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Dong, L., Berg, B., Gu, W., Wang, Z. & Sun, T. (2022). Effects of different forms of nitrogen addition on microbial extracellular enzyme activity in temperate grassland soil. Ecological Processes, 11(1), Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of different forms of nitrogen addition on microbial extracellular enzyme activity in temperate grassland soil
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2022 (English)In: Ecological Processes, E-ISSN 2192-1709, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Nitrogen (N) deposition alters litter decomposition and soil carbon (C) sequestration by influencing the microbial community and its enzyme activity. Natural atmospheric N deposition comprises of inorganic N (IN) and organic N (ON) compounds. However, most studies have focused on IN and its effect on soil C cycling, whereas the effect of ON on microbial enzyme activity is poorly understood. Here we studied the effects of different forms of externally supplied N on soil enzyme activities related to decomposition in a temperate steppe. Ammonium nitrate was chosen as IN source, whereas urea and glycine were chosen as ON sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (Control, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 0:10) were mixed with equal total amounts of N and then used to fertilize the grassland soils for 6 years. Results Our results show that IN deposition inhibited lignin-degrading enzyme activity, such as phenol oxidase (POX) and peroxidase (PER), which may restrain decomposition and thus induce accumulation of recalcitrant organic C in grassland soils. By contrast, deposition of ON and mixed ON and IN enhanced most of the C-degrading enzyme activities, which may promote the organic matter decomposition in grassland soils. In addition, the beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was remarkably stimulated by fertilization with both IN and ON, maybe because of the elevated N availability and the lack of N limitation after long-term N fertilization at the grassland site. Meanwhile, differences in soil pH, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass partially explained the differential effects on soil enzyme activity under different forms of N treatments. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of organic N deposition in controlling soil processes, which are regulated by microbial enzyme activities, and may consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition. Thus, more ON deposition may promote the decomposition of soil organic matter thus converting C sequestration in grassland soils into a C source.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Inorganic N deposition, Organic N deposition, Soil microbial biomass, Microbial enzyme activity, Decomposition, Grassland
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-38501 (URN)10.1186/s13717-022-00380-2 (DOI)000790223500001 ()2-s2.0-85129242487 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-12 Created: 2022-05-12 Last updated: 2022-05-16Bibliographically approved
Sun, T., Yu, C., Berg, B., Wei, Z., Wang, L., Liu, X., . . . Zhang, L. (2021). Empirical evidence that manganese enrichment accelerates decomposition. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, 168, Article ID 104148.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical evidence that manganese enrichment accelerates decomposition
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2021 (English)In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 168, article id 104148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our understanding of the controls regulating the rate of litter decomposition is important for improving confidence in the parameterization of carbon cycle–climate feedbacks. Traditional conceptual models rely primarily on climate and lignin/N ratios as the main regulators of decomposition. Here we studied the effects of manganese (Mn) addition on long-term decomposition across 18 substrates in a laboratory incubation. Mn addition remarkably promoted later stage of decomposition, resulting into a smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. This dynamic is closely associated with the changes of activities of manganese peroxidase, an important enzyme with greater capacity for lignin degradation. Our findings suggest the necessity of incorporating the interaction of Mn and decomposition into biogeochemical models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Decomposition, Plant litter, Lignin, Manganese, Manganese peroxidase
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-37201 (URN)10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.104148 (DOI)000701911500009 ()2-s2.0-85109690202 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-21 Created: 2021-10-21 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Berg, B., Sun, T., Johansson, M.-B., Sanborn, P., Ni, X. & Lönn, M. (2021). Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis. Geoderma, 382, Article ID 114756.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis
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2021 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 382, article id 114756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We synthesized available data for magnesium (Mg) dynamics in newly shed and decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus) species, Norway spruce (Picea abies), and birch (Betula) species. Using original, measured data from 40 stands organized in climatic gradients we intended to determine patterns of Mg concentration and net release vs accumulated mass loss of the litter. This synthesis is likely the first synthesis of Mg dynamics in decomposing litter.

In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Mg concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), with concentrations in Norway spruce litter even twice as high.

In decomposing litter, Mg concentrations followed a quadratic (X2-X) function vs accumulated mass loss and consequently had minima, different for Norway spruce and Scots pine litter. Out of 68 decomposition studies 53 gave minimum concentration. The Mg minimum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Mg concentration for Scots pine and Scots pine plus lodgepole pine but not for Norway spruce. The increase in concentration suggests that after the minimum Mg was temporarily limiting.

For Norway spruce litter there was a relationship between minimum concentration of Mg and the limit value. There was no such relationship for Scots pine and not for the combined pine data.

