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Pagard, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Brulin, E., Rudolfsson, T. & Hallman, D. (2024). Effects of a participative workplace intervention on work strategies and expectations of availability among office-based employees with flexible work arrangements. IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, 11(3-4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a participative workplace intervention on work strategies and expectations of availability among office-based employees with flexible work arrangements
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2024 (English)In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 11, no 3-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Flexible work arrangements (FWA) are common, but knowledge on how to organize flexible work to reduce negative consequences and preserve positive aspects is currently sparse, which hampers organizational initiatives.  

Purpose: This study aimed at determining the extent to which work strategies, work-related ICT use outside regular working hours (i.e., use of laptop, tablet, or smartphone, to handle information and facilitate communication), productivity, expectations of availability, and clarity of expectations about availability, had changed among office-based employees with FWA two and four months after a participative two-step workplace intervention.

Methods: An intervention group (n=97) was compared to a control group working as usual (n=70). The intervention, initiated and approved by the top management of the organization, included individual education intended to change work strategies, and workshops developing common rules and routines for FWA within the work group.

Results: Participants were satisfied with the intervention and reported larger changes than the control group in work strategies. No statistically significant effects were, however, found on ICT use, productivity, or expectations of availability.

Conclusions: This participative workplace intervention was successful in changing employees work strategies but may not be effective in influencing ICT use outside regular working hours, productivity, expectations of availability, and clarity of expectations about availability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2024
Keywords
digitalization, work control, intervention, participative, work strategies
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43358 (URN)10.1080/24725838.2024.2329109 (DOI)001196767100001 ()38571371 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85189965745 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/528Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Pagard, S. (2024). Promoting Work-Life Balance in Flexible Work. (Doctoral dissertation). Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting Work-Life Balance in Flexible Work
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Flexible work arrangements (FWAs), which allows employees to decide when, where, and how to perform the work, is more prevalent than ever in modern working life. However, research about how FWAs can be organized to promote work-life balance (WLB) is sparse. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop, implement, and evaluate a workplace intervention among office-based employees with FWAs. More specifically, the aims wereto: 1) identify demands and resources related to WLB; 2) in co-creation with the investigated organization, identify suggestions for improvements to guide the development of a workplace intervention; and 3) implement and evaluate the effect of an intervention, addressing some of the identified suggestions on proximal (i.e., work strategies, use of work-related information and communication technology (ICT), productivity, and expectations of availability) and distal outcomes (i.e., WLB and interference between work and private life).

Methods: Paper I was a cross-sectional study based on a comprehensive questionnaire that examined occupational factors and their associations with WLB. Paper II comprised focus group interviews to collect suggestions for improvements in FWAs at an organizational, work group and individual level. Therefore, while paper I and II informed the design of the intervention, papers III and IV comprised its implementation and evaluation. Paper III examined effects on proximal outcomes and paper IV on distal outcomes.

Results: Identified resources related to employees’ WLB in FWAs were boundary management, information about how to organize work, and relation-oriented leadership. Identified demands were over-commitment to work, quantitative job demands, and expectations of availability. Perceived flexibility was a resource for WLB, which interacted with several demands and buffering their negative associations with WLB. Suggestions from the focus groups related to organizational (e.g., common guidelines for FWAs), workgroup (e.g., clarify expectations of availability) and individual-level improvements (e.g., determine own availability), which supported the development and implementation of an intervention addressing work strategies and culture in FWAs. Participants were satisfied with the intervention and reported changes in work strategies. No intervention effects were found on other proximal or distal outcomes.

Conclusions: We identified both demands and resources related to employees’ WLB in FWAs. Employees suggested intervention activities mainly focusing on changing work strategies, both as individuals and as a workgroup. The intervention was effective in changing work strategies, but not in improving other proximal and distal outcomes.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Flexibelt arbete, vilket definieras som anställdas möjlighet att bestämma när, var och hur arbetet ska utföras, är vanligare än någonsin i dagens arbetsliv. Forskning om hur flexibelt arbete kan utformas för att främja balans mellan arbete och privatliv är sparsam. Syftet med avhandlingen var att utveckla, implementera och utvärdera en arbetsplatsintervention bland kontorsanställda med flexibelt arbete. I synnerhet var avhandlingens syfte att: 1) identifiera krav och resurser relaterade till balans; 2) att i samskapande med organisationen identifiera förslag på förbättringar som önskas implementeras i en arbetsplatsintervention; och 3) implementera och utvärdera effekten av en intervention som antar några av förslagen, på proximala (dvs. arbetsstrategier, arbetsrelaterad användning av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi, produktivitet och förväntningar på tillgänglighet), och distala utfall (dvs. balans mellan arbete och privatliv och konflikt mellan arbete och privatliv).

