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Sällvin, L., Mozelius, P. & Humble, N. (2023). 3 Games 4 Coding: Do Girls Feel Welcome?. In: Proceeding of the 17th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2023): . Paper presented at International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2023). Valencia, SPAIN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3 Games 4 Coding: Do Girls Feel Welcome?
2023 (English)In: Proceeding of the 17th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2023), Valencia, SPAIN, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Learning games have become mainstream in many educational contexts, where one of them isprogramming education. Today there exists a wide variety of games where the players can learn aboutdifferent programming concepts. However, earlier research reports that far from all these games appealto a female audience. If game-based learning should reach the identified potential of a highly motivatinglearning environment, the game design must be an inclusive one where girls feel welcome. This studyexamines three games for learning fundamental programming in a test group with girls only in an after-school Maker community. The research question in the study was: "Which game design concepts dogirls find appealing?"

Data were collected through interviews with girls in a makerspace after testing 3 games on computerprogramming. The tested games were: Minecraft Education Code Builder, CodeCombat, andimagiLabs. The interviews focused on the girl’s perceptions of the games and of programming. Thematicanalysis with a six-phase process of coding were used to analyse the collected data and cluster thecodes in themes that supported in answering the aim and research question.

The study shows that all three games were perceived as engaging and that they supported developmentof programming skills. When asking which of the three games the girls would like to spend more timeon to learn programming, opinions were divided. The girls also disagreed on which type of gamegraphics they found most appealing. However, findings indicate that there are clear patterns in whatgame design concepts the girls find important. These patterns can be grouped in the followingcategories: Creativity, customisation, flow, reward and feedback, exploration and programming skills.Firstly, the game should encourage exploration and creativity in both playing and programming.Secondly, for the programming tasks to be fun and challenging it is important to keep players in a flowstate with help of rewards, instant feedback and a low threshold at start. Lastly, the possibility forcustomization and an engaging backstory were also appreciated by the girls in the study. These findingsare recommended to take into consideration in future game development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia, SPAIN: , 2023
Keywords
Game-based learning, Learning games, Inclusive design, Girls and games, Programming education
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41224 (URN)978-84-09-49026-4 (ISBN)
Conference
International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2023)
Available from: 2023-03-23 Created: 2023-03-23 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Humble, N. (2023). A lifelong learning perspective on artificial intelligence: What do we need to know?. In: ICERI2023 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 16th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville Spain, 13-15 November 2023. The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lifelong learning perspective on artificial intelligence: What do we need to know?
2023 (English)In: ICERI2023 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2023, Vol. 16Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) are two fields of research that have been increasingly actualized with recent developments in AI technology. In November 2022 OpenAI released ChatGPT, a chatbot with impressive capabilities of generating seemingly novel content such as poems, lesson plans, exams, and programming code for computer programs. Previous research has highlighted potential opportunities and threats with AI, both for education and society in general, such as privacy, copyright, biases, fairness, and trustworthiness. Further, AI is expected to play an increasingly important role in future work and everyday life, and with that both professionals and citizens in general will have to continuously update their knowledge in the field of AI. The aim of this study has been to develop a framework for lifelong learning courses on Artificial Intelligence. 

The study was conducted as a scoping literature review to explore previous research and map findings on the topic of Artificial Intelligence for lifelong learning. Google scholar was used as the main search engine for identifying relevant papers, and the aggregation of collected databases at the University library was used for accessing papers that were not Open Access. The search combined keywords such as Artificial Intelligence, Lifelong learning, and Adult learning, with Boolean operators AND and OR. Papers published between 2019 and 2023, and relevant for answering the aim of the study, were collected in a spreadsheet document, and analyzed with thematic analysis. 

