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Title [sv]
Innovativa konkurrenter i tillväxtekonomier - nya krav på produktutveckling
Title [en]
Innovative competitors in emerging economies
Abstract [sv]
Syfte och mål: Syftet har varit att analysera hur innovativa industriföretag i tillväxtekonomier på kort tid utvecklat förmågor till innovativ och avancerad produktframtagning, och tydliggöra vad svenska företag kan lära av detta. Projektet har utveckla vetenskaplig kunskap om de innovativa snabbväxande företagen samt bidragit till strategisk kunskap hos medverkande svenska företag om hur utmaningarna från de innovativa företagen kan mötas både genom konkurrens och samarbeten. Förväntade effekter och resultat: Projektet har tydliggjort hur teknologiska- och marknadsfaktorer förklarar den snabba utvecklingen av innovativa förmågor i studerade företag, och hur företagen kan utveckla produkter av hög kvalitet till låga kostnader. Förmågan bygger på stora FoU-satsningar, organisering för snabb produktframtagning, tillgång till hög kompetens och lågkostnadsbas. Projektet har identifierat strategier för svenska företag kring teknologiskt ledarskap, lägre kostnader, lärande och strategiska samarbeten. Upplägg och genomförande: Projektet har omfattat (1) fallstudier av innovativa företag i olika industrier (anläggningsmaskiner, flyg, värmeväxlare och telekom) i Kina, Turkiet och Brasilien, (2) studier av patentportföljer, (3) analys av enkätdata från världsbanken, (4) workshops med svenska företag och (5) resultat spridning genom publikationer, film och en större konferens. Projektet genomfördes framgångsrikt av Högskolan i Gävle, Linköpings universitet, Volvo CE, Saab Aeronautics, Atlas Copco och Alfa Laval.
Abstract [en]
Purpose and goal: The purpose has been to analyse how innovative industrial firms in emerging economies in short time have developed capabilities for innovative and advanced product development, and what Sweden-based firms can learn from this. The project has met the goals of developing scientific knowledge on the rapid innovatve firms and contributed to strategic knowledge within collalborating Swedish firms on how the challenges may be met through competition and/or collaboration. Expected results and effects: The project has identified technological and market factors that explain the rapid development of innovative capabilties in studied firms, and shown how these rapid innovators can develop products of high quality to lower costs. The capabilties are built on R&D investments, organising for rapid product development, access to skilled labour and lowcost base. The porject identifed strategies for Swedish firms regarding technological leadership, lower costs, learning and strategic collaborations. Approach and implementation: The project included: (1) case studies of innovative firms in different industries (construction equipment, aircrafts, heat transfer and telecom) in China, Turkey and Brazil; (2) patent portfolio studies; (3) analysis of world bank survey data; (4) workshops with Swedish firms and (5) dissemination of results in publications, a film and a larger public seminar. The project was successfully run by University of Gävle, Linköping University, Volvo CE, Saab Aeronautics, Atlas Copco and Alfa Laval.
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
von Haartman, R. & Bengtsson, L. (2018). Sustainable global purchasing: assessing the relative impact of sustainability goals and programs. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 19(2), 169-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable global purchasing: assessing the relative impact of sustainability goals and programs
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Business Performance Management, ISSN 1368-4892, E-ISSN 1741-5039, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 169-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global purchasing and offshoring are established strategic means for lowering costs and improving competitiveness. However, firms purchasing globally have also been accused of committing, supporting or just turning a blind eye to a number of environmental and social misdemeanours, such as disregard for environmental regulation, poor working conditions and corruption. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative evidence, based on a large scale survey, on how global purchasing actually impacts sustainability performance. The paper finds that there are no significant differences in sustainability performance between firms purchasing globally and firms purchasing regionally. However, firms purchasing globally are significantly more likely to fulfil their sustainability goals compared to firms purchasing regionally. Moreover, only firms that purchase globally show a significant impact of sustainability programmes on supplier sustainability compliance. Global purchasing can thus aid in social and environmental responsibility if it is accompanied by ambitious sustainability targets and sustainability programmes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2018
Keywords
global purchasing, global sourcing, sustainable supply chain management, sustainability performance, sustainable sourcing, corporate social responsibility, environmental responsibility, supplier compliance
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22196 (URN)10.1504/IJBPM.2018.090689 (DOI)000433570200003 ()2-s2.0-85044997454 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Lazzarotti, V., Bengtsson, L., Manzini, R., Pellegrini, L. & Pierluigi, R. (2017). Openness and innovation performance: an empirical analysis of openness determinants and performance mediators. European Journal of Innovation Management, 20(3), 463-492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Openness and innovation performance: an empirical analysis of openness determinants and performance mediators
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 463-492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Focusing on some relevant constructs defined by the open innovation (OI) literature (i.e. determinants of openness; openness choices operationalized in terms of collaboration depth with scientific and business partners; organizational and social context; innovation performance in terms of novelty and efficiency), this paper investigates the relationships among such constructs. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse two types of relationships: between some contextual factors and firms’ openness choices; and among openness choices, a set of organizational-managerial and social factors, and OI performance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach The authors carried out a theory testing survey, involving four European countries (Finland, Italy, Sweden and the UK). The authors applied descriptive statistics and a series of regressions.

