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Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions: An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3138-5508
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the European Union's Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 10, no 7, article id 978
Keywords [en]
Emissions (Air pollution), Building, Energy consumption, Dwellings, Heat pumps, decentralized energy generation systems, district heating, energy performance of buildings, heat pump, primary energy, primary energy factors
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-24872DOI: 10.3390/en10070978ISI: 000406700200149Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042470517OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-24872DiVA, id: diva2:1134038
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy efficiency measures in the built environment - some aspects to consider in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency measures in the built environment - some aspects to consider in Sweden
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The traditional energy system as we know it today will change in the future. There is a worldwide concern about the global warming situation and there are different actions implemented to limit the consequences from, mainly, the use of fossil fuels.

In this thesis, multi-unit apartment buildings have been simulated according to how the global CO2 emissions change when different energy efficiency measures are implemented. The simulated buildings have also been used to investigate how the calculated energy efficiency of a building according to Swedish building regulations varies depending on which technology for heating is used in the building and if the building has a solar PV installation or solar thermal system. When the energy efficiency of a building is calculated accord-ing to Swedish building regulations, this thesis shows that heat pumps are a favored technology compared to district heating. Another result is that electric-ity use/production within the investigated district heating system is the most important factor to consider when minimizing global CO2 emissions.

This thesis also investigates how the configuration of electric meters owned by the distribution system operator affects the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity. Finally, four local low-voltage distri-bution networks were simulated when a future charging scenario of electric vehicles was implemented.

If a single-family house installs a solar PV installation, this thesis reveals that the configuration of the electric meter is important for the monitored amount of self-consumed electricity. This thesis also shows that the investigated low-voltage distribution networks can handle future power demand from electric vehicles and a high share of solar PV installations, but rural low-volt-age distribution networks will need to be reinforced or rebuilt to manage the investigated future scenarios.

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning Det traditionella energisystem som vi är vana vid idag kommer att förändras i framtiden. Oron för växthuseffekten och dess konsekvenser medför att olika åtgärder genomförs, framförallt för att minska koldioxidutsläppen från fossila bränslen.

I denna avhandling har flerfamiljshus simulerats med avseende på energi-användningen när olika energieffektiviseringsåtgärder implementeras. Resultatet av förändringarna i globala koldioxidutsläpp har sedan beräknats för de olika energieffektiviseringsåtgärderna. De simulerade resultaten har även använts för att analysera hur en byggnads energieffektivitet enligt Boverkets byggregler varierar med olika uppvärmningssätt och om byggnaden har en solvärme- eller solcellsanläggning installerad.

Denna avhandling visar att värmepumpar favoriseras jämfört med användning av fjärrvärme när en fastighets energieffektivitet beräknas enligt Boverkets byggregler. Samtidigt visas att den viktigaste åtgärden för att minska de globala koldioxidutsläppen är att minska elanvändningen eller att öka elproduktionen lokalt inom det studerade fjärrvärmeområdet.

Avhandlingen undersöker också hur konfigureringen av kundens elmätare i elnätet påverkar den uppmätta andelen egenanvänd och överproducerad el. Slutligen har fyra lokala lågvoltsnät simulerats då ett framtida scenario för laddning av elfordon adderats till fastigheternas nuvarande elanvändning.

Resultaten visar att om en villafastighet installerar en solcellsanläggning så påverkar konfigureringen av kundens elmätare den uppmätta andelen egenanvänd och överproducerad el och skillnaden kan vara relativt stor. Avhandlingen visar också att delar av lågvoltselnätet klarar en stor andel elfordon och en hög andel solcellsanläggningar men att landsbygdsnätet behöver förstärkas för att klara den ökade lasten i de antagna scenarierna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018. p. 55
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Doctoral thesis ; 9
Keywords
primary energy, energy efficiency, district heating, building regulations, electric meter, low-voltage distribution networks, electric vehicles, primärenergi, energieffektivitet, fjärrvärme, byggregler, elmätare, elnät, elfordon
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27986 (URN)978-91-88145-31-4 (ISBN)978-91-88145-32-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-14, 13:111, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-12-20

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Gustafsson, MattiasThygesen, RichardKarlsson, Björn

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