Findings of the literature review identifies both important opportunities and threats of Artificial Intelligence and relate these to different professions and aspects of society. These findings provide a bedrock for development of a lifelong learning framework for courses on Artificial Intelligence, highlighting what we need to know. The conclusion of the study is that courses on Artificial Intelligence that is aimed for lifelong learning should seek a balance between understanding the technology and discussing the potential consequences. Too much focus on either could lead to fear or ignorance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2023
Series
ICERI2023 Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1095
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence, Lifelong learning, Adult learning, Higher education, Course development
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43327 (URN)10.21125/iceri.2023.0212 (DOI)978-84-09-55942-8 (ISBN)
Conference
16th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville Spain, 13-15 November 2023
Available from: 2023-11-23 Created: 2023-11-23 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Mozelius, P., Sällvin, L. & Humble, N. (2023). An Educational Escape Room for Computational Thinking: Defining the Requirements. In: Mafalda Carmo (Ed.), Education and New Developments, volume 2: . Paper presented at International Conference on Education and New Developments (END 2023), Lisbon, Portugal, 24-26 June 2023 (pp. 190-194). Portugal: inScience Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Educational Escape Room for Computational Thinking: Defining the Requirements
2023 (English)In: Education and New Developments, volume 2 / [ed] Mafalda Carmo, Portugal: inScience Press, 2023, p. 190-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an educational development project where game-based learning is used to facilitateintroductory programming courses in higher education. The identified problem that is addressed in theproject is the low pass rate and low student satisfaction in university courses on fundamentalprogramming. A recommended pre-training for programming is computational thinking, and to learnabout the fundamental concepts that are involved in programming, independent of specific programminglanguages. An initial literary review revealed that there exist several educational games on thecombination of computational thinking and programming, However, these games are targeted towards ayounger target group, or that they have a focus on specific programming. The aim of this study is toexplicate the described problem, and to gather requirements for the design and development of aneducational escape room. The research project follows the design science approach where the first twosteps of 1) explicate the problem and 2) define the requirements were studied and described in this paper.The problem to address in the study was identified through literature searches and the authors’experiences as teachers in programming at higher education. To address the identified problem,requirements for a digital game were defined through e-mail interviews with teachers in higher educationthat teach fundamental programming courses. Answers were collected from teachers from three differentuniversities in Sweden and analysed with open coding. Findings identified through the analysis will beused in future research studies to address the remaining steps of the design science methodology andfurther iterations of development. Findings show that some fundamental concepts seem to be relativelyeasy to introduce while others are harder to grasp for students taking their first programming course.Examples of concepts that could be learnt relatively easy are variables and non-nested selection. Someconcepts that are seen as harder to introduce and explain are nested iteration and ternary operators. Theconclusion is to build a game with different levels of thematic escape rooms, where the first levels have afocus on what teachers mentioned as easy concepts. The highest levels should introduce the morecomplex concepts, but that the concepts that are seen as most problematic could be omitted. This studywas the first iteration in the definition of requirements, and more interviews will be conducted andanalysed in the next phase of this two-year project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Portugal: inScience Press, 2023
Keywords
Game Based Learning, Educational Escape Room, Computational Thinking, Fundamental Programming, Design Science
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42524 (URN)978-989-35106-4-3 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Education and New Developments (END 2023), Lisbon, Portugal, 24-26 June 2023
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Humble, N., Boustedt, J., Holmgren, H., Milutinovic, G., Seipel, S. & Östberg, A.-S. (2023). Cheaters or AI-Enhanced Learners: Consequences of ChatGPT for Programming Education. Electronic Journal of e-Learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cheaters or AI-Enhanced Learners: Consequences of ChatGPT for Programming Education
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2023 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, E-ISSN 1479-4403Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and related technologies have a long history of being used in education for motivating learners and enhancing learning. However, there have also been critiques for a too uncritical and naïve implementation of AI in education (AIED) and the potential misuse of the technology. With the release of the virtual assistant ChatGPT from OpenAI, many educators and stakeholders were both amazed and horrified by the potential consequences for education. One field with a potential high impact of ChatGPT is programming education in Computer Science (CS), where creating assessments has long been a challenging task due to the vast amount of programming solutions and support on the Internet. This now appears to have been made even more challenging with ChatGPT’s ability to produce both complex and seemingly novel solutions to programming questions. With the support of data collected from interactions with