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Title [sv]
Bullerbördan - Ett nytt grepp på acceptabla akustiska betingelser i klassrum
Title [en]
The Burden of Noise - Rethinking criteria for acceptable acoustical conditions in the classroom
Abstract [sv]
I ett rum med en hög nivå på bakgrundsbullret och/eller en lång efterklangstid är det svårt att höra vad en person säger om man inte står nära talaren. Akustiken måste därför vara mycket god i klassrum och andra lokaler där det är viktigt att talkommunikationen fungerar väl. Dålig akustik utgör en hög bullerbörda. En dålig akustik gör inte bara att man riskerar att missa en del av vad som sägs. Vi har i en serie experiment visat att även om man med en viss ansträngning lyckas höra vad som sägs, så försämrar den dåliga akustiken förståelsen av det som sägs och än mer minnet av det man hört. I några av våra studier har försökspersonerna fått lyssna till en ordlista under goda och dåliga lyssningsförhållanden, i andra försök har de lyssnat till en sammanhängande text. I båda fall visar det sig att en dålig akustik gör att man minns mindre av vad man hört, då efterklangstiden var lång eller bakgrundsbullret var högt. Detta trots att man kunnat höra vartenda ord som sagts. En alltför stor del av lyssnarens kognitiva kapacitet tycks i en sådan situation gå åt till att identifiera orden, och för lite kapacitet finns tillgänglig för tolkning, minne och lagring av informationen. Vi vet att klassrummens akustik ofta inte uppfyller de krav som uttrycks i normer och rekommendationer. Vi har dessutom anledning att tro att dessa normer ställer alltför låga krav. De baserar sig nämligen på försök där man undersökt hur högt bakgrundsbruset eller hur lång efterklangstiden får vara för att man ska kunna uppfatta ord eller meningar korrekt. Våra försök har visat att detta inte är tillräckligt; man bör i stället undersöka vad som krävs för att de akustiska förhållandena inte ska försämra inlärning och förståelse av vad som har sagts. En första fråga som det planerade projektet ska besvara är vilka krav som man då skulle behöva ställa på miljön. Vi kommer att undersöka ordigenkänning och minne vid olika nivåer på bakgrundsljudet och för olika efterklangstider, för att kunna jämföra vilka krav man skulle ställa utifrån dessa två kriterier. Dessutom kommer vi att göra försök med olika kombinationer av bakgrundsnivåer och efterklangstid för att göra det klart hur man samtidigt ska kunna ta hänsyn till båda faktorer då man bedömer om en miljö är acceptabel eller ej. Vi kommer också att låta deltagarna skatta hur stressade, irriterade och störda de känt sig. En andra fråga är hur effekten påverkas förhållanden som gör lyssnandet mer ansträngande, t.ex. då talet är på ett främmande språk eller då den talade informationen är komplex. De inledande försöken kommer att göras som laboratorieexperiment. Med dessa som underlag ska vi sedan i fält utvärdera effekter av en ombyggnad till bättre akustik med de metoder som vi använt i laboratorieexperimenten. Vi har dessutom tillgång till akustiska mätningar från ett mycket stort antal klassrum, och hoppas kunna genomföra en epidemiologisk studie av resultat på nationella prov i klasser som haft olika bra ljudmiljö i sitt klassrum. Om det blir av beror på om vi tycker att vi på ett tillfredsställande sätt kan hålla effekten av andra viktiga variabler (t.ex. familjens utbildningsnivå) under kontroll. Vi ser ljudmiljön i klassrum som ett stort och viktigt problem. Brister (bullerbördan) leder till stora förluster i inlärning och många bortkastade lärartimmar. Våra tidigare försök ger oss dessutom anledning att tro att det är elever som allmänt har det svårast i skolan som kommer att drabbas mest av dessa brister. Eftersom vi byggt upp en metodarsenal och laboratorieresurser inom tidigare och pågående projekt förväntar vi oss att mycket snabbt kunna komma igång med de första försöken i serien.
Abstract [en]
There are strong reasons to believe that there are substantial learning profits to be made from noise abatement and improved acoustic standards in classrooms. Recommendations about background noise levels and reverberation time (RT) are generally based on how well spoken words can be heard. Recent research from our laboratory strongly suggests that this criterion is too lenient as it ignores that several experiments have shown memory and learning effects also when it was possible to hear what was said, although with some effort. One aim of the proposed project is to develop these studies to set a platform for making estimates of the burden of noise, in terms of lost learning and increased stress and annoyance. The overarching purpose of the proposed project is to provide a basis for recommendations for classroom acoustics based on memory and learning instead of speech intelligibility. Intelligibility and memory of the spoken materials (word lists and texts) will be studied across different signal-to-noise ratios and RT levels as well as for combinations of S/N ratios levels and RT conditions. We will also study these effects under conditions that for other reasons make listening more effortful (e.g. foreign language, complex content). The laboratory experiments will be followed up by a field study and an epidemiological study.
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Hurtig, A., Sörqvist, P., Ljung, R., Hygge, S. & Rönnberg, J. (2016). Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position. PLoS ONE, 11(6), Article ID e0156533.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position.

Keywords
adolescent, comprehension, high school, human, human experiment, language, sound, speech, student
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21515 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0156533 (DOI)000377824800016 ()27295546 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84976293629 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, A0204201Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-1006
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A. & Nöstl, A. (2015). Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article ID 1390.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and English were assessed in two signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (+3 and +12 dB), with and without half of the heard words being repeated back orally directly after presentation [shadowing, speech intelligibility (SI)]. A total of 24 word lists with 12 words each were presented in English and in Swedish to Swedish speaking college students. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (operation span, OSPAN) were taken. A basic hypothesis was that the recall of the words would be impaired when the encoding of the words required more processing resources, thereby depleting working memory resources. This would be the case when the SNR was low or when the language was English. A low SNR was also expected to impair SI, but we wanted to compare the sizes of the SNR-effects on SI and recall. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further add to the negative effects of SNR and language on both SI and recall. The results indicated that SNR had strong effects on both SI and recall, but also that the effect size was larger for recall than for SI. Language had a main effect on recall, but not on SI. The shadowing procedure had different effects on recall of the early and late parts of the word lists. Working memory capacity was unimportant for the effect on SI and recall. Thus, recall appear to be a more sensitive indicator than SI for the acoustics of learning, which has implications for building codes and recommendations concerning classrooms and other workplaces, where both hearing and learning is important.

Keywords
noise, recall, speech intelligibility, word lists, signal-to-noise ratio, working memory, working memory capacity
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20420 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01390 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-01006
Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Hurtig, A., Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A., Nöstl, A., Keus van de Poll, M., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2014). Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014: . Paper presented at 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
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2014 (English)In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17207 (URN)
Conference
11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-01006
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A., Nöstl, A., Keus, M., Hurtig, A., Ljung, R. & Sörqvist, P. (2013). Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios. In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life: . Paper presented at InterNoise 2013, Innsbruck, Sept 15-18, 2013 (invited speaker) (pp. 5091-5098).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios
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2013 (English)In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-15064 (URN)2-s2.0-84904489293 (Scopus ID)
Conference
InterNoise 2013, Innsbruck, Sept 15-18, 2013 (invited speaker)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-01006
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Hygge, S., Kjellberg, A., Sörqvist, P., Ljung, R. & Jahncke, H. (2012). Dålig akustik i klassrum ger sämre inlärning. Vi hörs, 2, 11-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dålig akustik i klassrum ger sämre inlärning
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2012 (Swedish)In: Vi hörs, ISSN 0787-9520, Vol. 2, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsingfors: , 2012
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-12288 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-01006
Available from: 2012-06-26 Created: 2012-06-26 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorHygge, Staffan
Co-InvestigatorJahncke, Helena
Co-InvestigatorSundvik, Jennie
Research StudentKeus van de Poll, Marijke
Co-InvestigatorHurtig, Anders
Coordinating organisation
University of Gävle
Funder
Period
2011-01-01 - 2013-12-31
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:283Project, id: 2010-1006_Formas

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