Magnesium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient (release rate) for each study. The net release rate was linear to initial Mg concentration and all studies combined gave a negative linear relationship.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Litter, Decomposition, Magnesium, Mg dynamics, Mg release, Accumulated mass loss
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30878 (URN)10.1016/j.geoderma.2020.114756 (DOI)000590747200021 ()2-s2.0-85093957591 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2022-11-01Bibliographically approved
De Marco, A., Berg, B., Zarrelli, A. & Virzo De Santo, A. (2021). Shifts in soil chemical and microbial properties across forest chronosequence on recent volcanic deposits. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, 161, Article ID 103880.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shifts in soil chemical and microbial properties across forest chronosequence on recent volcanic deposits
2021 (English)In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 161, article id 103880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Afforestation of new unconsolidated volcanic deposits is a practice used to stabilize barren areas and enhance the accumulation of organic matter in the developing soil. Changes in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, including the soluble and microbial fractions, within the first decades since afforestation have been poorly investigated. Therefore the objective of the present study was to investigate how key C and N pools vary in litter and soil of four forests planted on barren volcanic deposits from recent Mount Vesuvius eruptions. We examined three forest stands (40, 70 and 100 years old) afforested with Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and a 40-year old forest of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). As a baseline of C and N pools prior to afforestation, data from treeless sites were included in the study. Both the inputs with litter fall and soil C and N stocks increased with forest age in the Stone pine stands. In the mineral soil, C concentration per gram soil dry weight and C:N ratio increased with age from treeless sites to the oldest forest. Microbial biomass C and fungal biomass as a fraction of organic carbon (OC) and respiration per unit OC (an index of organic matter mineralization potential) decreased significantly with stand age. The results suggest that a main driver of C accumulation in the mineral soil is the decline with increasing stand age of the microbial fraction of organic matter and its activity. The comparison between the two pine species revealed that litter production was more abundant in the Black pine than in the even-aged, 40-year-old, Stone pine stand; moreover Black pine litter was more acidic and had a higher stable residue than Stone pine litter. Therefore a different pattern of C sequestration occurs with a higher C stock in the organic layers and a lower C stock in the mineral soil of Black pine compared to Stone pine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Basal respiration, Fungal biomass, Microbial biomass C, Organic and mineral layers, Stone pine and Black pine, Treeless sites
National Category
Biological Sciences Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-35194 (URN)10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.103880 (DOI)000623257500006 ()2-s2.0-85099645555 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-03 Created: 2021-02-03 Last updated: 2021-03-25Bibliographically approved
Gautam, M. K., Lee, K.-S., Berg, B. & Song, B.-Y. (2020). Major, trace and rare earth elements dynamics in decomposing litters on successional sites in a cool temperate region of South Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 749, Article ID 142352.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Major, trace and rare earth elements dynamics in decomposing litters on successional sites in a cool temperate region of South Korea
2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 749, article id 142352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evaluating the decomposition-based change dynamics of various elements in plant litter is important for improving our understanding about their biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. We have studied the concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) (34 elements) in green tissue litter, and soil and their dynamics in the decomposing litters of successional annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus) and silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis). Concentrations of major and trace elements in the litter of annual fleabane were 1.02–2.71 times higher compared to silvergrass. For REEs the difference between the two litter types for elements studied was in the range of 1.02–1.29 times. Both the litters showed a general decrease in the concentrations of elements in the initial stages of decomposition (60–90 days). All the major and trace elements (except for Na) in silvergrass showed a net increase in concentration at the end of the decomposition study (48.9–52.5% accumulated mass loss). Contrastingly, a few trace elements (Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn, Sb, and Cd) in annual fleabane showed a net decrease in their concentrations. For REEs, there was an increase in concentrations as well as in net amounts in both litter types. Similarities observed in the dynamics together with high and significant correlations among them likely suggest their common source. The higher concentrations of REEs in soil likely suggest its role in the net increase in REEs' concentrations and amount in litter during decomposition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Litter decomposition, Trace elements, Rare earth elements, Cool temperate biome, South Korea
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-34020 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142352 (DOI)000581793800128 ()33370907 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85091232879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-28 Created: 2020-09-28 Last updated: 2021-01-07Bibliographically approved
Dong, L., Berg, B., Sun, T., Wang, Z. & Han, X. (2020). Response of fine root decomposition to different forms of N deposition in a temperate grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 147, Article ID 107845.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response of fine root decomposition to different forms of N deposition in a temperate grassland
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2020 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 147, article id 107845Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the importance of plant litter decomposition for ecosystem nutrient cycling and soil fertility, it is still largely unknown how this biogeochemical process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Numerous studies have investigated the effects of exogenous N addition on leaf litter decomposition, while the response of decomposing roots and their microbial communities to externally applied N is rarely studied. Fine roots, however, represent a key input to soil organic matter and understanding their decomposition under elevated atmospheric N deposition is important for predicting soil carbon (C) dynamics in response to changes in climatic conditions. In this study, we decomposed fine roots of five dominant grassland species for two years in field plots fertilized with different forms of N in a typical temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia. Ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON). Equal amounts of N (10 g N·m−2·yr−1) with different ratios of IN: ON (control, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil. Our results showed that all exogenous N additions, either IN or ON forms, stimulated the decomposition rates across species. Furthermore, the treatment with a mixture of IN and ON fertilizers led to the strongest responses in decomposition rate, which were, on average, 20% higher than control, and 12% higher than using just IN addition across the five studied species. Our results suggest that we need to consider the different components in N deposition when examining nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Root decomposition, Nitrogen deposition, Inorganic nitrogen, Organic nitrogen, Grassland
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32363 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107845 (DOI)000541372500014 ()2-s2.0-85084943725 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-02 Created: 2020-06-02 Last updated: 2020-08-17Bibliographically approved
Sun, T., Ciu, Y., Berg, B., Zhang, Q., Dong, L.-L., We, Z. & Zhang, L.-L. (2019). A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 129, 178-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites
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2019 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Litter of plant origin is the main source of soil organic matter, and its physical and chemical quality and decomposition rates are key variables in the prediction and modelling of how litter-derived carbon (C) is cycling through the ecosystem. However, the biological control factors for decomposition are not well understood and often poorly represented in global C models. These are typically run using simple parameters, such as nitrogen (N) and lignin concentrations, characterizing the quality of the organic matter input to soils and its accessibility to decomposer organisms. Manganese (Mn) is a key component for the formation of manganese peroxidase (MnP), an important enzyme for lignin degradation. However, the functional role of Mn on plant litter decomposition has been rarely experimentally examined. Here, using a forest and a cropland site we studied, over 41 months, the effects of Mn fertilization on MnP activity and decomposition of eight substrates ranging in initial lignin concentrations from 9.8 to 44.6%. Asymptotic decomposition models fitted the mass loss data best and allowed us to separately compare the influence of Mn fertilization on different litter stages and pools. Across substrates, Mn fertilization stimulated decomposition rates of the late stage where lignin dominates decomposition, resulting in smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. The increased MnP activity caused by Mn fertilization provided the mechanism explaining the stimulated decomposition in the Mn-addition treatments.

Keywords
Keywords Cropland Decomposition Forest Lignin Manganese Manganese peroxidase
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28340 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.11.018 (DOI)000457661000018 ()2-s2.0-85059321711 (Scopus ID)
Note

State Key Program of China  Grant no: 2016YFD0300904 and  2016YFA0600800Natural Science Foundation of China Grant no: 31500361,  31700397, and  31830015Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences Grant no: QYZDB-SSW-DQC00

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Ge, J., Berg, B. & Xie, Z. (2019). Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China. Ecosphere, 10(9), Article ID e02862.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China
2019 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e02862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species can coexist across the globe and constitute different broad-leaved forests along large-scale geographical and climatic gradients. A better understanding of climatic influence on the distribution of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest is of fundamental importance when assessing this mixed forest's resilience and predicting potential dynamics of broad-leaved forests under future climate change. Here, we quantified the horizontal distribution of this mixed forest in mountains in relation to climate seasonality by compiling vegetation information from the earlier records and our own field sampling on major subtropical mountains of China. We found that the probability of occurrence of this forest in subtropical mountains was positively associated with the latitude but not the longitude. The occurrence probability of this forest was observed at high-temperature but not precipitation seasonality mountains. Temperature seasonality was five times more important than precipitation seasonality in explaining the total variation of occurrence of this mixed forest. For its distribution, our results shed light on that temperature seasonality was generally a more powerful predictor than precipitation seasonality for montane mixed forest distribution. Collectively, this study clearly underscores the important role of temperature seasonality, a previously not quantified climatic variable, in the occurrence of this mixed forest along geographical gradients and hence yields useful insight into our understanding of climate-vegetation relationships and climate change vulnerability assessment in a changing climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
leaf habit, mixed forest, subtropical mountains, temperature seasonality, transition zone, vegetation zonation
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31062 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2862 (DOI)000490766500026 ()
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Dong, L., Sun, T., Berg, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q. & Wang, Z. (2019). Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 134, 78-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland
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2019 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Litter decomposition, Inorganic nitrogen deposition, Organic nitrogen deposition, Extracellular enzyme activity, Grassland
National Category
Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30506 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.03.016 (DOI)000467508000009 ()2-s2.0-85063632088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Gautam, M. K., Lee, K.-S., Berg, B., Song, B.-Y. & Yeon, J.-Y. (2019). Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea. Chemosphere, 222, 214-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea
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2019 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

Keywords
Litter decomposition, Minor elements, Rare earth elements, Cool temperate, South Korea
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29375 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.114 (DOI)000462109200026 ()30708155 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060959928 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding:

- National Agenda Program (NAP) of the National Research Council of Science and Technology- Korea Basic Science Institute Grant no: C34700 

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2022-06-13Bibliographically approved
Projects
Smart solutions for fruit growers [2014-05046_Vinnova]; University of Gävle; Publications
Bui, T. T. A., Wright, S. A. I., Falk, A. B., Vanwalleghem, T., Van Hemelrijck, W., Hertog, M. L. .., . . . Davey, M. W. (2019). Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(13), 5662-5670
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6776-4158

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