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Incentives behind and experiences of being active in working life after age 65 in Sweden
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9912-5350
Karolinska institutet.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5819-8724
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1289-9896
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 23, article id 15490Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since individual and societal expectations regarding the possibility of an extended working life after the expected retirement age are increasing, research on sustainable working life combined with healthy ageing is needed. This study explores the incentives behind and experiences of an extended working life after the expected retirement age of 65 among Swedish people. The inductive qualitative content analyses are based on 18 individual semi-structured interviews among persons 67–90 years old with varying characteristics and varying experiences of extended working lives. The analyses revealed that working contributed to (1) sustained internal resources, i.e., cognitive function, physical ability and increased vigor; (2) sustained external resources, i.e., social enrichment, better daily routines and economic benefits; (3) added meaningfulness to life, i.e., being needed, capability and satisfaction with working tasks. Meanwhile, having flexible working conditions enabled a satisfying balance between work and leisure. Altogether, these different aspects of overall health and working life were interpreted as contributing to increased feelings of vitality, the innermost dimension of health. Conclusions: regardless of biological age, our results indicate that being able to remain active in working life can be beneficial to vitality and could make these results valuable for both health-care personnel and employers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI , 2022. Vol. 19, no 23, article id 15490
Keywords [en]
extended working life; multidimensional health; older workers; qualitative content analysis
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Health-Promoting Work, Inkluderande arbetsliv
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-40553DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192315490ISI: 000896103700001PubMedID: 36497564Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85143647936OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-40553DiVA, id: diva2:1715857
Available from: 2022-12-03 Created: 2022-12-03 Last updated: 2023-09-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Being active in working life at older ages
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being active in working life at older ages
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the thesis was to examine factors associated with (Study 1), predictors (Study II), and experiences (Study III) involved with being active in working life after the expected retirement age and the experiences of exiting working life before the expected retirement age (Study IV). In Studies I and II, a quantitative approach was used, with data derived from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC). In Studies III and IV, a qualitative approach was used, with data collected through semi-structured interviews. The results from Studies I and II revealed that being active in working life at age 66 was associated with being male, having a university education, working in a highly skilled occupation, having light physical activity at work, or having no more than one diagnosed disease. Being male (Studies I and II), having a university education (only in Study I) or working in a highly skilled occupation (only in Study II) were associated with being active in working life at age 72. The results from Studies III and IV revealed that from an individual perspective, health was a prominent aspect in either remaining in or exiting from working life. Staying active in working life increased feelings of vitality; the innermost dimension of health. Favorable working conditions could be beneficial to cognitive and physical health as well as to social well-being and a sense of meaningfulness. In contrast, strenuous working conditions contributed to the deterioration of health and pushed people at older ages toward an early exit from working life. The present results confirm the complexity regarding the predictors for being active in working life at older ages. The results add knowledge regarding how health in overall life and staying active in or exiting from working life at older ages can be experienced from a subjective perspective. With a successive increase in statutory retirement ages, the focus on the possibilities for healthy aging through being active in working life at older ages needs to be increased.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingsarbetet övergripande syfte var att undersöka faktorer associerade med (Studie I), prediktorer (Studie II), och erfarenheter av (Studie III) att vara aktiv i arbetslivet efter förväntad pensionsålder och erfarenheter av att avsluta yrkeslivet före förväntad pensionsålder (Studie IV). I de kvantitativa Studierna I och II användes data från The Swedish National Studie on Aging and Care (SNAC). I de kvalitativa studierna III och IV, samlades data in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultaten från Studie I och II visade att oavsett vilken studiedesign som använts var manligt kön, universitetsutbildning, arbeta inom en profession som företrädesvis kräver 4-års universitetsutbildning, ej haft ett fysiskt tungt arbete samt att inte ha mer än en diagnostiserad sjukdom associerade med att vara aktiv i arbetslivet vid 66 års ålder. Medan manligt kön (både Studie I och II), ha universitetsutbildning (Studie I) eller att arbeta inom en profession som företrädesvis kräver 4-års universitetsutbildning (Studie II) var de faktorer som kunde associeras med att vara aktiv i arbetslivet vid 72 års ålder. Resultaten från Studie III och IV visade att hälsa var en framträdande aspekt för om deltagarna valt att antingen stanna kvar i, eller att avsluta arbetslivet vid högre ålder. Utifrån subjektiva erfarenheter kunde fortsatt arbete förstärka känslor av vitalitet, som betraktas som den innersta dimensionen av upplevd hälsa. Till exempel beskrevs att goda arbetsförhållanden gynnade kognitiv och fysisk hälsa samt socialt välbefinnande och tillförde känslor av meningsfullhet. Tvärtom, beskrevs att ansträngande arbetsförhållanden bidrog till försämrad hälsa vilket också bidrog till ett tidigt utträde ur arbetslivet. Föreliggande resultat bekräftar komplexiteten vad gäller förutsättningar för att vara aktiv i arbetslivet i högre åldrar. Resultaten tillför kunskap om hur upplevd hälsa i livet i stort och att hålla sig aktiv i eller lämna arbetslivet i högre åldrar kan erfaras från ett subjektivt perspektiv. Parallellt med den successiva höjningen av den lagstadgade pensionsåldern behöver också fokus på möjligheterna till ett hälsosamt åldrande genom att vara aktiv i arbetslivet i högre åldrar också ökas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2023. p. 68
Series
Doctoral thesis ; 37
Keywords
health, healthy aging, older people, working life, hälsa, hälsosamt åldrande, äldre personer, arbetsliv
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-42873 (URN)978-91-89593-13-8 (ISBN)978-91-89593-14-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-10-27, 33:202, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-10-04 Created: 2023-09-14 Last updated: 2023-10-10

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Bjuhr, MarieEngström, MariaLindberg, MagnusSjölund, Britt-Marie

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