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Bergström, Gunnar, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0161-160x
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Boström, M., Björklund, C., Bergström, G., Nybergh, L., Schäfer Elinder, L., Stigmar, K., . . . Kwak, L. (2020). Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), Article ID E227.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 1, article id E227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, Psychosocial Safety Climate scale, common mental disorders, organizational and social work environment, school, stress, teachers
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31395 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17010227 (DOI)000509391500227 ()31905608 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077638598 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
Axén, I., Björk Brämberg, E., Vaez, M., Lundin, A. & Bergström, G. (2020). Interventions for common mental disorders in the occupational health service: a systematic review with a narrative synthesis. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interventions for common mental disorders in the occupational health service: a systematic review with a narrative synthesis
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2020 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Common mental disorders (CMD) are leading causes of decreased workability in Sweden and worldwide. Effective interventions to prevent or treat such disorders are important for public health.

Objective

To synthesize the research literature regarding occupational health service (OHS) interventions targeting prevention or reduction of CMD among employees. The effect on workability (sickness absence, return-to-work and self-reported workability) and on CMD symptoms was evaluated in a narrative analysis.

Data sources

The literature search was performed in four electronic databases in two searches, in 2014 and in 2017.

Eligibility criteria (using PICO)

Population: studies investigating employees at risk or diagnosed with CMD, as well as preventive workplace intervention targeting mental health. Intervention: studies where the recruitment or the intervention was delivered by the OHS or OHS personnel were included. Control: individuals or groups who did not receive the target intervention. Outcome: all types of outcomes concerning sickness absence and psychological health were included.

Study quality was assessed using a Swedish AMSTAR-based checklist, and results from studies with low or medium risk of bias were narratively synthesized based on effect or absence thereof.

Results

Thirty-three studies were included and assessed for risk of bias. Twenty-one studies had low or medium risk of bias. In 18 studies, rehabilitation interventions were evaluated, 11 studies concerned interventions targeting employees at risk for developing CMD and four studies investigated preventive interventions. Work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving skill interventions decreased time to first return-to-work among employees on sick leave for CMD in comparison with treatment-as-usual. However, effect on return to full-time work was not consistent, and these interventions did not consistently improve CMD symptoms. Selective interventions targeting employees at risk of CMD and preventive interventions for employees were heterogeneous, so replication of these studies is necessary to evaluate effect.

Limitations

Other workplace interventions outside the OHS may have been missed by our search. There was considerable heterogeneity in the included studies, and most studies were investigating measures targeting the individual worker. Interventions at the workplace/organizational level were less common.

Conclusions and implication of key findings

Return-to-work and improvement of CMD symptoms are poorly correlated and should be addressed simultaneously in future interventions. Further, interventions for CMD administered through the occupational health service require further study. Rehabilitative and preventive strategies should be evaluated with scientifically robust methods, to examine the effectiveness of such interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Common mental disorders; Occupational health service; Workability
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32125 (URN)10.1007/s00420-020-01535-4 (DOI)000523076100001 ()32246230 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85083219667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-09 Created: 2020-04-09 Last updated: 2020-04-28Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, K., Marklund, S., Leineweber, C., Bergström, G., Aboagye, E. & Helgesson, M. (2020). Presenteeism, psychosocial working conditions and work ability among care workers - a cross-sectional Swedish population-based study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), Article ID 2419.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Presenteeism, psychosocial working conditions and work ability among care workers - a cross-sectional Swedish population-based study
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 7, article id 2419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Presenteeism, attending work while ill, has been examined in different contexts in the last few decades. The aim was to examine whether poor psychosocial working conditions and perceived work ability are associated with increased odds ratios for presenteeism, focusing on nursing professionals and care assistants. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted. The selected individuals were extracted from representative samples of employees, aged 16–64, who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Surveys between 2001 and 2013 (n = 45,098). Three dimensions of psychosocial working conditions were measured: job demands, job control, and job support. Presenteeism and perceived work ability was measured. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for presenteeism with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. While nurses (n = 1716) showed the same presenteeism level as all the other occupation groups (n = 37,125), it was more common among care assistants (n = 6257). The odds ratio for presenteeism among those with high job demands (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 2.21–2.53), were higher among women than among men. For nursing professionals and care assistants, the odds ratios for presenteeism were highest among those with the lowest work ability level. The problems of presenteeism and low work ability among many health and care workers may be lessened by a reduction in psychosocial demands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
presenteeism, psychosocial working conditions, nurses, care workers, health, work ability
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32126 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17072419 (DOI)32252368 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85083071289 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-09 Created: 2020-04-09 Last updated: 2020-04-21Bibliographically approved
Keus van de Poll, M., Nybergh, L., Lornudd, C., Hagberg, J., Bodin, L., Kwak, L., . . . Bergström, G. (2020). Preventing sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a problem-solving-based intervention conducted by the Occupational Health Services. Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preventing sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a problem-solving-based intervention conducted by the Occupational Health Services
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2020 (English)In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives. Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the main causes of sickness absence and can lead to suffering and high costs for individuals, employers and the society. The occupational health service (OHS) can offer work-directed interventions to support employers and employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on sickness absence and health of a work-directed intervention given by the OHS to employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms.

Methods. Randomisation was conducted at the OHS consultant level and each consultant was allocated into either giving a brief problem-solving intervention (PSI) or care as usual (CAU). The study group consisted of 100 employees with stress symptoms or CMDs. PSI was highly structured and used a participatory approach, involving both the employee and the employee’s manager. CAU was also work-directed but not based on the same theoretical concepts as PSI. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months. Primary outcome was registered sickness absence during the 1-year follow-up period. Among the secondary outcomes were self-registered sickness absence, return to work (RTW) and mental health.

Results. A statistical interaction for group × time was found on the primary outcome (p=0.033) and PSI had almost 15 days less sickness absence during follow-up compared with CAU. Concerning the secondary outcomes, PSI showed an earlier partial RTW and the mental health improved in both groups without significant group differences.

Conclusion. PSI was effective in reducing sickness absence which was the primary outcome in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2020
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32176 (URN)10.1136/oemed-2019-106353 (DOI)32291291 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85083304424 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-0742Swedish Social Insurance Agency, 027552-2015
Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2020-04-28Bibliographically approved
Mather, L., Narusyte, J., Ropponen, A., Bergström, G., Blom, V., Helgadóttir, B. & Svedberg, P. (2020). Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55, 25-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs
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2020 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 55, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2020
Keywords
Ambulatory care, Hospitalization, Mental disorders, Mortality, Sick leave, Twin study
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30517 (URN)10.1007/s00127-019-01715-9 (DOI)000511870500003 ()31076801 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065718250 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-0830AFA Insurance, 160138Swedish Research Council, 521-2008-3054
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Westerlund, H., Bergström, G. & Burr, H. (2020). Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), Article ID E3179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden.
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 9, article id E3179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
benchmark, occupational health, organizational and social work environment, psychometric evaluation, psychosocial risk assessment, psychosocial risk management
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-32285 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17093179 (DOI)32370228 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85084327631 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-08 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Aboagye, E., Gustafsson, K., Jensen, I., Hagberg, J., Aronsson, G., Marklund, S., . . . Bergström, G. (2020). What is number of days in number of times? Associations between, and responsiveness of, two sickness presenteeism measures.. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(5), e180-e185
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is number of days in number of times? Associations between, and responsiveness of, two sickness presenteeism measures.
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 62, no 5, p. e180-e185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between SP reported as number of days with SP reported as number of times and to evaluate their responsiveness.

METHODS: The study population (n = 454) consisted of employed individuals, at risk of long-term sickness absence. Correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between the two SP measures and external constructs such as work performance, general health and registered sick leave. Both SP constructs were measured several times to examine responsiveness.

RESULTS: The SP measures are moderately correlated. They moderately correlated with work performance and health status measures. SP reported as number of times seem to be more sensitive than number of days in detecting changes after rehabilitation.

CONCLUSIONS: Numerical or categorical constructs are valid sources of data on SP. However, categorized SP seem to be more responsive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2020
Keywords
construct validity, rehabilitation, responsiveness, sick leave, sickness presenteeism
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31974 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001843 (DOI)32097288 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85084694970 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-02 Created: 2020-03-02 Last updated: 2020-05-25Bibliographically approved
Januario, L., Karstad, K., Rugulies, R., Bergström, G., Holtermann, A. & Hallman, D. (2019). Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), Article ID 3610.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
healthcare; multilevel analysis; nursing home; physical exertion; psychosocial factors; workload
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30694 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16193610 (DOI)000494748600106 ()31561538 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072716023 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AFA - DOSHIG
Funder
AFA Insurance, 180076
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
Aboagye, E., Björklund, C., Gustafsson, K., Hagberg, J., Aronsson, G., Marklund, S., . . . Bergström, G. (2019). Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61(11), e438-e444
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. e438-e444Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

METHODS: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

RESULTS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

CONCLUSIONS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2019
Keywords
Presenteeism, absenteeism, exhaustion, psychological well-being, work performance, productivity loss
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30722 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001701 (DOI)31478995 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072089537 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Kwak, L., Lornudd, C., Björklund, C., Bergström, G., Nybergh, L., Schäfer Elinder, L., . . . Jensen, I. (2019). Implementation of the Swedish Guideline for Prevention of Mental ill-health at the workplace: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial, using multifaceted implementation strategies in schools. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 1668.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of the Swedish Guideline for Prevention of Mental ill-health at the workplace: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial, using multifaceted implementation strategies in schools
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 1668Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Given today’s high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness).

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31321 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-7976-6 (DOI)000511638300007 ()31829186 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076374451 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0161-160x

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