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Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT
University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies. Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3362-7198
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In an increasingly digitized world teachers are expected to take on the role of educational designers and use ICT to design in ways that add pedagogical value to teaching and learning. This thesis adopts a design-based research (DBR) approach to: (a) explore and contribute to the educational design processes of teachers of English as a foreign language in their efforts to use ICT for added pedagogical value, (b) examine how ICT is used in educational designs to create/contribute to what the teachers and students describe as added value and (c) explore, problematize and refine DBR as a research approach.

Literature studies and a collaborative self-study preceded the DBR to guide its focus and implementation. The DBR was carried out over a period of two years in four upper secondary schools in Sweden in which every student had access to their own computer. The research data consists of: (a) audio recorded design conversations, (b) enacted educational designs and design elements as parts of these, (c) reflective log entries written by the participating teachers, (d) focus group interviews with students and (e) the researcher’s field notes.

Six different theoretical frameworks and models are used in combination in the accompanying articles to analyze the data and achieve the three research aims. The findings show how teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development are interconnected and reciprocal aspects of the educational design process and how the externalization of, and reflection on, these aspects is necessary to develop the specific and practical TPACK needed to realize design intentions in situated contexts. A number of challenges and opportunities in the educational process have been identified.

Moreover, the findings show how ICT was used to contribute added value in educational designs by facilitating: (a) more authentic and seamless learning experiences in external online contexts with both in-class and out-of-class actors irrespective of time and place, (b) an exchange of digital knowledge representations of understanding and practice between different actors, e.g. for the purposes of modelling, supporting cognitive apprenticeship, meta-cognitive self-regulation and formative assessment and (c) new and extended forms of, and opportunities for, collaborative creation and meaning-making.

The current common focus in DBR on the development of prescriptive design principles is problematized in relation to the findings of the thesis, which illustrate the complex and situated nature of the educational design process. A theoretically and empirically informed design framework (DF) is developed and used as a conceptual tool to guide and analyze educational design processes and enactments. The findings illustrate how the use of the DF and the process of collaborative design reflection contributed to the analysis of the teachers’ design intentions and de facto design practices and to a DBR format that allowed the participants to use their respective competencies in the development of educational designs for added value. The thesis thereby serves as an example of how DBR can be methodically implemented to study and generate increased knowledge about teachers’ design intentions and design practices, develop research-based educational designs in line with teachers’ pedagogical intentions and support their development as educational designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2019. , p. 127
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Science, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 19-001
Keywords [en]
added pedagogical value, design-based research, design framework, educational design, educational design research, EFL, ICT, teacher practice, TPACK
National Category
Didactics Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Information Society
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29113ISBN: 978-91-7797-534-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-535-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-29113DiVA, id: diva2:1278621
Public defence
2019-01-25, L 70, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Understanding the theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge: A collaborative self-study to understand teaching practice and aspects of knowledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge: A collaborative self-study to understand teaching practice and aspects of knowledge
2012 (English)In: Studying Teacher Education: journal of self-study of teacher education practices, ISSN 1742-5964, E-ISSN 1742-5972, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a self-study research project that focused on our experiences when planning, teaching and evaluating a course in initial teacher training. The focus of the course was the pedagogical use of web 2.0 resources to support learning in the preschool/school context. The potential of the different digital tools was mainly explored by situated use in the design and teaching of the course. The focus, content, form of distribution, teaching and assessment of the course went beyond what is common in initial teacher training in Sweden. The analysis highlighted the challenges and opportunities that teacher educators and student teachers might encounter when working with, and learning about, ICT to support learning. Some of the findings discussed are related to the identified challenges and opportunities for both teachers and students to integrate content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technological knowledge (TK) into a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). For teacher educators this is especially challenging, since they need to develop TPACK themselves and understand what this means for different categories of teachers. Taken-for-granted organizational and institutional assumptions of teaching, learning and assessment in teacher education were identified in the study.

