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Characterisation, Modelling and Digital Pre-Distortion Techniques for RF Transmitters in Wireless Systems
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2061-6366
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless systems have become an inevitable part of modern technologies serving humankind. The rapid growth towards large dimensional systems, e.g. 5th generation (5G) technologies, incurs needs for improving the performance of the systems and considering aspects to make them as far as possible environmentally friendly in terms of power efficiency, cost, and so on. One of the key parts of every wireless communication system is the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA), which consumes the largest percentage of the total energy. Hence, accurate models of RF PAs can be used to optimize their design and to compensate for signal distortions. This thesis starts with two methods for frequency-domain characterisation to analyse the dynamic behaviour of PAs in 3rd-order non-linear systems. Firstly, two-tone signals superimposed on large-signals are used to analyse the frequency-domain symmetry properties of inter-modulation (IM) distortions and Volterra kernels in different dynamic regions of RF PAs in a single-input single-output (SISO) system. Secondly, three-tone signals are used to characterise the 3rd-order self- and cross-Volterra kernels of RF PAs in a 3 × 3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The main block structures of the models are determined by analysing the frequency-domain symmetry properties of the Volterra kernels in different three-dimensional (3D) frequency spaces. This approach significantly simplifies the structure of the 3rd-order non-linear MIMO model.

The following parts of the thesis investigate techniques for behavioural modelling and linearising RF PAs. A piece-wise modelling technique is proposed to characterise the dynamic behaviour and to mitigate the impairments of non-linear RF PAs at different operating points (regions). A set of thresholds decompose the input signal into several sub-signals that drive the RF PAs at different operating points. At each operating point, the PAs are modelled by one sub-model, and hence, the complete model consists of several sub-models. The proposed technique reduces the model errors compared to conventional piece-wise modelling techniques.

A block structure modelling technique is proposed for RF PAs in a MIMO system based on the results of the three-tone characterisation technique. The main structures of the 3rd- and higher-order systems are formulated based on the frequency dependence of each block. Hence, the model can describe more relevant interconnections between the inputs and outputs than conventional polynomial-type models.

This thesis studies the behavioural modelling and compensation techniques in both the time and the frequency domains for RF PAs in a 3 × 3MIMO system. The 3D time-domain technique is an extension of conventional 2D generalised memory polynomial (GMP) techniques. To reduce the computational complexity, a frequency-domain technique is proposed that is efficient and feasible for systems with long memory effects. In this technique, the parameters of the model are estimated within narrow sub-bands. Each sub-band requires only a few parameters, and hence the size of the model for each sub-band is reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. xiv, 73
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; ; 2019:9
Keywords [en]
RF power amplifiers, non-linearity, memory effects, Behavioral modelling, MIMO, Digital pre-distortion
National Category
Signal Processing Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29302ISBN: 978-91-7873-076-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-29302DiVA, id: diva2:1289345
Public defence
2019-02-18, Hörsal 99131, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A two-tone test for characterizing nonlinear dynamic effects of radio frequency amplifiers in different amplitude regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A two-tone test for characterizing nonlinear dynamic effects of radio frequency amplifiers in different amplitude regions
2016 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 89, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new two-tone test method for radio frequency power amplifiers is presented. The test signal is a two-tone probing-signal superimposed on large-signals of different amplitude. The amplifier is, thus, excited in different amplitude regions. The amplitude and phase of the 3rd order intermodulation (IM) products are measured vs. frequency spacing and probing-signal amplitude in each region. The IM magnitude is a measure of the nonlinearity, while the frequency dependence and asymmetry are measures of the memory effects in the different regions. A Doherty and a class-AB amplifier were tested. For both amplifiers the IM magnitude increased by ∼15 dB from the lowest to the highest amplitude region. For the Doherty amplifier the behavior of the IM products vs. frequency spacing was similar in all regions, indicating similar memory effects. For the class-AB amplifier the IM vs. frequency spacing was significantly different in the different regions, which indicates different memory effects.

