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City breathability in medium density urban-like geometries evaluated through the pollutant transport rate and the net escape velocity
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China .
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China .
Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
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2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 94, nr P1, s. 166-182, artikkel-id 4213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates pollutant removal at pedestrian level in urban canopy layer (UCL) models of medium packing density (λ<inf>p</inf> = λ<inf>f</inf> = 0.25) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Urban size, building height variations, wind direction and uniform wall heating are investigated. The standard and RNG k-ε turbulence models, validated against wind tunnel data, are used. The contribution of mean flows and turbulent diffusion in removing pollutants at pedestrian level is quantified by three indicators: the net escape velocity (NEV), the pollutant transport rate (PTR) across UCL boundaries and their contribution ratios (CR).Results show that under parallel approaching wind, after a wind-adjustment region, a fully-developed region develops. Longer urban models attain smaller NEV due to pollutant accumulation. Specifically, for street-scale models (~100 m), most pollutants are removed out across leeward street openings and the dilution by horizontal mean flows contributes mostly to NEV. For neighbourhood-scale models (~1 km), both horizontal mean flows and turbulent diffusion contribute more to NEV than vertical mean flows which instead produce significant pollutant re-entry across street roofs. In contrast to uniform height, building height variations increase the contribution of vertical mean flows, but only slightly influence NEV. Finally, flow conditions with parallel wind and uniform wall heating attain larger NEV than oblique wind and isothermal condition.The paper proves that by analysing the values of the three indicators it is possible to form maps of urban breathability according to prevailing wind conditions and known urban morphology that can be of easy use for planning purposes. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2015. Vol. 94, nr P1, s. 166-182, artikkel-id 4213
Emneord [en]
Computational fluid dynamics, Contribution ratio, Net escape velocity, Pollutant transport rate, Urban canopy layer, Atmospheric turbulence, Diffusion, Diffusion in liquids, Fluid dynamics, Pollution, Transport properties, Turbulence models, Walls (structural partitions), Wind tunnels, Building height variations, Computational fluid dynamics simulations, Contribution ratios, Escape velocities, Pollutant transport, Street scale models, Turbulent diffusion, Urban canopy layers, Urban transportation, canopy, turbulence, urban area, urban morphology
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Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20221DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.08.002ISI: 000367759300015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84983727401OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-20221DiVA, id: diva2:852388
Merknad

Forskningsfinansiärer/Funding Agency:

National Natural Science Foundation of China  Grant no: 51108102, 51478486 

Key Laboratory of Eco Planning & Green Building, Ministry of Education (Tsinghua University), China  Grant no: 2013U-5 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-09 Laget: 2015-09-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-13bibliografisk kontrollert

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