Metod: Studie I var en tvärsnittsstudie baserad på ett omfattande frågeformulär som undersökte sambanden mellan arbetsrelaterade faktorer och balans mellan arbete och privatliv i flexibelt arbete. Studie II bestod av fokusgruppsintervjuer för att kartlägga förslag på förbättringar på organisations-, arbetsgrupp-, och individnivå. Studie I och II låg således till grund för utformningen av interventionen, medan studie III och IV bestod av implementering och utvärdering av interventionen. Studie III undersökte effekterna på proximala utfall och studie IV på distala utfall.

Resultat: Resurser för balans mellan arbete och privatliv var gränshantering, information om hur arbetet kan organiseras och ett relations inriktat ledarskap. Krav för balans var överengagemang i arbetet, arbetskrav och förväntningar om tillgänglighet. Förslag från intervjuerna berörde organisationen (t.ex. gemensamma riktlinjer för flexibelt arbete), gruppen (t.ex. klargöra förväntningar om tillgänglighet) och individen (t.ex. klargöra den egna tillgängligheten), vilket låg till grund för att utforma och genomföra en intervention för att förändra arbetsstrategier och kulturen i flexibelt arbete. Deltagarna var nöjda med interventionen och rapporterade förändrade arbetsstrategier. Inga interventionseffekter hittades för andra proximala eller distala utfall.

