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Ängskog, P., Bäckström, M., Samuelsson, C. & Kangashaka Vallhagen, B. (2019). Shielding Effectiveness and HPM Vulnerability of Energy-Saving Windows and Window Panes. IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), 61(3), 870-877
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shielding Effectiveness and HPM Vulnerability of Energy-Saving Windows and Window Panes
2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 870-877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we report results from shielding effectiveness measurements on energy-saving windows and individual, coated window panes of different generations, as well as results from high-power microwave irradiation on single panes. Shielding effectiveness was measured with two complementary methods: first, with near isotropic irradiation in nested reverberation chambers, and the other with irradiation at normal incidence in a semianechoic chamber. The measurements show that the construction of the energy conserving windows has a clear impact on how well they attenuate radio frequency signals. The more modern the window or pane, the higher is the shielding effectiveness. The high-power irradiation on coated panes showed that depending on the type of coating, hotspots can build up causing the coating to crack and, hence, deteriorate the shielding effectiveness. These results may serve as guidance when reviewing high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP), high-power microwave, or intentional electromagnetic interference protection of critical infrastructures, and provide assistance in the work with reduction of compromising emanations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Coated window panes; compromising emanations; energy-saving windows; high-power microwave (HPM); intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI); shielding effectiveness (SE)
National Category
Energy Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30558 (URN)10.1109/TEMC.2018.2833508 (DOI)000471683500031 ()2-s2.0-85047632585 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Ängskog, P., Näsman, P. & Mattsson, L.-G. (2018). Resilience to Intentional Electromagnetic Interference Is Required for Connected Autonomous Vehicles. IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience to Intentional Electromagnetic Interference Is Required for Connected Autonomous Vehicles
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The connected autonomous vehicle (CAV) will never be completely autonomous; on the contrary, it will be heavily dependent on so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) for its function. To deserve the trust of the general public, the vehicles as well as the intelligent transport system (ITS) infrastructure must be able to handle not only natural disturbances but also attacks of malicious nature. In this paper, we discuss the effects of antagonistic attacks using intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) and how the antagonistic nature of the threat renders probabilistic risk analysis inadequate for the defense of the vehicles and the infrastructure. Instead, we propose a shift toward resilience engineering and vulnerability analysis to manage antagonistic threats. Finally, we also give two examples of possible scenarios to illustrate the type of situations a CAV must be able to handle.

Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, Electromagnetic interference, Resilience, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Risk analysis, Safety, Sensors, Connected autonomous vehicle (CAV), infrastructure to vehicle (I2V), intelligent transport system (ITS), intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI), risk, shared autonomous vehicle (SAV), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I), vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), vulnerability
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27872 (URN)10.1109/TEMC.2018.2866178 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052897433 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5562-3182

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