Keywords
Two-tone test, Intermodulation, Nonlinear, Radio frequency amplifier, Volterra series
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21566 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2016.04.027 (DOI)000376463700032 ()2-s2.0-84982297904 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-10 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal
2018 (English)In: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 1, p. 351-356Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 3rd-order Volterra kernels of a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) are characterized using a large-signal and a two-tone probing-signal. In this technique, the magnitude and phase asymmetries of the kernels of the PA excited by the probing-signal are analyzed in different amplitude regions of the large-signal. The device under test is a class-AB PA operating at 2.14 GHz. The maximum sweeping frequency space of the probing-signal is 20 MHz. The results indicate that the Volterra kernels of the PA show different behaviors (frequency dependency and asymmetry) in different regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Kernel, Radio frequency, Baseband, Nonlinear systems, Frequency dependence, Frequency-domain analysis, Discrete Fourier transforms, nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, volterra kernels, asymmetry, two-tone test
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-27867 (URN)10.1109/ICComm.2018.8430119 (DOI)000449526000066 ()2-s2.0-85052507435 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2351-0 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2350-3 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2349-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 International Conference on Communications (COMM), 14-16 June 2018, Bucharest, Romania
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
3. Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 1893-1905Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2017
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23216 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2017.2664482 (DOI)000403292600026 ()2-s2.0-85014208551 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2017-01-05 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
4. Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers
2018 (English)In: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade: Telecommunications society , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a new approach is proposed to decompose the basis functions in a piece-wise modeling technique for nonlinear radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. The proposed technique treats the discontinuity problem of the model output at the joint points between different operating points, whereas preserves the linear and nonlinear properties of the original model within each region. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional piece-wise model in terms of model errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belgrade: Telecommunications society, 2018
Keywords
Nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, behavioral modeling, piece-wise models, digital predistortion.
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29303 (URN)10.1109/TELFOR.2018.8611865 (DOI)000459714200035 ()978-1-5386-7171-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7172-6 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7170-2 (ISBN)
Conference
26th Telecommunications Forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade, Serbia, 20-21 November 2018
Note

Proceedings distributed on CD.

Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
5. A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System
2017 (English)In: 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS) / [ed] Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z., IEEE , 2017, p. 224-227Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A new block-structure behavioral model is proposed for radio frequency power amplifiers in a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system including input cross-talk. The proposed model forms kernels of blocks of different nonlinear order that correspond to the significant frequency response of measured frequency domain Volterra kernels. The model can therefore well describe the input-output relationships of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of PAs. The proposed model outperforms conventional models in terms of model errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Nonlinear dynamic RF power amplifier, Volterra kernels, MIMO system, block-structural model
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26235 (URN)10.1109/TELSKS.2017.8246268 (DOI)000425463200046 ()2-s2.0-85045971319 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1800-4 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS), Nis, Serbia, 18-20 October 2017
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
6. Behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3x3 MIMO system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3x3 MIMO system
2018 (English)In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Modern telecommunications are moving towards (massive) multi-input multi-output systems in 5th generation (5G) technology, increasing the dimensionality of the system dramatically. In this paper, the impairments of radio frequency (RF)power amplifiers (PAs) in a 3x3 MIMO system are compensated in both time and frequency domains. A three-dimensional(3D) time-domain memory polynomial-type model is proposed as an extension of conventional 2D models. Furthermore, a 3D frequency-domain technique is formulated based on the proposed time-domain model to reduce the dimensionality of the model, while preserving the performance in terms of model errors. In the 3D frequency-domain technique, the bandwidth of a system is split into several narrow sub-bands, and the parameters of the system are estimated for each subband. This approach requires less computational complexity, and also the procedure of the parameters estimation for each sub-band can be implemented independently. The device-under-test (DUT) consists of three RF PAs including input and output cross-talk channels. The proposed techniques are evaluated in both behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion(DPD) perspectives. The results show that the proposed DPD technique can compensate the errors of non-linearity and memory effects by about 23.5 dB and 7 dB in terms of the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel leakage ratio, respectively.

Keywords
Radio frequency power amplifier, non-linearity, memory effects, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), digital pre-distortion.
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29304 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved

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