Findings The authors analysed the impact exerted by external and internal variables on the collaboration depth with scientific and business partners: technological trends are relevant to move firms towards external collaborations, with both types of partners; efficiency goals pursued in collaborations are related to the collaboration depth with both types of partners, while an aggressive innovation strategy is positively related only to scientific-partner depth. Besides, collaboration depths with both partners are positively related to the both sides of innovation performance (i.e. novelty and efficiency), but the organizational-managerial and social contexts emerge as relevant mediator variables. Organizational-managerial and external relational social capital exert a beneficial role on the both types of innovation performance, while internal relational social capital benefits only novelty.

Research limitations/implications The work shows important limitations such as the low level of the explanatory values in the regression models. Therefore, the results must be considered as preliminary explorative insights that may be useful to encourage further studies.

Practical implications This work serves to raise managers’ awareness on the opportunity of developing organizational-managerial mechanisms, as well as on the importance of social capital to profit from collaborations.

Originality/value Although during the last decade many researchers have claimed that we are in the era of OI, empirical works, which provide both a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the phenomenon, are still few. Moreover, the specific action of the context (managerial, organizational and social) as possible mediator of the performance outcomes of openness is empirically under-studied. The authors’ work attempts to fulfil these gaps.

Keywords
Collaboration depth, Innovation performance, Openness determinants, Organizational-managerial and social context, Partner type
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23655 (URN)10.1108/EJIM-06-2016-0061 (DOI)000411500600007 ()2-s2.0-85022002276 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2017-02-19 Created: 2017-02-19 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Berggren, C., Bengtsson, L., Karabag, S. F., Wang, W. & Stefan, I. (2017). Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies. In: : . Paper presented at R&D management conference, 1-5 July 2017, Leuven, Belgium.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24793 (URN)
Conference
R&D management conference, 1-5 July 2017, Leuven, Belgium
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Stefan, I. & Bengtsson, L. (2017). Unravelling appropriability mechanisms and openness depth effects on firm performance across stages in the innovation process. Technological forecasting & social change, 120, 252-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unravelling appropriability mechanisms and openness depth effects on firm performance across stages in the innovation process
2017 (English)In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 120, p. 252-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is to date abundant evidence about the way openness-performance liaisons are shaped, yet parallel streams of research point towards an intricate relationship between appropriability and openness. Accordingly, while openness may reveal ample opportunities, risks of e.g. misappropriation should also be accounted for in open innovation processes, as they might affect performance. Recent research highlights the scarcity of studies investigating openness, appropriability and performance, and suggests a further need to analyze this in different stages of the innovation process. This study therefore aims to investigate the effects of three groups of intellectual property protection mechanisms (formal, semi-formal and informal) and openness (in terms of collaboration depth with eight types of partners) on two types of innovation performance (efficiency and novelty) across innovation phases. The analysis is based on a sample of 340 manufacturing firms from three European countries. Findings show that in early stages of the innovation process, efficiency is positively linked to the use of semi-formal appropriability mechanisms, such as contracts, yet negatively related to the use of formal ones, such as patents. The latter potentially illustrates the high uncertainty and increased risks of imitation or misappropriation in early innovation phases. Informal appropriability mechanisms contribute to novelty in earlier as well as later stages. Results further indicate novelty is explained by university collaboration throughout the innovation process, while competitor collaboration positively associates with novelty in later innovation stages. Vertical collaborations with supplier and customers reveal contrasting effects, which could also have implications linked to imitation risks. Furthermore, the negative effects of formal appropriability mechanisms and supplier collaboration on innovation performance in distinct stages of the innovation process might have implications for the so-called paradox of disclosure.

