared. Results showed that the baseline scenario (S0) had worse performance than all future scenarios (S1-3) except for climate change. The scenario of adding food waste to wastewater (S3) has the best performance in climate change, terrestrial acidification, terrestrial ecotoxicity and fossil depletion. Increased addition of food waste was also tested in the sensitivity analysis, and major improvements were obtained especially in climate change and terrestrial ecotoxicity.

Keywords
Food waste, High-rate activated sludge process, Life cycle assessment, Primary treatment, Sludge, Wastewater treatment plant upgrading
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27906 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2018.08.061 (DOI)000449137700049 ()30195101 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053136201 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Eriksson, O., Ödlund, L. & Åberg, M. (2018). No zero burden assumption in a circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 352-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No zero burden assumption in a circular economy
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with “zero burden” by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Resource management, Sustainable development, System approach, Upstream thinking, Waste management, Waste prevention, Economic and social effects, Economics, Energy efficiency, Life cycle, Manufacture, Planning, Toxic materials, Waste disposal, Waste treatment, Environmental problems, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Manufacturing companies, Waste management systems
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26393 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.031 (DOI)000428826300033 ()2-s2.0-85043571006 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Thygesen, R., Eriksson, O., Gustafsson, M. & Karlsson, B. (2017). Nära noll-energi-byggnaders energianvändning: Analys av solel, energieffektivisering och val av uppvärmingsform genom simuleringar av byggnader och energisystem. Stockholm: Energiforsk AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nära noll-energi-byggnaders energianvändning: Analys av solel, energieffektivisering och val av uppvärmingsform genom simuleringar av byggnader och energisystem
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Nära noll-energi-byggnaders energianvändning : Delrapport 2 inom projektet "Regelstyrd energi- och miljövärdering av byggnader"
Abstract [sv]

I EU-direktivet om byggnaders energiprestanda anges att det är upp till de en-skilda medlemsstaterna att definiera och införa begreppet nära-noll-energi-byggnader (NNEB). Mot bakgrund av bl.a. det reviderade direktivet om byggna-ders energiprestanda har Boverket utarbetat skärpta energihushållningskrav som gäller fullt ut från 1 januari 2013 (BBR 2012). Dessa bestämmer hur mycket energi som maximalt får användas för uppvärmning, komfortkyla, tapp-varmvatten samt fastighetsenergi. Icke eluppvärmda byggnader får ha en faktor 1,6 gånger högre specifik energianvändning än eluppvärmda byggnader, vilket resulterar i att en byggnad med värmepump kan uppföras betydligt mindre energieffektiv än en byggnad som värms med fjärrvärme. Solenergi och den värme som en värmepump tar från omgivningen och som används direkt i byggnaden räknas som energief-fektivisering. I Boverkets förslag till föreskrifter finns ingen beskrivning hur solel skall hanteras. Detta ger upphov till problem i byggnaders projekteringsfas.

I denna rapport har fokus legat på att genom simuleringar av energianvändning i byggnader illustrera problemen med definitionen av nära-noll-energi-byggnader. Följande konsekvensanalyser har genomförts:

  1. Belysa problemet med solcellssystemets påverkan på byggnadens specifika energianvändning för byggnader med olika uppvärmningssystem (bergvär-mepump och fjärrvärme)
  2. Belysa hur BBR och NNEB definitionen påverkar renoveringar med avseende på specifik energianvändning och värdera vilka åtgärder som är mest lön-samma för fastighetsägaren.
  3. Belysa hur kraven i NNEB definitionen påverkar valt uppvärmningssystem i nya byggnader inom fjärrvärmeområden.

Slutsatserna utifrån simuleringarna är följande:

Boverkets föreslagna nära nollenergibyggnadsdefinition förstärker möjligheten att bygga systemkombinationer med bergvärmepump och solenergisystem som ger byggnader med lågt primärenergital. En fjärrvärmeuppvärmd byggnads primär-energital påverkas marginellt av installationen av ett solenergisystem. Redan rela-tivt små solenergistorlekar ger huvuddelen av minskningen av primär-energitalet för alla systemkombinationer.

I Boverkets föreskriftsförslag finns inga skallkrav gällande renovering så dessa blir ej styrande när det gäller renoveringar.

NNEB definitionen eller föreskriftförslaget för kapitel 9 i Boverkets byggregler möjliggör att nya byggnader får väldigt låga primärenergital om de utrustas med bergvärmepump. Om denna systemutformning införs i byggnader inom fjärr-värmeområdet så riskerar det att leda till en ökning av globala koldioxidutsläpp om inte elen har relativt låga utsläppsvärden som t.ex. Nordisk mix.

Abstract [en]

The EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings states that it is up to the individual Member States to define and implement the concept of nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB). Given the revised Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket) has developed more stringent energy requirements active from January 1st, 2013 (BBR 2012). These requirements determine the maximum levels of energy which may be used for heating, comfort cooling, hot tap water and building electricity. Non elec-trically heated buildings may have a factor 1.6 times higher specific energy usage than electrically heated buildings, resulting in a building with heat pump can be erected significantly less energy efficient than a building heated by district heating. Solar energy (power or heat) and the heat that a heat pump takes from the sur-roundings used directly in the building count as energy efficiency. In the Board's proposed regulations there is no description of how solar electricity will be han-dled. This gives rise to problems in building planning phase.

In this report, focus has been set on using simulations of energy consumption in buildings to illustrate the problem of the definition of nearly zero-energy build-ings. The following impact assessments have been carried out:

  1. Highlight the problem of how the HVAC system affect the specific energy use of buildings using different heating systems (geothermal heat pump and dis-trict heating)
  2. Highlight how the BBR and NNEB definitions affects renovations in terms of specific energy use and evaluate the measures that are most profitable for the property owner.
  3. Highlight how the requirements of the NNEB definition affects the chosen heating systems in new buildings within the district heating area.

The findings based on the simulations are as follows:

The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning 's proposed near-zero en-ergy building definition enhances the ability to build systems combinations with geothermal heat pump and solar systems that provide buildings with low primary energy numbers. The primary energy number for a building heated by district heating is affected marginally by the installation of a solar energy system. Even relatively small solar system sizes provide the bulk of the reduction of primary energy number for all system combinations.

In the Board's regulatory proposals there are no mandatory requirements regard-ing renovation, thus they are not ruling regarding renovations.

The NNEB definition or regulation proposal for Chapter 9 of the Building Regula-tions makes it possible for new buildings to receive very low primary energy num-bers if equipped with geothermal heat pump. If the system design is introduced in buildings within the district heating area, it may lead to an increase in global car-bon dioxide emissions unless the CO2 emissions from electricity are moderate as for Nordic mix.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Energiforsk AB, 2017. p. 79
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28273 (URN)
Projects
Regelstyrd energi- och miljövärdering av byggnader
Note

Finansiär Energiforsk AB

Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5661-2917

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