Konklusion: Vi fann både positiva och negativa faktorer för balans mellan arbete och privatliv i flexibelt arbete. Anställda föreslog interventionsaktiviteter för att förändra arbetsstrategier, både individuellt och inom arbetsgruppen. Interventionen var effektiv för att ändra arbetsstrategier, men inte för att förbättra andra proximala eller distala utfall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2024. p. 64
Series
Doctoral thesis ; 39
Keywords
digitalization, job autonomy, work control, job demands, job resources, work-life balance, work-home interference, home-work interference, participatory approach, intervention, digitalisering, arbetsautonomi, arbetskontroll, arbetskrav, arbetsresurser, balans mellan arbete och privatliv, arbetet inkräktar på privatlivet, privatlivet inkräktar på arbetet, deltagande tillvägagångssätt, intervention
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43400 (URN)978-91-89593-17-6 (ISBN)978-91-89593-18-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-02-16, Krusenstjernasalen, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/528
Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, J., Mathiassen, S. E., Bjärntoft, S., Jahncke, H., Hartig, T. & Hallman, D. (2023). A Work Time Control Tradeoff in Flexible Work: Competitive Pathways to Need for Recovery. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(1), Article ID 691.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Work Time Control Tradeoff in Flexible Work: Competitive Pathways to Need for Recovery
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Work time control may offer opportunities, but also implies risks for employee recovery, influenced by increased work-related ICT use and overtime work. However, this risk–opportunity tradeoff remains understudied. This study aimed to test two different models of associations between work time control, work-related ICT use, overtime work, and the need for recovery. These models were constructed based on data on office workers with flexible work arrangements. Cross-sectional data were obtained with questionnaires (n = 2582) from employees in a Swedish multi-site organization. Regression models treated the three determinants of the need for recovery either as independent, or as linked in a causal sequence. The test of independent determinants confirmed that more work time control was associated with less need for recovery, whereas more ICT use and overtime work were associated with a higher need for recovery. In a test of serial mediation, more work time control contributed to a greater need for recovery through more ICT use and then more overtime work. Work time control also had a competitive, indirect effect through a negative association with overtime work. Our results suggest that work time control is beneficial for employee recovery, but may for some be associated with more work-related ICT use after regular working hours, thus increasing recovery needs. Policies that support work time control can promote recovery, but employers must attend to the risk of excessive use of ICT outside of regular working hours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
occupational health, job autonomy, digitalization, working conditions, working times
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40639 (URN)10.3390/ijerph20010691 (DOI)000909151200001 ()36613009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85145979290 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009–1761Swedish Transport Administration, 2015/92392
Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2024-04-26Bibliographically approved
Brulin, E., Bjärntoft, S., Bergström, G. & Hallman, D. (2023). Gendered associations of flexible work arrangement and perceived flexibility with work–life interference: a cross-sectional mediation analysis on office workers in Sweden. Social Indicators Research, 167, 571-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendered associations of flexible work arrangement and perceived flexibility with work–life interference: a cross-sectional mediation analysis on office workers in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 167, p. 571-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible work arrangements (FWA) may be beneficial for increasing perceived flexibility (i.e. control over when, where and how to work) and reducing interference between work and private-life, but knowledge of gendered patterns of these relationships is sparse. Drawing on gender theory, the aim of this study was to conduct gender-differentiated analyses of the associations between FWA (non-regulated work or flex-time) and work–life interference using perceived flexibility as a mediator. Survey data were collected in 2016 from a sample of 2614 employees in the Swedish Transport Administration (response rate 67%). The sample included 39.6% women and 60.4% men, 71.7% had non-regulated work and 28.3% flex-time. Associations were determined using linear mixed models and mediation analysis. Results indicated a beneficial effect of non-regulated work (referencing flex-time) on work–life interference through an increase in perceived flexibility. The indirect effect of FWA was pronounced and statistically significant in the total sample, as well as in men and women. However, in men, non-regulated work was associated with a statistically significant increase in interference (competitive mediation). Gender did not interact significantly with work arrangement nor with perceived flexibility. In conclusion, the type of FWA can result in different perceptions of flexibility which in turn may affect experiences of work–life interference. Furthermore, it should be acknowledged that both FWAs and flexibility may be experienced differently for men and women regarding interference. Thus, employers seeking to reduce employee interference should consider gender norms and individual needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Autonomy; Flexibility; Flexible work arrangement; Mediation; Men; Sustainable work; Women; Work–life interference
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41767 (URN)10.1007/s11205-023-03113-w (DOI)000983919700003 ()2-s2.0-85158122348 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-01190Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019-01257Swedish Transport Administration, 2015-92392
Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-06-16Bibliographically approved
Pagard, S., Edvinsson, J., Brulin, E., Mathiassen, S. E. & Hallman, D. (2023). Work-Life Balance: Effects of a Participative Workplace Intervention among Office-based Employees with Flexible Work Arrangements.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-Life Balance: Effects of a Participative Workplace Intervention among Office-based Employees with Flexible Work Arrangements
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2023 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Organizing work to promote work-life balance (WLB) in employees with flexible work arrangement (FWA) is an important issue, but intervention studies are sparse. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which WLB, work-home interference (WHI), and home-work interference (HWI) changed among office-based employees with FWA after a participative workplace intervention. The researchers co-created an intervention together with a large governmental agency in Sweden. The intervention consisted of two activities; 1) education to change individual work strategies, and 2) workshops to develop common rules and routines within the workgroup. Two similar departments with notable levels of perceived stress participated as an intervention group (n=97) and as a control group (n=70). The control group was aware of the intervention but did not receive any intervention activities. Data were collected using questionnaires on three occasions: prior to the intervention (baseline), after the education (six-month follow-up), and after the workshops (12-month follow-up). Data were analyzed using linear mixed models, with adjustments for candidate confounders. Results indicated marginal and statistically non-significant effects of the intervention on WLB or interference between work and private life. Estimates at the second follow-up pointed to slightly reduced WLB but increased HWI in the intervention group compared with the control group. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether other strategies could be more effective in promoting WLB in FWA. 