Keywords
external search, openness, types of partners, appropriability mechanisms, innovation phases, paradox of disclosure, novelty, efficiency, exploration explitation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23925 (URN)10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.014 (DOI)000403994000022 ()2-s2.0-85017525129 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388Riksbankens JubileumsfondSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-27 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Stefan, I. & Bengtsson, L. (2016). Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?. International Journal of Technology Management, 71(3-4), 232-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 232-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on the tense appropriability-openness relationship, defined by some as paradox. Based on an international survey of 415 manufacturing firms, we investigate how the use of different kinds of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) affects interfirm R&D collaboration while considering partner location in the analysis as well. Our results show that the use of formal, semi-formal or informal IPPMs has different effects on openness in terms of partner variety and depth of collaboration with academic partners, value chain partners and competitors. Moreover, when considering location we uncover previously hidden appropriability-openness liaisons showing that semi-formal or informal IPPMs are mainly valid in relation to national partners, whereas formal appropriability explains international collaborations. One implication of the study is that to better understand the appropriability-openness relationship it is imperative to differentiate between national and international settings. We further suggest that the potential paradox delineating this relationship has a geographical dimension.

Keywords
appropriability, intellectual property protection, IPP mechanisms, IPPMs, inter-firm collaboration, openness paradox, R&D collaboration, research and development, international collaboration, open innovation, partner location, partner breadth, partner variety, partner depth, survey, manufacturing industry, national collaboration, international collaboration, geographical dimensions
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20629 (URN)10.1504/IJTM.2016.078570 (DOI)000391087000005 ()2-s2.0-84985930525 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, L. & Wang, W. (2016). Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 23(2), 189-208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cost innovation has been used to describe how firms offer a variety of customised and high-tech products at low prices. Insights into how this trade-off is overcome by supply chain design are lacking. This paper analyses the global supply chain strategies and practices of Huawei Technologies, and specifically how these contribute to cost innovation capability. The paper is based on interviews with managers at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, plus managers at two European supply chain centres. The case study shows that even though Huawei does not possess specifically unique supply chain solutions, there are some features that drive Huawei towards cost innovation in its supply chains. Some of them concern low-cost operations based on the location of main R&D, manufacturing and suppliers to China, in combination with a strong customer orientation, an integrated supply chain organisation and a balanced outsourcing strategy.

Keywords
Cost innovation, Global, Huawei, Integrated supply chain, ISC, Low cost, Outsourcing, SCM, Supply chain design, Supply chain management, Telecom industry, Trade-off
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17737 (URN)10.1504/IJLSM.2016.073969 (DOI)2-s2.0-84953389157 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2014-10-27 Created: 2014-10-27 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, L., Wang, W. & Stefan, I. (2016). How can they be so rapid? New product development in Chinese CE firms. In: : . Paper presented at R&D Management Conference 2016 “From Science to Society: Innovation and Value Creation” 3-6 July 2016, Cambridge, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can they be so rapid? New product development in Chinese CE firms
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22733 (URN)
Conference
R&D Management Conference 2016 “From Science to Society: Innovation and Value Creation” 3-6 July 2016, Cambridge, UK
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, L., Lakemond, N., Laursen, K. & Tell, F. (2016). Open innovation: Managing knowledge integration across multiple boundaries (1ed.). In: Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, and Andrew Van de Ven (Ed.), Managing Knowledge Integration across Boundaries: (pp. 87-105). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open innovation: Managing knowledge integration across multiple boundaries
2016 (English)In: Managing Knowledge Integration across Boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, and Andrew Van de Ven, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 1, p. 87-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23029 (URN)9780198785972 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Arnemo, U., Bengtsson, L., Berggren, C., Hansson, S., Holmberg, G., Karabag, S. F., . . . Wang, W. (2016). Rapid innovators in emerging economies: Challenges and opportunities for Swedish firms. University of Gävle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid innovators in emerging economies: Challenges and opportunities for Swedish firms
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Gävle, 2016
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30734 (URN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2020-05-12
Bengtsson, L., Wang, W. & Stefan, I. (2016). Rapid NPD processes in Chinese CE firms. In: : . Paper presented at The 5th World Conference on P&OM (co-organized by POMS, EurOMA and JOMSA),6-10th September 2016, Havanna, Cuba.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid NPD processes in Chinese CE firms
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22732 (URN)
Conference
The 5th World Conference on P&OM (co-organized by POMS, EurOMA and JOMSA),6-10th September 2016, Havanna, Cuba
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-03388
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorBengtsson, Lars
Research StudentStefan, Ioana
Coordinating organisation
University of Gävle
Funder
Period
2014-11-01 - 2017-07-31
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:297Project, id: 2014-03388_Vinnova

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