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Januario, L., Karstad, K., Rugulies, R., Bergström, G., Holtermann, A. & Hallman, D. (2019). Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), Article ID 3610.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
healthcare; multilevel analysis; nursing home; physical exertion; psychosocial factors; workload
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30694 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16193610 (DOI)31561538 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072716023 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AFA - DOSHIG
Funder
AFA Insurance, 180076
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Aboagye, E., Björklund, C., Gustafsson, K., Hagberg, J., Aronsson, G., Marklund, S., . . . Bergström, G. (2019). Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

METHODS: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

RESULTS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

CONCLUSIONS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

Keywords
Presenteeism, absenteeism, exhaustion, psychological well-being, work performance, productivity loss
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30722 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001701 (DOI)31478995 (PubMedID)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, K., Bergström, G., Marklund, S., Aboagye, E. & Leineweber, C. (2019). Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden. Journal of Occupational Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

METHODS: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

RESULTS: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
disability pension, health care workers, nurses, presenteeism, working conditions
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30736 (URN)10.1002/1348-9585.12070 (DOI)31294519 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009‐06192
Note

Funding information: The Swedish Research Council (VR) (grant/award number: ‘grant numbers 2009‐06192, 2013‐01645, and 2013‐016’), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Sweden (FORTE) and (grant/award number: ‘Dnr: 2015‐00549’) AFA Insurance owned by the major labor market organizations in Sweden, (grant/award number: ‘Dnr: 170100’).

Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Mather, L., Narusyte, J., Ropponen, A., Bergström, G., Blom, V., Helgadóttir, B. & Svedberg, P. (2019). Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs
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2019 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Ambulatory care, Hospitalization, Mental disorders, Mortality, Sick leave, Twin study
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30517 (URN)10.1007/s00127-019-01715-9 (DOI)31076801 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065718250 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Helgadóttir, B., Svedberg, P., Mather, L., Lindfors, P., Bergström, G. & Blom, V. (2019). The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study. European Journal of Public Health, 29(1), 147-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27846 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky145 (DOI)000462576700027 ()30084947 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060632378 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 140246Swedish Research Council, 2017-00641
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Björk Brämberg, E., Holmgren, K., Bültmann, U., Gyllensten, H., Hagberg, J., Sandman, L. & Bergström, G. (2018). Increasing return-to-work among people on sick leave due to common mental disorders: Design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving intervention versus care-as-usual conducted in the Swedish primary health care system (PROSA). BMC Public Health, 18(1), Article ID 889.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing return-to-work among people on sick leave due to common mental disorders: Design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving intervention versus care-as-usual conducted in the Swedish primary health care system (PROSA)
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2018 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 889Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Common mental disorders affect about one-third of the European working-age population and are one of the leading causes of sick leave in Sweden and other OECD countries. Besides the individual suffering, the costs for society are high. This paper describes the design of a study to evaluate a work-related, problem-solving intervention provided at primary health care centers for employees on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Methods: The study has a two-armed cluster randomized design in which the participating rehabilitation coordinators are randomized into delivering the intervention or providing care-as-usual. Employees on sick leave due to common mental disorders will be recruited by an independent research assistant. The intervention aims to improve the employee's return-to-work process by identifying problems perceived as hindering return-to-work and finding solutions. The rehabilitation coordinator facilitates a participatory approach, in which the employee and the employer together identify obstacles and solutions in relation to the work situation. The primary outcome is total number of sick leave days during the 18-month follow-up after inclusion. A long-term follow-up at 36 months is planned. Secondary outcomes are short-term sick leave (min. 2 weeks and max. 12 weeks), psychological symptoms, work ability, presenteeism and health related quality of life assessed at baseline, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Intervention fidelity, reach, dose delivered and dose received will be examined in a process evaluation. An economic evaluation will put health-related quality of life and sick leave in relation to costs from the perspectives of society and health care services. A parallel ethical evaluation will focus on the interventions consequences for patient autonomy, privacy, equality, fairness and professional ethos and integrity. Discussion: The study is a pragmatic trial which will include analyses of the intervention's effectiveness, and a process evaluation in primary health care settings. Methodological strengths and challenges are discussed, such as the risk of selection bias, contamination and detection bias. If the intervention shows promising results for return-to-work, the prospects are good for implementing the intervention in routine primary health care. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03346395 Registered January, 12 2018. © 2018 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Adjustment disorders, Anxiety disorders, Cluster-randomized trial, Common mental disorders, Depression, Economic evaluation, Ethical evaluation, Problem solving skills, Return to work, Sick leave
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27645 (URN)10.1186/s12889-018-5816-8 (DOI)000439348500002 ()30021545 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050343333 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016–07415Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018–01252
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, P., Mather, L., Bergström, G., Lindfors, P. & Blom, V. (2018). Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 91(8), 1051-1059
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence
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2018 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1051-1059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

Keywords
Sick leave, Sleep, Time pressure, Twins
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27868 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1349-9 (DOI)000455181700014 ()30128755 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052490473 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA Insurance, 140246Swedish Research Council, 2017-00641Swedish Research Council, 521-2008-3054Swedish Research Council, 2017-00624Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-0830Swedish Society of Medicine
Note

Funding agency:

National Institute of Health, USA  Grant no: DK 066134 and CA 085739 

Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0161-160x

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