Keywords
intervention, digitalization, autonomy, work-life balance
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43359 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, Dnr 2017/528Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Forte Dnr. 2009-1761
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Bjärntoft, S., Hallman, D., Zetterberg, C., Larsson, J., Edvinsson, J. & Jahncke, H. (2021). A participatory approach to identify key areas for sustainable work environment and health in employees with flexible work arrangements. Sustainability, 13(24), Article ID 13593.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A participatory approach to identify key areas for sustainable work environment and health in employees with flexible work arrangements
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2021 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 13593Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible work arrangements are common worldwide, but knowledge on how to achieve a sustainable work environment is sparse. The aim of this study was to use a participatory approach to identify concrete suggestions and key areas for improvement that were considered relevant, effective, and feasible for promoting good work environment and health at organizational, work group and individual level (O-G-I), among office employees with flexible work arrangements. Eight focus group interviews (including 45 employees) were conducted in a large Swedish government agency in 2017. By using a Tree diagram approach, employees made a total of 279 suggestions for improvements, which were sorted into O-G-I levels and mapped into 18 key areas. We found that 13 key areas addressed organizational level (e.g., improving leadership, policy, job demands, and work efficiency), two key areas addressed group level (create common rules of availability and activity-based working), and three key areas addressed individual level (e.g., individuals’ responsibility to clearly communicate their availability). The participatory process was effective in obtaining concrete suggestions and key areas in need of improvement, which may provide an action plan that can guide organizations in developing interventions to promote good work environment and health in flexible work. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Health promotion; Job autonomy; Participative; Sustainable work; Work environment
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37535 (URN)10.3390/su132413593 (DOI)000738547500001 ()2-s2.0-85120936209 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Transport Administration, 2016/425/1
Available from: 2021-12-20 Created: 2021-12-20 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Mixter, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Bjärntoft, S., Lindfors, P., Lyskov, E. & Hallman, D. (2021). Fatigue, stress and performance during alternating physical and cognitive tasks - effects of the temporal patterns of alternations. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 65(9), 1107-1121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue, stress and performance during alternating physical and cognitive tasks - effects of the temporal patterns of alternations
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2021 (English)In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308 , E-ISSN 2398-7316 , Vol. 65, no 9, p. 1107-1121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In occupational life, performing mental work tasks in-between fatiguing physical work tasks may allow recovery and reduce stress without losing productive working time. The temporal pattern of such alternations is likely a determinant of the recovery effect, influencing both stress and fatigue; the difficulty of the mental task would also be a likely determinant. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the temporal pattern of alternations between a repetitive physical task and a cognitive task of different difficulties influenced perceived fatigability, performance fatigability, stress-related outcomes, and performance. Fifteen women performed four work sessions comprising 110 minutes of repeated bouts of a repetitive physical task (pipetting), alternating with a cognitive task (CT; n-back). Sessions differed in bout cycletime (short: 7+3 min vs long: 14+6 min) and CT difficulty (easy vs difficult). Fatigue was assessed from recordings of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) force in shoulder elevations and handgrip pre- and post- work, electromyography (EMG) from the right trapezius and right forearm extensors during work, and repeated self-ratings of fatigue and pain throughout the session. Stress was assessed using electrocardiography (heart rate variability), salivary alpha amylase, and self-reports. Perceived fatigue increased significantly over time for all protocols, and more in long-cycle than short-cycle conditions. EMG activity did not increase markedly over time in any condition. Neither objective nor subjective indicators suggested that stress increased over time, regardless of the temporal pattern. Pipetting performance remained stable in all conditions. Cognitive performance, measured as the proportion of correct and false answers, differed between CT difficulty levels, but remained stable over time, with no significant difference between temporal patterns. In summary, temporal patterns of alternating tasks influenced fatigue to some extent, but had no obvious influence on stress indicators or performance. Thus, alternating cognitive and physical work can serve as a feasible alternative to job rotation between physical tasks only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford Academic, 2021
Keywords
Mental work, Repetitive work, Recovery, Fatigability, Job rotation
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-34401 (URN)10.1093/annweh/wxab045 (DOI)000743314300009 ()34228119 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121035375 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120223
Available from: 2020-11-25 Created: 2020-11-25 Last updated: 2022-01-27Bibliographically approved
Bjärntoft, S., Hallman, D., Mathiassen, S. E., Larsson, J. & Jahncke, H. (2020). Occupational and individual determinants of work-life balance among office workers with flexible work arrangements. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), Article ID 1418.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational and individual determinants of work-life balance among office workers with flexible work arrangements
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 4, article id 1418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible work arrangements permitting workers to work anytime and anywhere are increasingly common. This flexibility can introduce both challenges and opportunities for the organisation, as well as for worker work-life balance (WLB). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which occupational factors (organizational, leadership and psychosocial) and individual work-related behaviours (over-commitment, overtime work and boundary management) are associated with WLB, and whether these associations are modified by the perceived level of flexibility at work (i.e., control over when, where, and how to do the work). In total, 2960 full-time office workers with flexible work arrangements at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses with adjustment for covariates. The strongest negative associations with WLB were found for over-commitment, quantitative job demands, expectations of availability, and overtime work. Strongest positive associations were found for boundary management, information about organizing work, social support, and relation-oriented leadership. Perceived flexibility was positively associated with WLB, and interacted with several of the examined factors, buffering their negative associations with WLB. Results suggest that WLB can be promoted by organizational initiatives focusing on minimizing excessive job demands, increasing psychosocial resources, supporting boundary management, and enhancing perceived flexibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
work-life balance; autonomy; job resources; job demands; work control
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Flexibelt arbete
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30408 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17041418 (DOI)000522388500294 ()32098327 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079902220 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Transport Administration, 2015/92392
Available from: 2019-07-05 Created: 2019-07-05 Last updated: 2024-04-26Bibliographically approved
Mixter, S., Mathiassen, S. E., Hallman, D. & Bjärntoft, S. (2019). Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks – does temporal pattern and cognitive task difficulty influence fatigue development?. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Scientific Conference on the Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2-5 September 2019, Bologna, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks – does temporal pattern and cognitive task difficulty influence fatigue development?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background

Some evidence suggests that alternations between physical and cognitive work tasks may be a viable option for job rotation, since production can be maintained without excessive fatigue. Effects on fatigue and pain of the temporal distribution of physical and cognitive tasks are, however, uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine development of fatigue and pain during physical and cognitive work tasks of different difficulties, alternating in different temporal patterns.

Methods

Fifteen women performed alternating bouts of a physical task (phys) and a cognitive task (CT) for a total of 100 minutes. Four experimental conditions were tested in a repeated-measures design. Conditions 1 and 2 consisted of five long-cycle sequences (phys+CT, 14+6 minutes), and in conditions 3 and 4, 10 short-cycle sequences (7+3 minutes) were performed. Each temporal pattern was completed with an easy or a difficult CT. Muscle fatigue was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) from the right trapezius, and perceived fatigue and pain in the right shoulder was assessed using CR-10 ratings. Effects of time and experimental condition on these outcomes were tested using ANOVA.

Results

Perceived fatigue and pain in right shoulder after pipetting work bouts increased in all four conditions (long-cycle, fatigue F=5.68, p<0.001, pain F=4.12, p=0.01; short-cycle, fatigue F=10.59, p<0.001, pain F=5.45, p<0.001). Trapezius EMG did not change significantly across work bouts (long-cycle, F=2.14, p=0.09; short-cycle, F=1.03, p=0.42). Irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern, neither EMG nor fatigue and pain were influenced by CT difficulty (CT main effect and CT×time interaction: EMG, all F≤2.5, p≥0.1; fatigue and pain, all F≤2.0, p≥0.7).

Conclusions

The temporal pattern of alternations between a repetitive physical task and a CT did not influence fatigue development, and the difficulty level of the CT did not significantly influence fatigue and pain, irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30731 (URN)
Conference
10th International Scientific Conference on the Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2-5 September 2019, Bologna, Italy
Funder
AFA Insurance, 120223
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2021-04-01Bibliographically approved
Bjärntoft, S., Hallman, D., Mathiassen, S. E., Larsson, J. & Jahncke, H. (2018). Flexible work: Occupational determinants of work-life balance. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Congress International Ergonomics Association, 26-30 August 2018, Florens, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible work: Occupational determinants of work-life balance
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27880 (URN)
Conference
20th Congress International Ergonomics Association, 26-30 August 2018, Florens, Italy
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2020-11-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1280-1003

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