Keywords
ICT, self-study, teacher education, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, or TPCK), theory
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-11007 (URN)10.1080/17425964.2012.692994 (DOI)2-s2.0-84863627580 (Scopus ID)
Projects
IT i lärarutbildningen
Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
2. Studying the process of educational design: revisiting Schön and making a case for reflective design-based research on teachers' 'conversations with situations'
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying the process of educational design: revisiting Schön and making a case for reflective design-based research on teachers' 'conversations with situations'
2014 (English)In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This conceptual paper discusses Donald A. Schön’s views on design and how itcould inform design-based research (DBR) on teachers’ use of technology ineducation. It argues that the rich affordances of digital technologies and teachers’and students’ situated designs with such technologies in complex and changingeducational contexts make viewing design as rational problem-solving problematic.Instead, it is suggested that adopting Schön’s view of design as a reflectiveconversation with the situation in DBR approaches has the potential of informingboth research on the use of digital educational technologies and teachers’ situateduse of such technologies. The paper then presents suggestions as to howSchön’s ideas for research on teachers’ situated practices could contribute to theorydevelopment in DBR. Finally, some of the possibilities and challenges of thereflective DBR approach suggested in this paper are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2014
Keywords
design-based research; educational design research; Schön; teacher practice; TPACK
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17356 (URN)10.1080/1475939X.2014.942748 (DOI)000341128200002 ()2-s2.0-84905322000 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-15 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
3. Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers'€™ use of educational technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers'€™ use of educational technology
2017 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 2333-2349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theoretical outcomes of design-based research (DBR) are often presented in the form of local theory design principles. This article suggests a complementary theoretical construction in DBR, in the form of a design framework at a higher abstract level, to study and inform educational design with ICT in different situated contexts. Laurillard’s Conversational Framework (CF) is used as a conceptual lens to analyse how eight teachers use or envisage using technology to support learning in one-to-one environments. The findings demonstrate how the researcher uses the CF to discern different aspects of the teachers’ situated design practices. In the study, ICT is primarily used to support communication and the exchange of knowledge representations between the teachers and their students. Considerably fewer examples are found where ICT is used to support communication, collaborative creation and modelling between peers. However, the interview analyses reveal that the teachers’ intentions to apply ICT to support learning often include this second type of ICT use. Reasons for this discrepancy between the expressed intentions and de facto use of ICT include limitations in technical know-how and a perceived conflict between collaborative learning, existing school cultures and individual assessment. The findings suggest that in DBR, an analytical design framework could be an important tool for researchers and teachers when analysing and discussing educational uses of ICT. The CF provides a promising basis for a design framework, but should be expanded to include interactions with actors outside the classroom.

Keywords
Conversational framework; Design framework; Design-based research; Educational design; EFL; Teacher
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22989 (URN)10.1007/s10639-016-9536-3 (DOI)000410414300019 ()2-s2.0-84991573930 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
4. Teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and reframing of practice in digital contexts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and reframing of practice in digital contexts
2018 (English)In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of teachers’ reframing of practice in digital contexts by analysing teachers’ pedagogical reasoning processes as they explore ways of using ICT to create added pedagogical value.

Design/methodology/approach

A design based-research (DBR) approach is employed, in which the on-site researcher collaborates with eight teachers of English as a foreign language in four Swedish schools over a period of two years. Multiple data sources are included for thematic coding and analysis. The TPACK framework is used as a conceptual construct in the analysis.

Findings

The findings show that teachers’ pedagogical reasoning is a complex and multidimensional process and is closely integrated with teachers’ reframing of practice. Common characteristics in the teachers’ reframing of practice are identified. The results highlight the reciprocal relationship between developments in teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development and the need for a distinction between general and specific, theoretical and practical TPACK.

Research limitations/implications

An increased focus on TPACK research on teachers’ pedagogical reasoning is required. DBR is a relevant approach for this.

Practical implications

The pedagogical uses of ICT identified as adding value could benefit teachers in other contexts.

Originality/value

Rich data from multiple design contexts is collected and analysed over time through DBR. The paper contributes new knowledge about the process of pedagogical reasoning and its relation to teachers’ reframing of practice. The paper also contributes to TPACK theory development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley, West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
added pedagogical value, design-based research, ICT, pedagogical reasoning, reframing, teaching, TPACK
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25605 (URN)10.1108/IJILT-09-2017-0084 (DOI)000423358000005 ()2-s2.0-85040962120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
5. Identifying the added pedagogical value in teachers’ educational designs with digital technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying the added pedagogical value in teachers’ educational designs with digital technologies
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research is part of a longitudinal design-based research (DBR) project in which the researcher collaborates with eight teachers of English as a foreign language. The objective of this study is to analyse the pedagogical use of ICT and the value this adds in educational designs that are described by teachers and students as having successfully supported learning during the DBR project.

A design framework is used as a conceptual tool to support the creation, evaluation and elaboration of research-based and context relevant educational designs. Nvivo software is used for the thematic coding and analysis of multiple data sources.

The findings show that the use of ICT added pedagogical value by enabling collaborative practices with peers and external actors in authentic contexts and empowered students as designers of their own meaning-making practices by affording and stimulating communication and reflection for learning in relation to knowledge representations of the teachers’, peers’, external actors’ and students’ own conceptual organisation and practice capabilities.

Moreover, the findings illustrate how the use of ICT for added pedagogical value depended on the teachers’ willingness and abilities to reframe and develop their pedagogical reasoning and practices in relation to: the content to be taught, the students in question, possible pedagogical strategies and the available technologies. 

The article provides evidence-based examples of how technology can be used to add pedagogical value and shows that it is how teachers and students use the existing technology to support teaching and learning that determines whether value is added or not.

Keywords
added pedagogical value, design-based research, design framework, educational design, ICT, teaching
National Category
Didactics Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Information Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29114 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf