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Vardagsvåld, mobbning och mobbningsförebyggande arbete i svensk skolkontext
University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
2019 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two related phenomena - everyday violence and school bullying - are the subject of this thesis. The thesis's aim was to develop knowledge about everyday violence and bullying in school. The aim was also to develop knowledge about planning and bullying intervention in a local context. Three research questions were formulated that correspond to the aim of the thesis: How can everyday violence be conceptualized and understood? (Articles I and II), what changes can be seen in the school's internal work when a locally adapted anti-bullying model is initiated? (Article III) and what changes in the incidence of bullying can be seen in the schools in a municipality where a locally adapted anti-bullying model is implemented to prevent bullying? (Article VI). In the thesis exercises, a synthesis has been used to merge the results from the articles into an understanding of everyday violence and bullying from a social ecological perspective. The articles use different methods to get answers to the research questions because one method would probably not be enough to achieve the purpose of the thesis. This procedure is called mixed methods, which uses the combination of qualitative and quantitative data to get a better understanding of what is being studied. Thus, I have used mixed methods in the thesis exercises to get answers to the research questions of the thesis. The articles are used to gain knowledge of the phenomenon of everyday violence and bullying from a social ecological perspective. The articles were also used to gain knowledge about the school's bullying prevention work in a municipality and how bullying is understood in relation to everyday violence. Thus, a synthesis of the articles were made to gain additional knowledge, in addition to the research questions of the thesis that are answered in the articles.

The social-ecological perspective was used in the thesis as a framework for studying both everyday violence and bullying. The perspective was used to describe everyday violence and bullying which in different ways affect the school. In order to achieve the aim of the thesis, two sub-studies were carried out, which are presented in four articles.

The result in article I shows that the most common definition category of violence is hit. Although it is the most common definition, it is at the same time the least used among adults. The result also shows that there is a difference in how different groups, depending on age, define violence. The result in Article II shows that there is a gender difference between individuals' memories of violent events and that the place where most individuals remember violent events is in the schoolyard and the school environment. Article IV also shows that despite the schools implementing a model, it is difficult to prevent bullying. The result shows that the municipality model has not succeeded in reduce bullying in all participating schools. Based on the result, we can assume that the fact that the municipality launched a model does not mean that bullying in schools has decreased.

The result is based on the understanding of everyday violence and bullying as an aspect of everyday violence. The school's internal work linked to bullying intervention is problematized. The articles and the thesis are discussed on the basis of a social-ecological framework.

Abstract [sv]

Två relaterade fenomen – vardagsvåld och skolmobbning– är föremål för denna avhandling. Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att utveckla kunskap om vardagsvåld och mobbning i skolan. Syftet med avhandlingen är också att utveckla kunskap om planläggning och intervention som metoder för att motverka mobbning i en lokal kontext. Mot denna bakgrund formulerades tre forskningsfrågor som svarar mot avhandlingens syfte: Hur kan vardagsvåld konceptualiseras och förstås? (artikel I och II), vilka förändringar kan ses i skolans inre arbete när en lokalt anpassad anti-mobbningsmodell initierats? (artikel III) Samt vilka förändringar i förekomst av mobbning kan ses i skolorna i en kommun där en lokalt anpassad anti-mobbningsmodell implementeras för att förebygga mobbning? (artikel VI). I kappan har en syntes nyttjats för att sammanfoga resultaten från artiklarna till en förståelse av vardagsvåld och mobbning utifrån ett socialekologiskt perspektiv. Artiklarna använder olika metoder för att få svar på forskningsfrågorna eftersom endast en metod förmodligen inte räckt för att uppnå avhandlingens syfte. Detta förfarande som på engelska kallas mixed methods använder kombinationen av kvalitativ och kvantitativ data för att få en bättre förståelse av det som studeras. Således har jag använt mixed methods i kappan för att få svar på avhandlingens forskningsfrågor. Artiklarna används för att få kunskap om fenomenet vardagsvåld och mobbning utifrån ett socialekologiskt perspektiv. Artiklarna avvänds också för att få kunskap om skolans mobbningsförebyggande arbete i en kommun och hur mobbning förstås i relation till vardagsvåld. Således görs en syntes av artiklarna för att få ytterligare kunskap, utöver avhandlingens forskningsfrågor som besvaras i artiklarna.

Det socialekologiska perspektivet används i avhandlingen som en inramning för att studera såväl vardagsvåld som mobbning. Perspektivet brukas till att beskriva vardagsvåld och mobbning som på olika sätt påverkar skolan. För att uppnå avhandlingens syfte genomfördes två delstudier som redovisas i fyra artiklar.

Resultatet i artikel I visar att den vanligaste kategorin av våldsdefinition är slag. Fastän det är den vanligaste definitionskategorin är det samtidigt den minst använda bland vuxna. Resultatet visar även att det finns en skillnad i hur olika grupper beroende på ålder definierar våld. Resultatet i artikel II visar också att det finns en stor könsskillnad mellan individers minnen av våldshändelser och att den plats där flest individer minns våldshändelser är på skolgården och skolomgivningen Resultatet i artikel III visar att när en modell implementeras börjar skolorna arbeta utifrån den och den kartläggning som tillhandahålls till iv eleverna. Artikel IV visar även att trots att skolorna implementerar en modell är det svårt att förebygga mobbning. Resultatet visar att kommunmodellen inte lyckats minska mobbningen i alla studerade skolor. Baserat på resultatet kan vi anta att det faktum att kommunen lanserade ett program betyder inte att mobbning i skolorna minskar.

Resultatet diskuterar med utgångspunkt i förståelsen av vardagsvåld och mobbning som en aspekt av vardagsvåld. Skolans inre arbete kopplat till mobbningsintervention problematiseras. Artiklarna och avhandlingen diskuteras utifrån en socialekologisk inramning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo: Åbo akademi , 2019. , p. 140
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30847ISBN: 978-952-12-3859-8 (print)ISBN: 978-952-12-3860-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-30847DiVA, id: diva2:1366369
Public defence
2019-10-25, Akademisalen, Academill, Strandgatan 2, Vasa, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Lay Definitions of Violence among Swedish Children, Teenagers, and Adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lay Definitions of Violence among Swedish Children, Teenagers, and Adults
2013 (English)In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 282-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Definitions of violence vary and are almost always operationalized by the researcher. Perceptions of violence often determine levels of tolerance of violence. Little research has focused on lay definitions. A total of 309 Swedes (78 children, 85 teenagers, 99 younger adults, and 47 adults (30+); 48% male) were interviewed using a specially developed interview protocol. Content analysis was used to assign definitional categories. A folk taxonomy emerged. Immediate physical violence accounted for 73% of all assigned categories. Hit was the word that occurred most frequently. If global physical violence was included, physical violence accounted for 89% of 780 assigned categories. Immediate non-physical violence accounted for 9% and vicarious violence (including media violence) accounted for 2%. Distributions of categories by respondents' gender, age, and participant role in incidents of violence showed the underlying definitions of violence to be extremely stable. The conclusion is that ordinary Swedes share a robust lay definition of violence as a behavior that is immediate, done in close quarters, and physical.

Keywords
definition of violence, lay taxonomy, Swedes
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-14041 (URN)10.1080/10926771.2013.764954 (DOI)000209303300004 ()2-s2.0-84875383879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
2. Incident-Level Analysis of 703 Retrospective Self-Reports of Ordinary Violence Recalled by 334 Swedes Aged 6 to 45 Years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incident-Level Analysis of 703 Retrospective Self-Reports of Ordinary Violence Recalled by 334 Swedes Aged 6 to 45 Years
2015 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2129-2150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos.

Keywords
event-recall interviews, ordinary violence, Swedes, gender differences
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17686 (URN)10.1177/0886260514552270 (DOI)000355264900007 ()25304671 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84930335736 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
3. Bullying Prevention in a Swedish Municipality: Supported Decentralised Reasoning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying Prevention in a Swedish Municipality: Supported Decentralised Reasoning
2018 (English)In: Forskning og Forandring, ISSN 2535-5279, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 66-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The national context of Sweden is particularly illustrative for international research, in that bullying and degrading treatment have been a central aspect of policy-making for some time. In Sweden, schools and municipalities are obliged to produce detailed action plans to counteract bullying. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse how practitioners in schools, during implementation of the Municipality Bullying Prevention Model (MBPM), change the way they work and apply decentralised reasoning to prevent bullying. This study makes use of an action-research approach. In the project, bullying prevention is addressed by the participating schools. The findings indicate that practitioners introduced various measures in different places and at different levels during implementation of the MBPM. It also became apparent that bullying prevention work needs to build on a school’s contextual knowledge and have a whole-school approach.

Keywords
Bullying, bullying prevention, action research, Sweden, MBPM
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-28766 (URN)10.23865/fof.v1.1217 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
4. Locally adapted bullying prevention in a Swedish municipality – does it work?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Locally adapted bullying prevention in a Swedish municipality – does it work?
2019 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30848 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved

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