ChatGPT during the spring semester of 2023, this position paper investigates the potential opportunities and threats of ChatGPT for programming education, guided by the question: What could the potential consequences of ChatGPT be for programming education? This paper applies a methodological approach inspired by analytic autoethnography to investigate, experiment, and understand a novel technology through personal experiences. Through this approach, the authors have documented their interactions with ChatGPT in field diaries during the spring semester of 2023. Topics for the questions have related to content and assessment in higher education programming courses. A total of 6 field diaries, with 82 interactions (1 interaction = 1 question + 1 answer) and additional reflection notes, have been collected and analysed with thematic analysis. The study finds that there are several opportunities and threats of ChatGPT for programming education. Some are to be expected, such as that the quality of the question and the details provided highly impact the quality of the answer. However, other findings were unexpected, such as that ChatGPT appears to be “lying” in some answers and to an extent passes the Turing test, although the intelligence of ChatGPT should be questioned. The conclusion of the study is that ChatGPT have potential for a significant impact on higher education programming courses, and probably on education in general. The technology seems to facilitate both cheating and enhanced learning. What will it be? Cheating or AI-enhanced learning? This will be decided by our actions now since the technology is already here and expanding fast.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Publishing International Limited, 2023
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence in education, ChatGPT, Programming education, Computer Science Education, AI-enhanced learning
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43482 (URN)10.34190/ejel.21.5.3154 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-12-19 Created: 2023-12-19 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Mozelius, P. & Humble, N. (2023). Design Factors for an Educational Game where Girls and Boys Play Together to Learn Fundamental Programming. In: ArtsIT 2022: ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation: . Paper presented at 11th EAI International Conference on ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, ArtsIT 2022, Faro, Portugal, 21-22 November 2022 (pp. 134-148). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Factors for an Educational Game where Girls and Boys Play Together to Learn Fundamental Programming
2023 (English)In: ArtsIT 2022: ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation, Springer , 2023, p. 134-148Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gaming is a ubiquitous phenomenon today, and game-based learning has become a main stream teaching and learning activity. Despite the long history of using games in educational contexts, the concepts of inclusive game design and enjoyable educational games still have challenges. The aim of this study is to gather requirements for design of educational games on programming where girls and boys find it joyful to play together. To meet this aim, the data sets from two earlier studies have been combined, compared, discussed, and finally merged into a preliminary framework. This study was carried out as a requirement-fo-cused design science study, with a focus on gathering requirements for a future design and implementation of an educational game on fundamental program-ming. Data were collected in a combination of a scoping literature review, and through a questionnaire answered by elementary school students after playing an educational game on programming. Main themes in the framework for Girl In-clusive Educational Game Design are Exploration Without Violence, Collabora-tive Interaction, Character Diversity, Customisation, Graphics, Game Mechanics, Game Content, and Learning and Motivation. If these factors are thoughtfully considered it could be possible to achieve the idea of a game with Wide Walls, a High Ceiling, and a Low Threshold, where girls and boys could play together and learn how to program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, E-ISSN 1867-822X ; LNICST 479
Keywords
Game design, Inclusive design, Gender inclusion, Educational games, Programming education
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40814 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-28993-4_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152589991 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th EAI International Conference on ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, ArtsIT 2022, Faro, Portugal, 21-22 November 2022
Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-04-24Bibliographically approved
Humble, N. & Mozelius, P. (2023). Design science for small scale studies: Recommendations for undergraduates and junior researchers. In: Prof Florinda Matos & Prof Álvaro Rosa (Ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies ECRM 2023: . Paper presented at European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies (ECRM 2023) (pp. 87-92). Reading (UK): ACI Academic Conferences International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design science for small scale studies: Recommendations for undergraduates and junior researchers
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies ECRM 2023 / [ed] Prof Florinda Matos & Prof Álvaro Rosa, Reading (UK): ACI Academic Conferences International, 2023, p. 87-92Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Design science is a research methodology that can be applied for both small scale studies at undergraduate level and for large scale application in the industry. Design science is a research methodology with several branches, with slightly different processes built around a common foundation. This paper has a focus on the branch developed by Johannesson and Perjons, and the five-phase model that is included in this branch: 1) explicate problem, 2) define requirements, 3) design and develop artefact, 4) demonstrate artefact, and 5) evaluate artefact. All these five phases must of course be carried out in a complete large-scale project in many real-world developments. However, the problem with applying a design science research project for undergraduates is that a thorough implementation of all the five phases is often too demanding for a Bachelor’s or a Master's thesis. A reason for this is that several of the phases are better carried out in an iterative manner to obtain a quality result, which is time-consuming. The aim of this paper is to discuss the challenges and opportunities in applying design science for small scale studies, such as those conducted by undergraduates in their theses or by researchers new to the field. Based on this discussion, the paper concludes with a set of recommendations for how the design science methodology can be modified and applied to accommodate these smaller studies. The main recommendation is, as the principle for quality research, to delimit and to choose a specific focus that is carried out in depth. Some examples of focuses, that also are recommended by Johannesson and Perjons, are requirements and development focused design science research or evaluation focused design science research. An interesting follow-up to this position paper would be to study the application of design science in Bachelor’s theses and where the emphasis is placed? Moreover, it would be interesting to investigate how design science is applied by researchers and compare if their emphasis in the design science methodology differs from that of undergraduates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reading (UK): ACI Academic Conferences International, 2023
Keywords
Design science, Research methodology, Small-scale studies, Bachelor’s theses, Master’s theses
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42972 (URN)10.34190/ecrm.22.1.1702 (DOI)978-1-914587-72-6 (ISBN)978-1-914587-71-9 (ISBN)
Conference
European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies (ECRM 2023)
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Mozelius, P., Pechuel, R., Fernández-Manjón, B., Kreuzberg, T., Humble, N. & Sällvin, L. (2023). Development of an Enjoyable Educational Game on Fundamental Programming: Designing for Inclusion and Learning Analytics. In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2023): . Paper presented at European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2023) (pp. 435-442). ACI Academic Conferences International, 17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an Enjoyable Educational Game on Fundamental Programming: Designing for Inclusion and Learning Analytics
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2023), ACI Academic Conferences International, 2023, Vol. 17, p. 435-442Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A well-discussed problem is how to attract a new public to computer programming, and especially how to reach girls and women. At the same time research reports on that children spend considerable amounts of time playing different types of games, where educational games today are part of formal, informal and non-formal learning. However, many educational games still have a design that appeals more to boys than to girls. Another problem addressed in this paper is how to measure the learning outcomes of an education game. It is a challenge per se to design for joyful gaming, but to assess the learning outcomes is important if the game should be accepted by teachers and a part of teaching and learning activities. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the design and development of an educational game where girls would like to play together and at the same time learn fundamental programming. The research question that guided thisstudy was: " How could a motivating and inclusive educational game on fundamental programming be designed and developed, with minimal prerequisites for students and teachers?". The overall strategy for the design and development of the was the Design Science Research (DSR) approach. This work was carried out according to the recognised DSR process with the five phases of: 1) Explicating the problem, 2) Defining the requirements, 3) Designing and developing the artefact, 4) Demonstrating the artefact, and 5) Evaluating the artefact. Phase one was based on a minor literature study, while Phase 2 was a combination of a larger and more systematic literature study combined with game testing. Phase 3 was conducted with brain storming sessions for design followed by implementation in the Unity game development tool. Finally, the game has been demonstrated for, and tested by, a group of academic game developers. Results from the formative evaluation look promising, but the important next step in this project is a more formal evaluation using game-based learning analytics with a larger and more diverse test audience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACI Academic Conferences International, 2023
Keywords
Game-based learning, Game design, Inclusive design, Game-based learning analytics, Programming education
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Innovative Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43102 (URN)10.34190/ecgbl.17.1.1909 (DOI)2-s2.0-85178994380 (Scopus ID)
Conference
European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2023)
Available from: 2023-10-04 Created: 2023-10-04 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
Mozelius, P. & Humble, N. (2023). Educational Game Design for Girls and Boys: Towards an Inclusive Conceptual Model for Learning Programming. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, 10, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational Game Design for Girls and Boys: Towards an Inclusive Conceptual Model for Learning Programming
2023 (English)In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, E-ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 10, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION:  Programming  is  an  important  skill  in  the  21st  century  and it  is  important  to  reach  and  motivate  the  younger audience. Educational games have proved to motivate students, but research reports about girls not feeling welcome in game environments.

OBJECTIVE: The overall objective of this study is to gather information for the development of a preliminary conceptual model for girl inclusive educational game design.

METHODS:  This  study  was  conducted  as  a  requirement-focused  Design science  study.  The  focus  was  set  on  gathering  requirements for a future design and development of educational games on fundamental programming.

RESULTS:  A  thematic  analysis  resulted  in  the  main  themes  of  Exploration Without  Violence,  Collaborative  Interaction,  Character Diversity, Customisation, Graphics, Game Mechanics, Game Content, and Learning and Motivation

CONCLUSION: The accumulation of results from the literature study and the survey have been merged into a preliminary conceptual  model.  The  conclusion  is  that a  thoughtful  consideration  of  the  found  factors  can  support  the  idea  of  a Girl  Inclusive Educational Game Design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Alliance for Innovation (EAI), 2023
Keywords
Game design, Girls and gaming, Gender inclusion, Inclusive design, Educational games, Serious games, Game-based learning, Programming education
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43273 (URN)10.4108/eetct.4043 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Humble, N. (2023). Future paths for GIS in K-12 education: A review of possibilities and constraints. European Journal of Geography, 14(3), 79-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future paths for GIS in K-12 education: A review of possibilities and constraints
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1792-1341, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geographic information systems (GIS) have been highlighted as essential future knowledge and are increasingly integrated in people’s everyday lives through applications, tracking, and global positioning systems (GPS). Still, applications and research of GIS technology for teaching and learning in kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12) education are limited. Through a scoping review of contemporary literature, this study identifies and discuss possibilities and constraints for GIS in K-12 education. Data were collected and analyzed with directed content analysis, using affordances as a theoretical lens, to identify possibilities and constraints of GIS for K-12 education. The study highlight themes of possibilities and constraints for further investigation. The possibilities of GIS for K-12 education include accessibility, transdisciplinary, and beyond classroom; and the constraints include skills and attitude, higher education and support, and teachers’ knowledge. The theoretical contribution of the study is a conceptual model for how possibilities and constraints of GIS for K-12 education relates to reaching educational goals. Findings of the study have practical implications for teachers and other stakeholders on the use of GIS in K-12 classrooms. The study also provides several suggestions for future research on GIS in K-12 education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Association of Geographers, 2023
Keywords
Geographic Information Systems, K-12 Education, Affordances, Constraints, Literature review
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42849 (URN)10.48088/ejg.n.hum.14.3.079.088 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170273337 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
Humble, N. & Mozelius, P. (2023). Grades 7–12 teachers' perception of computational thinking for mathematics and technology. Frontiers in Education, 8, Article ID 95661.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grades 7–12 teachers' perception of computational thinking for mathematics and technology
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 8, article id 95661Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: An ongoing trend on a global scale is the integration of computer science and programming in K-12 education. The integration has been motivated by the needs of the present and future labor market but also by the assumption that skills related to computer science and programming are valuable for citizens to navigate an increasingly digitalized society. Computational thinking (CT) is a concept that aims to define and summarize skills associated with programming and computer science and has received wide recognition within research and education. But how do the teachers perceive this concept, and how do they relate it to their own teaching and learning activities? This study aims to investigate and discuss teachers' perceptions of CT in grades 7–12 mathematics and technology.

Methods: Data have been collected from essay assignments in three instances of a professional development course on fundamental programming for grades 7–12 teachers in mathematics and technology. In the essays, the teachers reflect on CT in relation to mathematics and technology and teaching and learning activities in these subjects. With a theoretical framework for CT, the collected data have been analyzed with a directed content analysis approach to identify categories of interests for CT in relation to grades 7–12 mathematics and technology.

Results: The results of the study show that the teachers perceive both opportunities and challenges in applying the CT concept in their teaching and learning activities. For example, it can strengthen the subjects through new practices and reinforce old practices, but it could be too complex and perceived as difficult by some students. Furthermore, many of the teachers perceive CT not only to be relevant for mathematics and technology but also for learning in general.

Discussion: The conclusion of the study is that CT has the potential to enhance teaching and learning activities in mathematics, technology, and other STEM subjects. If this should be successful, CT must not be involved too abstractly or too superficially. This study contributes to the discussion on CT in K-12 education, adding the teachers' perspective. The findings of this study can be used by teachers and other stakeholders in the design of classroom activities that apply the CT concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers, 2023
Keywords
Computational thinking, Teacher perspective, Mathematics, Technology, K-12 education
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-41249 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2023.956618 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5791-4765

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